Read by QxMD icon Read

Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Clayton Mansel, Shaneann Fross, Jesse Rose, Emily Dema, Alexis Mann, Haley Hart, Paul Klawinski, Bhupinder P S Vohra
Lead (Pb) is a teratogen that poses health risks after acute and chronic exposure. Lead is deposited in the bones of adults and is continuously leached into the blood for decades. While this chronic lead exposure can have detrimental effects on adults such as high blood pressure and kidney damage, developing fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. During pregnancy, bone-deposited lead is released into the blood at increased rates and can cross the placental barrier, exposing the embryo to the toxin...
February 15, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Christopher L Moore, Timothy J Flanigan, Charles D Law, Lucie Loukotková, Kellie A Woodling, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Sherry A Ferguson
High levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure are associated with severe health effects. Less clear are effects of lower exposure levels on neurodevelopment. Relative to maternal intake, there is limited lactational transfer of arsenic in humans or rodents, yet there are few rodent studies which directly exposed preweaning animals. To more clearly determine iAs developmental neurotoxicity, 28 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to arsenate (AsV) via drinking water (0, 23.6, 47.7, 71.0 ppm) (n = 5-7/group) from gestational day (GD) 6 through GD 22 with targeted doses of 0, 2...
February 6, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Irvin J Huang, Howard I Sirotkin, Anne E McElroy
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are emerging contaminants that are increasingly detected in surface waters around the world. Despite the rise in environmental detections, measured concentrations are still typically low, raising the importance of environmental risk assessments that focus on ecologically relevant sublethal endpoints, such as altered behavior. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals, like mental health medications, pain killers, etc., may be particularly potent in this regard as they are specifically designed to cause behavioral changes without causing physiologic impairment in mammalian systems...
January 31, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Gheyath Nasrallah, Rola Salem, Sahar Da'as, Ola Loay Ahmad Al-Jamal, Mark Scott, Ibrahim Mustafa
OBJECTIVES: Clinically approved iron chelators are effective in decreasing significant transfusional iron accumulation. Starch-Deferoxamine (S-DFO), a novel high molecular weight iron chelator, was produced to increase binding capacity to iron and reduce toxicity. Although its efficacy was established in one small cohort clinical trial, its potential adverse effect was not adequately addressed. METHODS: We utilized zebrafish model to assess S-DFO toxicity using following assays: mortality, teratogenicity, hatching rate, tail flicking, Acridine Orange staining for apoptosis detection, o-dianisidine staining for hemoglobin synthesis, and the level of Hsp70 as a general stress indicator...
January 30, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Kimberly S Grant, Brenda Crouthamel, Caroline Kenney, Noelle McKain, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Jing Jing, Nina Isoherranen, Thomas M Burbacher
Domoic Acid (DA) is a naturally-occurring marine neurotoxin that is increasingly recognized as an important public health issue. Prenatal DA exposure occurs through the maternal consumption of contaminated shellfish/finfish. To better understand the fetal risks associated with DA, we initiated a longitudinal, preclinical study focused on the reproductive and developmental effects of chronic, low-dose oral DA exposure. To this end, 32 adult female Macaca fascicularis monkeys were orally dosed with 0, 0.075 or 0...
January 25, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Tugba NurcanYuksel, Muhammed Yayla, Zekai Halici, Elif Cadirci, Beyzagul Polat, Duygu Kose
Serotonin exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects through 5-HT7 receptors. The present study determined the role of 5-HT7 receptors in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cells were pretreated with different concentrations of 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP44 and antagonist SB269970 for 60 min, followed by treatment with glutamate. Cell proliferation was measured using xCELLigence system. Treatment with all the concentrations of LP44 significantly protected the cells from the toxic effects of glutamate after 24, 48 and 72 h...
January 24, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Thomas M Burbacher, Kimberly S Grant, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Courtney Stanley, Noelle McKain, Jing Jing, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic Acid (DA) is a naturally-occurring excitotoxin, produced by marine algae, which can bioaccumulate in shellfish and finfish. The consumption of seafood contaminated with DA is associated with gastrointestinal illness that, in the case of high DA exposure, can evolve into a spectrum of responses ranging from agitation to hallucinations, memory loss, seizures and coma. Because algal blooms that produce DA are becoming more widespread and very little is known about the dangers of chronic, low-dose exposure, we initiated a preclinical study focused on the reproductive and developmental effects of DA in a nonhuman primate model...
