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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Yiwen Wang, Annette Maier, Nicole Gehring, Bernard Moussian
Previously, we showed that inhibition of the activity of fatty acid desaturases (Desat) perturbs signalling of the developmental timing hormone ecdysone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. To understand the impact of this effect on cuticle differentiation, a process regulated by ecdysone, we analysed the cuticle of D. melanogaster larvae fed with the Desat inhibitor CA10556. In these larvae, the expression of most of the key cuticle genes is normal or slightly elevated at day one of CA10556 feeding. As an exception, expression of twdlM coding for a yet uncharacterised cuticle protein is completely suppressed...
January 23, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hai-Jian Huang, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Xiao-Yue Hong
Planthoppers are highly destructive pests that damage rice plants by feeding and transmitting viruses. They feed on phloem sap using specialized mouthparts and secrete saliva during feeding. Over the past decade, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches have greatly improved our understanding of the complexity of planthopper saliva, and have provided a glimpse of planthopper-plant interactions. Here we focus on a few recent advances in planthopper saliva and discuss how salivary components influence planthopper performance...
January 21, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Dan Liu, Xiangli Dang, Wei Song, Lingyu Xi, Qi Wang, Shaobing Zhang, Yong Miao, Guiting Li, Junqi Jiang
As a polyphagous insect, little is known at the molecular level about the effects of different host plants on physiological changes in Phenacoccus solenopsis. In this study, four heat shock protein (Hsp) genes (PsHsp60, PsHsp70, PsHsp90, and PsHsp20.7) were identified from the transcriptome of P. solenopsis. Analysis of Hsp expression levels revealed significant differences in Hsp gene expression levels in P. solenopsis fed on different host plants. In host conversion tests, the expression levels of PsHsp90 and PsHsp60 were upregulated after transfer of second instar nymphs from tomato to cotton...
January 19, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hai-Zhen Wang, Xin Zhong, Li Gu, Shao-Song Li, Gu-Ren Zhang, Xin Liu
As a pest on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Gynaephora qinghaiensis causes severe damage to grassland vegetation and its pupae are also natural hosts of Thektogaster sp. To successfully parasitize, endoparasitoids generally introduce or secrete multiple parasitic factors into the host body during the spawning stage to suppress the host immune response. To study the parasitic effects of Thektogaster sp. on G. qinghaiensis, a transcriptome analysis of immune-related genes in parasitized and nonparasitized G. qinghaiensis pupae was performed...
January 17, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Caihong Yu, Dong Ai, Ronghua Lin, Shenhang Cheng
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three toxic β-glucosides, phlorizin, santonin, and amygdalin, on carbohydrate metabolism in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), when diets mixed with β-glucosides were fed to third-instar larvae. The growth of the larvae was significantly inhibited by exposure to santonin after 96 hr but not obviously affected by phlorizin and amygdalin. The midgut trehalase activities were only 51.7%, 32%, and 42.5% of that of the control after treatment with phlorizin, santonin and amygdalin at 2 mg/ml, respectively...
January 17, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Annely Brandt, Gerrit Joop, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Natural antioxidants and plant extracts with neuroprotective properties offer a promising new therapeutic approach for PD patients, but a suitable large-scale screening system is required for their discovery and preclinical analysis. Here we used the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum ) as a whole-animal screening system for the detection and characterization of neuroprotective substances. Paraquat was added to the diet of adult beetles to induce PD-like symptoms, which were quantified using a novel positive geotaxis behavioral assay...
January 17, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hang-Yu Tian, Yan Hu, Pan Zhang, Wen-Xi Xing, Cuixian Xu, Dan Yu, Yang Yang, Kaijun Luo, Ming Li
Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is a polydnavirus found in the parasitic wasp M. bicoloratus. Although MbBV is a known inducer of apoptosis in host hemocytes, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive. In this study, we found that expression of cyclophilin A (CypA) was significantly upregulated in Spodoptera litura hemocytes at 6-day post-parasitization. Similar results were reported in High Five cells (Hi5 cells) infected by MbBV, suggesting that the upregulation of CypA is linked to MbBV infection in insect cells...
January 8, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Bing Li, Pei Hu, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Shahzad Toufeeq, Jie Wang, Kang Zhao, Xin Xu, Jia-Ping Xu, Shou-Jun Huang
DNA methylation is one of the most widespread epigenetic marks and has been linked to insect development, especially influencing embryonic development. However, the regulation of DNA methylation in silkworm embryonic development and diapause remain to investigate. In this study, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression level of Bombyx mori DNA methyltransferases (BmDNMTs) 1 and 2 ( BmDnmt1 and BmDnmt2) in different tissues, different embryonic developmental stages, and different strains of the silkworm...
December 26, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Colin S Brent, J Joe Hull
Insect eye coloration arises from the accumulation of various pigments. A number of genes that function in the biosynthesis (vermilion, cinnabar, and cardinal) and importation (karmoisin, white, scarlet, and brown) of these pigments, and their precursors, have been identified in diverse species and used as markers for transgenesis and gene editing. To examine their suitability as visible markers in Lygus hesperus Knight (western tarnished plant bug), transcriptomic data were screened for sequences exhibiting homology with the Drosophila melanogaster proteins...
