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Victoria Bell, João Rui Pita, Ana Leonor Pereira
Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products)...
2017: Dynamis
Rui Manuel Pinto Costa
Between 1886 and 1893, the doctor and hygienist Ricardo Jorge was linked to a commercial and medical project on the waters of Gerês. Known for many centuries and used for therapeutic purposes, they were administered on an empirical basis. When new chemical analyses were first published, the empirical properties of these waters took on a new role in hydrotherapy based on their now proven mineral and medicinal qualities. The article discusses in detail Ricardo Jorge's business venture, framing it in the context of the economic collection and treatment potential of mineral waters and the revival of the phenomenon of hydrotherapy, legitimized by new developments in the chemical analysis of waters...
2017: Dynamis
Ricardo Campos, Enric Novella
In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism...
2017: Dynamis
Ángel González de Pablo
After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged...
2017: Dynamis
Rafael Huertas
While there has been some research into Francoist psychiatry, much work still needs to be done on the reorganization of the mental health profession within the new state. Held in Barcelona on 12, 13 and 14th January 1942, the National Neurology and Psychiatry Conference undoubtedly played a major role in the attempt to overthrow the dominant ideas in the field of Spanish psychiatry and displace its most influential figures. This article seeks to analyse the Conference's main organizational features and examine its most significant content, with the aim of evaluating its strategic importance in the context of both the psychiatrists' professional and scientific interests and their ideological and political concerns...
2017: Dynamis
Ricardo Campos, Ángel González de Pablo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Dynamis
Óscar Gallo
For most physicians, the assessment of disability in cases of work accident or occupational disease is very relative matter, and clinical judgments are subjective and unsatisfactory in legal settings. Work accident legislation gives them the task of deciding on any causal links between accident and disease and indicating any economic compensation that should be awarded. They must therefore reach beyond their scientific knowledge to understand the multitude of social factors that underlie these problems in the world of work...
2016: Dynamis
Xavier García Ferrandis, Àlvar Martínez Vidal
During the first third of the 20th century, the dental profession in Spain was disputed by several groups of healthcare professionals, including surgery practitioners and dental technicians. The most intense conflict was between dentists and stomatologists. In the case of Valencia, this struggle became apparent in the attempt to create a dental school during the first Spanish Republican period. This project was supported by the Faculty of Medicine and by the local authorities but was not implemented due to the special interests of practicing dentists and the School of Dentistry in the Central University of Madrid...
2016: Dynamis
Isabel Blázquez Ornat
The objective of this study was to reconstruct the professional identity of the practicante (male assistant in medicine and surgery) by analyzing three professional journals of this collective in Zaragoza (Aragón). The discourse of practicantes on their profession insists that they were the only assistants for physicians with technical qualities. This affirmation constituted a key element in shaping their identity, contributing in turn to establish the moral and social legitimization of practicantes and their professional authority...
2016: Dynamis
Ignacio Suay-Matallana
This article studies a scientific controversy on the chemical analysis of Carratraca Spa water and discusses the shaping of the scientific authority of two mid-19th century Spanish experts in mineral waters: Antonio Casares, professor of chemistry at the University of Santiago, and Jose Salgado, medical director of the Spa. It considers the resources employed by the two experts in the dispute and shows that much of the scientific controversy involved not only technical issues but also numerous economic, social and personal interests of the participants...
2016: Dynamis
Anne-Marie Moulin
The choice of the expression «History of the Maghreb Pasteur institutes» is suggestive of a post-colonial approach and raises questions about the shared future of those centres. The author offers a comparative view of the past of the Institutes in Tunis, Algiers and Casablanca, relying on recent research in social sciences and the development of oral history. The Institutes were created separately at different times but more or less followed a single model linking research, production, and teaching. Fighting infectious diseases was part of the colonial heritage, but it was above all the promise of modernisation linked to participation in the Pastorian Revolution that explains why the three Institutes never discontinued their activities in the three Southern Mediterranean capitals At the turn of the 21th century, the Pasteur Institutes of the Maghreb, in common with the mother Institute in Paris, were faced by new challenges in a changing political and epidemiological context...
