Magda Carvalho Henriques, Inês Carvalho, Cátia Santos, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Margarida Fardilha, Maria Dimitriou Pavlaki, Susana Loureiro
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant affecting aquatic ecosystems' health. Chronic exposure to Hg has shown that the normal development of zebrafish embryo-larvae is affected. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the toxicity of Hg on fish embryonic development are still poorly understood. This work aimed to investigate the effects of Hg exposure on zebrafish embryo-larvae using a combined approach at individual (mortality, embryo development and locomotor behavior) and biochemical (neurotoxicity and oxidative stress enzymatic activities and protein phosphatase expression) levels...
September 20, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Tewodros Rango Godebo, Marc Jeuland, Redda Tekle-Haimanot, Biniyam Alemayehu, Arti Shankar, Amy Wolfe, Nati Phan
Fluoride (F) exposure in drinking water may lead to reduced cognitive function among children; however, findings largely remain inconclusive. In this pilot study, we examined associations between a range of chronic F exposures (low to high: 0.4 to 15.5 mg/L) in drinking water and cognition in school-aged children (5-14 years) in rural Ethiopia. Fluoride exposure was determined from samples of community-based drinking water wells and urine. Cognitive performance was measured using: 1) assessments of ability to draw familiar objects (donkey, house, and person), and 2) a validated Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery's (CANTAB) Paired Associate Learning (PAL), which examines working memory and new learning and is closely associated with hippocampus function of the brain...
September 8, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Daniel Garcy, Stephen L Boehm
Environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and cannabis use are two of the largest public health issues facing modern society in the United States and around the world. Exposure to Pb in early life has been unequivocally shown to have negative impacts on development, and recent research is mounting showing that it may also predispose individuals for risk of developing substance use disorders (SUD). At the same time, societal and legal attitudes towards cannabis (the main psychoactive component of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) have been shifting, and many American states have legalized the recreational use of cannabis...
September 8, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Xiaoxuan Wang, Ting Ma, Cizhao Wei, Juan Liu, Ting Yu, Yu Zou, Song Liu, Zheqiong Yang, Jinlei Xi
Endogenous retinoic acid (RA) is essential for embryonic development and maintaining adult physiological processes. Human-caused RA residues in the environment threaten the survival of organisms in the environment. We employed zebrafish as a model to explore the developmental impacts of excess RA. We used exogenous RA to raise the amount of RA signal in the embryos and looked at the effects of excess RA on embryonic morphological development. Upregulation of the RA signal significantly reduced embryo hatching and increased embryo malformation...
September 7, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Serguei Liachenko, Jaivijay Ramu, Merle G Paule, Joseph Hanig
The assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of any potential biomarker against the gold standard is an important step in the process of its qualification by regulatory authorities. Such qualification is an important step towards incorporating the biomarker into the panel of tools available for drug development. In the current study we analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of T2 MRI relaxometry to detect trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Seventy-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of either TMT (8, 10, 11, or 12 mg/kg) or saline (2 ml/kg) and imaged with 7 T MRI before and 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection using a quantitative T2 mapping...
September 7, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
M Bluett-Duncan, D Astill, R Charbak, J Clayton-Smith, S Cole, P A Cook, J Cozens, K Keely, J Morris, R Mukherjee, E Murphy, P Turnpenny, J Williams, A G Wood, L M Yates, R L Bromley
AIM: To describe the neurodevelopmental phenotype of older children and adults with a diagnosis of Fetal Valproate Spectrum Disorder (FVSD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 90 caregivers were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires regarding the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 146 individuals aged 7-37 years (M = 18.1), including individuals with a formal diagnosis of FVSD (n = 99), individuals exposed to Valproate but without an FVSD diagnosis (n = 24), and individuals not exposed to Valproate (N = 23)...
September 2, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Elli P Sellinger, Amara S Brinks, Rajvi R Javeri, Savannah L Theurer, Ruibin Wang, Janice M Juraska
Humans are exposed to phthalates, a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals used in food packaging/processing, PVC plastics, and personal care products. Gestational exposure may lead to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In a rat model, perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture and dose of phthalates leads to increased developmental apoptosis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a subsequent reduction in neurons and in cognitive flexibility measured in adults of both sexes (Sellinger et al...