January 4, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Amin A Seleem
Methomyl (MET) is a carbamate insecticide that has been widely used to protect the crop against insects as an alternative for organophosphorus insecticide. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the potential toxic effects of MET on the developmental stages of Bufo arabicus. Tadpoles were classified into three stages (25, 37, 40). Every stage was divided into two groups, control and MET-treated group (10 ppm for two weeks) after LC50 determination in acute toxicity test for 96 h. Control and MET-treated larvae were examined at the level of morphological, histological, skeleton deformities and immunohistochemical labeling of alpha-synuclein in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion...
January 2, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Zohreh Zare, Mohsen Tehrani, Noorollah Rezaei, Babak Dana Ghalebarzand, Moslem Mohammadi
Exposure to organophosphate (OP) compounds leads to behavioral alterations. To determine whether paraoxon has effects on anxiety, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in paraoxon-exposed rats. Protein expression of glutamate transporters has also been measured in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Three doses of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7, or 1 mg/kg) or corn oil (vehicle) were intraperitoneally injected to adult male rats. At 14 or 28 days after exposure, behavioral tests were done using elevated plus-maze (EPM) or open field tests...
December 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Simon C Johnson, Amanda Pan, Li Li, Margaret Sedensky, Philip Morgan
Volatile anesthetics are widely used in human medicine and generally considered to be safe in healthy individuals. In recent years, the safety of volatile anesthesia in pediatric patients has been questioned following reports of anesthetic induced neurotoxicity in pre-clinical studies. These studies in mice, rats, and primates have demonstrated that exposure to anesthetic agents during early post-natal periods can cause acute neurotoxicity, as well as later-life cognitive defects including deficits in learning and memory...
November 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Alciene Almeida Siqueira, Alexandre Frinhani Cunha, Graziany Leite Moreira Marques, Igor Simões Assunção Felippe, Vitor Sampaio Minassa, Thallis Coelho da Silva Gramelich, Maria Aparecida Cicilini, Tamara Andrea Alarcon, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Karla Nivea Sampaio, Vanessa Beijamini
Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning induces well-known signs of toxicosis related to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. However, the relationship between acute OP poisoning and the onset of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Thus, we investigated behavioural and biochemical consequences of acute exposure to the OP chlorpyrifos in male rats and also the effectiveness of the antidotes atropine and pralidoxime on reversing these changes. A sub-lethal dose of commercial chlorpyrifos (20 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited signs of acute toxicosis during the first hours after its injection in rats...
November 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
R L Bromley, G A Baker, J Clayton-Smith, A G Wood
BACKGROUND: An increased risk of impaired intelligence (IQ) has been documented in valproate-exposed children, but investigations have not previously focused on those with a clinical diagnosis of Fetal Valproate Syndrome (FVS). METHODS: This cross sectional observational study recruited individuals with a diagnosis of FVS and completed standardized assessments of intellectual abilities making comparisons to a normative comparison group. Both mean difference (MD) and prevalence of scores below the lower average range were analyzed...
November 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lidush Goldschmidt, Gale A Richardson, Natacha M De Genna, Marie D Cornelius, Nancy L Day
Studies have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is related to drinking problems during adulthood, but the level of prenatal exposure associated with young adults' quantity and frequency of alcohol use and drinking problems has not yet been established. The relation between PAE and offspring levels of alcohol use and alcohol abuse/dependency was examined in 608 22-year-olds. Mothers were recruited in early pregnancy and maternal alcohol use data were collected for each trimester of pregnancy. The offspring were assessed at multiple phases from birth to young adulthood...
November 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Keith Morris-Schaffer, Marissa Sobolewski, Kevin Welle, Katherine Conrad, Min Yee, Michael A O'Reilly, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between early-life exposure to air pollution and preterm birth. Thus, it is essential to address the subsequent vulnerability of preterm infants, who are exposed to unique factors at birth including hyperoxia, and subsequently to air pollution. Health effects of air pollution relate to particle size and the ultrafine particulate component (<100 nm) is considered the most reactive. We previously reported neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia (60% oxygen), mimicking preterm oxygen supplementation, for the first 4 days of life, followed by exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS) from postnatal day (PND) 4-7 and 10-13 exhibited deficits in acquisition of performance on a fixed interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement, a behavioral paradigm rewarding the first response at the end of a fixed interval of time...