2016: Dynamis
Francisco Javier Martínez
Morocco was the last North African country in which a Pasteur institute was created, nearly two decades later than in Tunisia and Algeria. In fact, two institutes were opened, the first in Tangier in 1913 and the second in Casablanca in 1932. This duplication, far from being a measure of success, was the material expression of the troubles Pastorians had experienced in getting a solid foothold in the country since the late 19th century. These problems partly derived from the pre-existence of a modest Spanish-Moroccan bacteriological tradition, developed since the late 1880s within the framework of the Sanitary Council and Hygiene Commission of Tangier, and partly from the uncoordinated nature of the initiatives launched from Paris and Algiers...
2016: Dynamis
Claire Fredj
From the late 19th century, some of the physicians settled in Algeria and teachers at the School of Medicine of Algiers sought to map the extent of malaria in order to propose prophylactic measures against a disease that was widespread in the countryside of the colony. When the fight against malaria was organized in Algeria at the beginning of the 20th century, under the joint direction of the General Government and the Pasteur Institute, the Institute researchers needed to gather various types of data for determining epidemic indexes and preparing action programmes...
2016: Dynamis
Francisco Javier Martínez
More than 125 years after its foundation (*), the Pasteur Institute is still one of the world’s largest, best known and most powerful biomedical research institutions. The original motherhouse was founded by Louis Pasteur in 1888 thanks to the funds and facilities generously provided by the Paris municipality and the French state and also to the donations of voluntary contributors from France and the most disparate corners of the globe. Before the great savant died seven years later, official branches had already been opened in Saigon, Lille, Tunis, Algiers, Sydney and Nha-Trang, not to speak about many others which had adopted the trademark without having a formal connection to the Parisian headquarters, such as those in Rio de Janeiro, New York, Chicago or Istanbul...
2016: Dynamis
Francisco Molina Artaloytia
At the beginning of the 20th century, the noted Nobel prize-winning Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz made an expert analysis on homosexuality in a marriage annulment case of major value as an example of the effective application of sexological knowledge of that period. Contemporary republican legislation established marriage annulment in medical terms and punished relations between persons of the same sex, or contra natura. In his report, Moniz attempted to interpret distinctive elements of the life of the subject using sexological categories, illustrating the interaction between these categories and the changing forms adopted by homosexuality (or homosexual people) of the time...
2016: Dynamis
Marcelo Sánchez Delgado
Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm...
2016: Dynamis
María José, Ruiz Somavilla
This study addresses the explicit and implicit exclusion mechanisms that limited the access of women to internships in Paris hospitals during the last decades of the 19th century through examination of the documentation generated in the admission process and the texts of female physicians who supported their access. In response to the applications of female medical students to register for the admission tests, the Conseil de Surveillance de l'Assistance Publique delayed their entry for some years until their registration was finally permitted...
2016: Dynamis
Carolin Schmitz
In order to know about diseases and their medical treatment from the perspective of the patient in Baroque Spanish society, creative literature, especially the picaresque novel, is a valuable source that offers a representation of ideas on medicine and disease that were widespread among the population and difficult to access from other sources. The first-person narrative in the Vida y hechos de Estebanillo González (1646) offers knowledge on three different aspects of the medical world in Europe during the Thirty Years' War: Estebanillo practises various medical professions, appears in the story as a patient and comments on health practices and disease, providing highly useful material to analyze how different fields of medicine are represented in this literary work...
2016: Dynamis
Carmel Ferragud
During the last decades of the 13th century, in the midst of the shaping and medicalization of the new Kingdom of Valencia, the authorities and citizens envisaged the role that physicians could have in clarifying violent deaths. The first circumstance that compelled judges to resort to physicians was the possible poisoning of an individual, given that they could contribute to elucidating the truth with their expert knowledge. They were even requested to use post-mortem dissection if necessary for this purpose...
2016: Dynamis
Glenn Harcourt, Lisa Temple-Cox
Why should an artist look to anatomical or pathological specimens as a reservoir of images with which to facilitate an articulation of his or her own artistic or personal identity? This is the starting point of a reflection on the disappearance of the artist and its transformation into a passive object. As a result, it is also a reflection into the blurring lines between subject and object. On the grounds of the work elaborated by the artist Lisa Temple-Cox and the critical look and comments made by the observer Harcourt, this paper is a first-hand attempt to understand the configuration of the self and the influence of the artistic intervention in the generation and representation of anatomical knowledge, resulting in an exploration into the intertwined processes that create both historical subjects and historical objects...
2016: Dynamis
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