August 16, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Samantha Lapehn, Justin A Colacino, Craig Harris
Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic medication that increases the risk of neural tube defect (NTD) outcomes in infants exposed during gestation. Previous studies into VPA's mechanism of action have focused on alterations in gene expression and metabolism but have failed to consider how exposure changes the abundance of critical developmental proteins over time. This study evaluates the effects of VPA on protein abundance in the developmentally distinct tissues of the mouse visceral yolk sac (VYS) and embryo proper (EMB) using mouse whole embryo culture...
July 11, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lidush Goldschmidt, Gale A Richardson, Nancy L Day, Natacha M De Genna
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have examined changes in marijuana use across adolescence, but few have examined factors associated with transitions from adolescence to young adulthood. We examined prenatal exposures to alcohol and marijuana and adolescent risk and protective factors that best distinguished among abstinence, continuity, or cessation of marijuana use from 16 to 22 years. METHOD: Data were from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project at the prenatal and 16- and 22-year follow-up phases...
July 10, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Rodrigo Moreno Klein, Vanessa Nishikawa Motomura, Juliana Diosti Debiasi, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira
Paracetamol (PAR) is an over-the-counter analgesic/antipyretic used during pregnancy worldwide. Epidemiological studies have been associating gestational PAR exposure with neurobehavioral alterations in the progeny resembling autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The endocannabinoid (eCB) dysfunction was previously hypothesized as one of the modes of action by which PAR may harm the developing nervous system. We aimed to evaluate possible effects of gestational exposure to PAR on male and female rat's offspring behavior and if an acute injection of WIN 55,212-2 (WIN, 0...
June 29, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Andrew Wengrovitz, Emma Ivantsova, Natalie Crespo, Mansi Patel, Christopher L Souders, Christopher J Martyniuk
Zebrafish are frequently used as a vertebrate model to elucidate toxicological and pharmacological mechanisms of action in the central nervous system. Pharmacological studies demonstrate that dopamine, signaling via several receptor subtypes, regulates zebrafish larval behavior. Quinpirole is a selective dopamine receptor agonist for D2 and D3 subtypes while ropinirole exhibits selectivity toward D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The main objective of this study was to determine the short-term actions of quinpirole and ropinirole on the locomotor activity and anxiolytic/anti-anxiolytic behaviors of zebrafish...
May 19, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Carly V Goodman, Christine Till, Rivka Green, Jana El-Sabbagh, Tye E Arbuckle, Richard Hornung, Bruce Lanphear, Jean R Seguin, Linda Booij, Mandy Fisher, Gina Muckle, Maryse F Bouchard, Jillian Ashley-Martin
BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been shown to be neurotoxic in experimental studies, but epidemiological evidence linking prenatal PFAS exposure to child neurodevelopment is equivocal and scarce. OBJECTIVE: To quantify associations between prenatal exposure to legacy PFAS and children's intelligence (IQ) and executive functioning (EF) in a Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort and to determine if these associations differ by child sex...
May 11, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Elizabeth A Enright, Stephanie M Eick, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Andréa Aguiar, Megan L Woodbury, Jenna L N Sprowles, Sarah Dee Geiger, Jessica Trowbridge, Aileen Andrade, Sabrina Smith, June-Soo Park, Erin DeMicco, Amy M Padula, Tracey J Woodruff, Susan L Schantz
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been linked to a wide array of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, studies examining PFAS in relation to offspring cognition have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether prenatal exposure to a mixture of PFAS was related to cognition in 7.5-month-old infants. METHODS: Our analytic sample included participants enrolled in the Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB) and Illinois Kids Development Study (IKIDS) cohorts (N = 163)...