November 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Laura R Stroud, George D Papandonatos, Meaghan McCallum, Tessa Kehoe, Amy L Salisbury, Marilyn A Huestis
Tobacco and marijuana are some of the most common prenatal substance exposures worldwide. The social acceptability and political landscape of marijuana and its potency have changed dramatically in the last two decades leading to increased use by pregnant women. Despite evidence for increasing marijuana use and high rates of co-use of tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) during pregnancy, the impact of prenatal exposure to each substance is typically studied in isolation. We investigated the influence of co-exposure to TOB and MJ on infant neurobehavioral development over the first postnatal month...
November 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Natacha M De Genna, Lidush Goldschmidt, Gale A Richardson, Marie D Cornelius, Nancy L Day
Co-use of cannabis and tobacco is increasingly common among women and is associated with tobacco and cannabis dependence and poorer cessation outcomes. However, no study has examined maternal patterns of co-use over time, or the impact of maternal co-use on co-use and drug problems in adult offspring. Pregnant women (M age = 23, range = 18-42; 52% African American, 48% White) were asked about substance use during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 8 and 18 months, 3, 6, 10, 14, 16, and 22 years postpartum...
November 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Aline Haab Lutte, Luiza Reali Nazario, Júlia Huppes Majolo, Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira, Stefani Altenhofen, Adilio da Silva Dadda, Maurício Reis Bogo, Rosane Souza Da Silva
Prenatal alcohol exposure causes alterations to the brain and can lead to numerous cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Long-lasting effects of early ethanol exposure have been registered in glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems. The purinergic system has been registered as an additional target of ethanol exposure. The objective of this research was to evaluate if the ecto‑5'‑nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression of adult zebrafish exposed to 1% ethanol during early development could be part of the long-lasting targets of ethanol...
October 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ainhoa Alzualde, Mamta Behl, Nisha S Sipes, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Aintzane Alday, Raymond R Tice, Richard S Paules, Arantza Muriana, Celia Quevedo
Following the voluntary phase-out of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) due to their environmental persistence and toxicity, the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are emerging replacements. However, there is limited information on the potential human health effects of the OPFRs. Zebrafish embryos are a viable vertebrate model organism with many advantages for high throughput testing toward human hazard assessment. We utilized zebrafish embryos to assess developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, of eight replacement OPFRs: (triphenyl phosphate [TPHP], isopropylated phenyl phosphate [IPP], 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate [EHDP], tert-butylated phenyl diphenyl phosphate [BPDP], trimethyl phenyl phosphate [TMPP], isodecyl diphenyl phosphate [IDDP], tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate [TDCIPP], and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [TCEP]) and two BFRs (3,3',5,5'- tetrabromobisphenol A [TBBPA] and 2,2'4,4'-brominated diphenyl ether [BDE-47])...
October 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Fangjie Cao, Christopher L Souders, Pengfei Li, Sen Pang, Lihong Qiu, Christopher J Martyniuk
The objectives of this study were to compare the biological responses in developing zebrafish to two organophosphate insecticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to either solvent control (0.1% DMSO, v/v), or one dose of 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 25.0 μM CPF, as well as one dose of 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0 μM DZN for 96 h. CPF at 10.0 and 25.0 μM caused 70-80% and 100% mortality in embryos after 96 h exposure, whereas embryos treated with 10.0 and 100.0 μM DZN showed 30-40% and 70-80% lethality...
October 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Madeleine Cleal, Matthew O Parker
The damaging effects of alcohol on a developing fetus are well known and cause a range of conditions known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). High levels of alcohol exposure lead to physical deformity and severe cognitive deficits, but more moderate exposure leads to a range of subtle cognitive effects such as reduced social behavior, higher propensity to develop addictions, and reduced spatial working memory. Previous studies have demonstrated that following exposure to relatively low levels of ethanol during early brain development (equivalent in humans to moderate exposure) zebrafish display a range of social and behavioral differences...
September 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"