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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Farnaz Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Mojtaba Heydari, Kiana Naderinia, Roja Rahimi
Neuropathy is defined as the damage to the peripheral or central nervous system accompanied by pain, numbness, or muscle weakness, which can be due to congenital diseases or environmental factors such as diabetes, trauma, or viral infections. As current treatments are not sufficiently able to control the disease, studies focusing on the identification and discovery of new therapeutic agents are necessary. Natural products have been used for a long time for the management of different neurological problems including neuropathies...
February 15, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jin-Ting He, Xiao-Yan Li, Xin Zhao, Xiaoliang Liu
Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are activated during hyperpolarization, and there is an inward flow of current, which is termed as hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih. Initially, these channels were identified on the pacemaker cells of the heart. Nowadays, these are identified on different regions of the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglia, dorsal horns, and different parts of the brain. There are four different types of HCN channels (HCN1-HCN4); however, HCN1 and HCN2 are more prominent...
February 15, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Adela Desowska, Duncan L Turner
Recovery from a stroke is a dynamic time-dependent process, in which the central nervous system reorganises to accommodate for the impact of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review recent longitudinal studies of changes in brain connectivity after stroke. A systematic review of research papers reporting functional or effective connectivity at two or more time points in stroke patients was conducted. Stroke leads to an early reduction of connectivity in the motor network. With recovery time, the connectivity increases and can reach the same levels as in healthy participants...
February 15, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nickolay K Isaev, Elena V Stelmashook, Elisaveta E Genrikhs
Human aging affects the entire organism, but aging of the brain must undoubtedly be different from that of all other organs, as neurons are highly differentiated postmitotic cells, for the majority of which the lifespan in the postnatal period is equal to the lifespan of the entire organism. In this work, we examine the distinctive features of brain aging and neurogenesis during normal aging, pathological aging (Alzheimer's disease), and accelerated aging (Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome)...
February 14, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Elnaz Amanzadeh, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Soheila Rahgozar, Maryam Nourbakhshnia
Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid, which is frequently found in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant potential of quercetin has been studied from subcellular compartments, that is, mitochondria to tissue levels in the brain. The neurodegeneration process initiates alongside aging of the neurons. It appears in different parts of the brain as Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, Lewy bodies, Pick bodies, and others, which leads to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other diseases...
February 12, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jason Gandhi, Anthony C Antonelli, Adil Afridi, Sohrab Vatsia, Gunjan Joshi, Victor Romanov, Ian V J Murray, Sardar Ali Khan
Protein folding is a complex, multisystem process characterized by heavy molecular and cellular footprints. Chaperone machinery enables proper protein folding and stable conformation. Other pathways concomitant with the protein folding process include transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. As such, the folding process can go awry in several different ways. The pathogenic basis behind most neurodegenerative diseases is that the disruption of protein homeostasis (i...
February 12, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Xiaoyun Gou, Ying Tang, Yi Qu, Dongqiong Xiao, Junjie Ying, Dezhi Mu
White matter injury (WMI) prevents the normal development of myelination, leading to central nervous system myelination disorders and the production of chronic sequelae associated with WMI, such as chronic dyskinesia, cognitive impairment and cerebral palsy. This results in a large emotional and socioeconomic burden. Decreased myelination in preterm infant WMI is associated with the delayed development or destruction of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, particularly oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)...
February 9, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Tomasz Bielawski, Blazej Misiak, Ahmed Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Environmental pressure affects the genotype throughout different epigenetic processes. There is currently ample evidence on the role of epigenetics in developing various mental disorders. A burden of environmental pressure, such as psychological trauma, and its influence on genotype can lead to a variety of psychopathologies. Thus, this study focuses on the epigenetic activity of the complex protein machinery operating on chromatin - the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. Although there are several recent studies on the molecular structure, functions, and taxonomy of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, the focus of this paper is to highlight the importance of those 'protein machines' in developing psychiatric disorders...