May 10, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
David A Narvaiz, Eliesse M Kwok, Samantha L Hodges, Matthew S Binder, Suzanne O Nolan, Zachary J Pranske, Savannah Senger, Rebecca Herrera, Joaquin N Lugo
Several studies have begun to demonstrate the possible cognitive and physiological benefits of a fortified vitamin D diet. However, the behavioral effects of a high vitamin D fortified diet during adolescence has not been fully explored. In the present study, a 4-week vitamin D fortified diet (20,000 IU/Kg) compared to controls (1500 IU/Kg) was administered during the juvenile (4 weeks old) or early adult period (8 weeks old) in C57BL/6 J mice to investigate the effects of fortification on cognition, behavior, and their bone phenotype...
May 7, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lydia Bierce, Alexandra R Tabachnick, Rina D Eiden, Mary Dozier, Madelyn Labella
BACKGROUND: Prenatal opioid exposure has been associated with developmental deficits during infancy, but the literature is limited by simple group comparisons and lack of appropriate controls. Previously published research with the current sample documented unique associations between prenatal opioid exposure and developmental outcomes at three and six months, but less is known about associations later in infancy. METHOD: The current study examined pre- and postnatal opioid and polysubstance exposure as predictors of parent-reported developmental status at 12 months of age...
April 11, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Christine L Lackner, Bailey Thompson, Diane L Santesso, Terrance J Wade, Sidney J Segalowitz
Nicotine exposure is associated with negative consequences on the developing brain, both in utero and after birth. We investigated the relationship between perinatal nicotine exposure and electroencephalographic brain activity recorded during an emotional faces Go/No-Go task among adolescents. Seventy-one adolescents aged 12-15 years completed a Go/No-Go task using fearful and happy faces. Parents completed questionnaire measures of their child's temperament and self-regulation and retrospectively reported on nicotine exposure during the perinatal period...
April 5, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Y Manojkumar, Sridhar Pilli, P Venkateswara Rao, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) cause potential threats to biota and are persistent and never-ending substances in the environment. Regulations and ban on legacy PFAS by various global organizations and national level regulatory agencies had shifted the fluorochemical production to emerging PFAS and fluorinated alternatives. Emerging PFAS are mobile and more persistent in aquatic systems, posing potential greater threats to human and environmental health. Emerging PFAS have been found in aquatic animals, rivers, food products, aqueous film-forming foams, sediments, and a variety of other ecological media...
March 11, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Andrew B Hawkey, Mikayla Mead, Sarabesh Natarajan, Anas Gondal, Olivia Jarrett, Edward D Levin
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are commonly used as surfactants and coatings for industrial processes and consumer products. These compounds have been increasingly detected in drinking water and human tissue, and concern over their potential effects on health and development is growing. However, relatively little data are available for their potential impacts on neurodevelopment and the degree to which different compounds within this class may differ from one another in their neurotoxicity. The present study examined the neurobehavioral toxicology of two representative compounds in a zebrafish model...
February 18, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Shu-Yun Zhang, Yuhang Lei, Qiuju Liang, Yigan Wang, Yi Zheng, Xiufeng Gan, Chenglian Bai, Jiangfei Chen
In nature, cold stress is a core threat to aquatic organisms. But the neurodevelopmental effects of cold stress during the perinatal period on the offspring development were unknown. In the present study, adult zebrafish were cold-stressed at 18 °C for five days before spawning, and then the fertilized eggs were raised at 18, 24, or 28 °C from 0 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf). The resulting embryos and larvae were assessed for developmental and neurobehavioral responses. Our findings showed that embryos raised at 18 °C (Cold+++) suffered hatching failure and death, at 24 °C (Cold++) had decreased hatching, while those raised at 28 °C (Cold+) exhibited no developmental adversity...
February 16, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Bridgett N Hill, Katy N Britton, Deborah L Hunter, Jeanene K Olin, Morgan Lowery, Joan M Hedge, Bridget R Knapp, Kimberly A Jarema, Zachary Rowson, Stephanie Padilla
New approaches in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) screening are needed due to the tens of thousands of chemicals requiring hazard assessments. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an alternative vertebrate model for DNT testing, but without a standardized protocol for larval behavioral assays, comparison of results among laboratories is challenging. To evaluate the congruence of protocols across laboratories, we conducted a literature review of DNT studies focusing on larval zebrafish behavior assays and cataloged experimental design consistencies...
February 7, 2023: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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