December 26, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Gayatri Sarma Baruah, Hridip Kumar Sarma, Sunayan Bardoloi, Dipsikha Bora
In the current study, a dimeric phenoloxidase (PO) from the hemolymph of healthy and diseased (pebrine infected) larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer was extracted and purified. The protein was subjected to purification using Sephacryl S-100 and CM Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme comprised of two subunits of ~76.8 and 76 kDa that showed PO activity in 6 mM l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 8 mM catechol but not in hydroquinone. Optimum temperature for PO activity was 30°C in l-DOPA and 37°C in catechol...
December 26, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Pijush Kanti Jhan, Jae-Kyoung Shim, Sukchan Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
In transmitting plant viruses, insect vectors undergo physiological and behavioral alterations. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), causing severe damages to various horticultural crop plants. To determine whether whitefly alteration is specific to vector species, the responses to TYLCV ingestion were compared between B. tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, a nonvector for TYLCV. The two species were reared on TYLCV-infected and noninfected tomato, a host of TYLCV, and their longevity and fecundity were determined while rearing in either tomato or eggplant, a nonhost of TYLCV...
December 20, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yin-Jie Cheng, Zheng-Xi Li
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyzes the formation of FPP, providing the precursor for the biosynthesis of (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) in plants, but it is unknown if FPPS supplies the precursor for the biosynthesis of EβF, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, though our previous studies support the hypothesis that EβF is synthesized by the aphid itself. Here, we used two cohorts of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae separately, reared on pepper plant and artificial diet to test the correlations among droplet emission, EβF quantity, and FPPS gene expression...
December 19, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Md Abdullah Al Baki, Dae-Weon Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) of insects mediate various physiological processes including hemolymph sugar level, immature growth, female reproduction, and lifespan. In target cells of ILPs, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is highly conserved in animals. IIS in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is known to be involved in maintaining hemolymph trehalose levels and promoting larval growth. However, ILPs in M. vitrata have not been reported yet. This study predicted two ILP genes of Mv-ILP1 and Mv-ILP2 from transcriptome of M...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Mohammad Asaduzzaman Miah, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki, Asmaul Husna, Zhaojun Han
Deltamethrin resistance in Laodelphax striatellus had been associated with its oxidative detoxification by overexpression of four cytochrome P450 monooxygenases like CYP353D1v2, CYP6FU1, CYP6AY3v2, and CYP439A1v3. The first three P450s have been validated for insecticide-metabolizing capability and only CYP6FU1 was found to degrade deltamethrin. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm the capability of CYP439A1v3 to degrade deltamethrin. The CYP439A1v3 was first expressed in Sf9 cell line and its recombinant enzyme was tested for metabolic activity against different insecticides using substrate depletion assay combined with metabolite identification...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sajjan Grover, Vikas Jindal, Geetika Banta, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Guy Smagghe, Olivier Christiaens
Whiteflies cause considerable losses to crops, directly by feeding, and indirectly by transmission of viruses. The current control methods consist of a combination of different control tactics, mainly still relying on unsafe and non-ecofriendly chemical control. RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene-silencing strategy in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), corresponding specifically to a target gene, is introduced in a target organism. Research on RNAi in the previous decade has shown its success as a potential insect control strategy, which can be highly species-specific and environment friendly...
November 28, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
GuiLu Zhang, WenJun Zhang
The problem of resistance has not been solved fundamentally at present, because the development speed of new insecticides can not keep pace with the development speed of resistance, and the lack of understanding of molecular mechanism of resistance. Here we collected seed genes and their interacting proteins involved in insecticide resistance molecular mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster by literature mining and the String database. We identified a total of 528 proteins and 13514 protein-protein interactions...
November 26, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sandhya Sreedharan, Kavitha Sankaranarayanan
Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane channels that facilitate the bidirectional transport of water and sometimes other small solutes across biological membranes. AQPs are important in mediating environmental adaptations in mosquitoes and are considered as a novel target for the development of effective insecticides against mosquitoes. Here, we expressed Aedes aegypti AQP6 ( AaAQP6) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and analyzed the water permeability by a conventional swelling assay, that is, a real-time change in cell size corresponding to the cell swelling induced by hyposmotic solution...
November 19, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yonggyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
A-Young Kim, Deok Ho Kwon, In Hong Jeong, Young Ho Koh
Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds to the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR) and induces an uncontrolled release of Ca2+ , resulting in paralysis and ultimately death of the target insects. Recently, it was reported that chlorantraniliprole-resistant diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus, have mutations in their RyR. In this study, we developed two different chlorantraniliprole-resistant Drosophila melanogaster strain. The resistance ratio (RR) of the low-concentration chlorantraniliprole-treated resistant (Low-Res) strain was 2...
December 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jiawei Zhang, Qingqing Li, Yu Sun, Jiwu Tian, Zaijin Hu, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins that are ubiquitously found in all types of organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In the current study, we identified and characterized the full-length cDNA encoding sHSP 19.1 from the oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. Ap-sHSP is 510 bp in length, and encodes a protein of 169 amino acid residues. The protein contains conserved domains found in insect sHSPs, and it belongs to the α-crystallin-HSPs_p23-like superfamily. Recombinant Ap-sHSP was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and a rabbit anti-Ap-sHSP 19...
December 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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