February 7, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Tomasz Grzegorski, Jacek Losy
Multiple sclerosis has always been an enigma to its sufferers, their families, medical investigators, and clinicians. For many centuries, there have been attempts to understand its causes and nature, and to discover treatment methods. In the Middle Ages, the disease was claimed to be sent directly from God. A significant development in exploring multiple sclerosis took place in the 19th century, when Jean-Martin Charcot and his colleagues distinguished the disease, precisely described its symptoms, attempted to explain its pathophysiology, and introduced the first methods of symptomatic treatment...
January 12, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sayantan Maitra, Debanjan Bhattacharya, Stabak Das, Subhrajit Bhattacharya
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a naturally synthesized hormone secreted from the pineal gland in a variety of animals and is primarily involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm, which is the natural cycle controlling sleep in organisms. Melatonin acts on specific receptors and has an important role in overall energy metabolism. This review encompasses several aspects of melatonin activity, such as synthesis, source, structure, distribution, function, signaling and its role in normal physiology...
January 12, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Xin Liu, DeRen Hou, FangBo Lin, Jing Luo, JingWen Xie, Yan Wang, Yi Tian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with progressive cognitive impairment. It is the most common type of senile dementia, accounting for 65%-70% of senile dementia [Alzheimer's Association (2016). 2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 12, 459-509]. At present, the pathogenesis of AD is still unclear. It is considered that β-amyloid deposition, abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary tangles are the basic pathological changes of AD. However, the role of neurovascular unit damage in the pathogenesis of AD has been attracting more and more attention in recent years...
December 10, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Inge Steuer, Pierre A Guertin
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally defined as networks of neurons capable of enabling the production of central commands, specifically controlling stereotyped, rhythmic motor behaviors. Several CPGs localized in brainstem and spinal cord areas have been shown to underlie the expression of complex behaviors such as deglutition, mastication, respiration, defecation, micturition, ejaculation, and locomotion. Their pivotal roles have clearly been demonstrated although their organization and cellular properties remain incompletely characterized...
January 28, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Kunjumon I Vadakkan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ali Amini Harandi, Akram Esfandani, Hossein Pakdaman, Mehdi Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Balo's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is considered a variant of multiple sclerosis characterized by concentric lamella of alternating demyelinated and partially myelinated tissues. It is a rare and a relatively acute condition. Attacks may proceed rapidly over weeks or months, typically without remission, like Marburg's variant, resulting in death or severe disability. However, the majority of cases have a more benign, self-limiting course with spontaneous remission. Magnetic resonance imaging is a primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of BCS...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Lihang Zhang, Juan Xu, Jinchao Gao, Yuncheng Wu, Ming Yin, Wenjuan Zhao
Neurons and microglia are two major components in the central nervous system (CNS). The interactions between them play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the brain. In recent years, substantial studies have focused on the interactions between neurons and microglia, revealing that microglia become reactive when the interactions are pathophysiologically interfered, usually accompanying neuronal injury, which is a common feature for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many molecules and factors participate in these physiological and pathological processes, either in a contact-dependent or a contact-independent manner...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine H H Hor, Bor Luen Tang, Eyleen L K Goh
Rab23 is a conserved member of the Rab family of small GTPases that regulates membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. It is unique amongst the Rabs in terms of its implicated role in mammalian development, as originally illustrated by the embryonic lethality and open neural tube phenotype of a spontaneous mouse mutant that carries homozygous mutation of open brain, a gene encoding Rab23. Rab23 was initially identified to act as an antagonist of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and has since been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological roles, including oncogenesis...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Maryam Hassanzahraee, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques could induce changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and neuroplasticity. These changes could be affected by different factors, including having a session of stimulation called the 'priming' protocol before the main stimulation session called the 'test' protocol. Literature indicates that a priming protocol could affect the activity of postsynaptic neurons, form a neuronal history, and then modify the expected effects of the test protocol on CSE indicated by the amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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