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Journal of Sports Sciences

Sebastian Fischer, Claudia Braun, Armin Kibele
The aim of this study was to examine the importance of the change-over time in swimming relay races. Top-class international 4 x 100 m freestyle races were analysed across a 10-year period including three Olympic Games and five European and World Championships. A total of 220 swimmers (116 female, 104 male) were included in this study with an average participation of 1.7 ± 1.2 races. To consider such repeated measurements and other factors (e.g., ranking in the relay race, position in the relay team) linear mixed models for longitudinal data were used for the statistical evaluation...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
David M Corbett, Alice J Sweeting, Sam Robertson
In team-sport, physical and skilled output is often described via aggregate parameters including total distance and number of skilled involvements. However, the degree to which these output change throughout a team-sport match, as a function of time, is relatively unknown. This study aimed to identify and describe segments of physical and skilled output in team-sport matches with an example in Australian Football. The relationship between the number of change points and level of similarity was also quantified...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Nikos V Margaritelis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Vassilis Paschalis
Underfat individuals have been neglected as a malnourished population in terms of redox homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of body composition on redox homeostasis at rest and in response to exercise. Underfat, lean and overfat women, classified according to their BMI and body fat percentage, participated in the study and were subjected to an acute session of eccentric exercise. With regard to muscle function and damage, a significant group × time interaction was found for range of motion (P < ...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Malin Jonsson, Boye Welde, Thomas L Stöggl
Biomechanical differences in double poling (DP) between sex and performance level were investigated in female and male cross-country skiers during a classical race (10/15 km). Skiers were divided into faster and slower on basis of race performance: females faster (n=20), females slower (n=20), males faster (n=20), and males slower (n=20). Based on video analysis while DP in a flat section of the track, joint and pole angles at pole plant (PP) and pole-off, cycle characteristics and the use and coordination pattern of heel-raise (raise of heels from the ground to have a higher body position at PP) were analysed...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mitch Lomax, Jernej Kapus, Samuel Webb, Anton Ušaj
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) on race-paced swimming and acid-base status. Twenty-one collegiate swimmers performed two discontinuous 400-m race-paced swims on separate days, with (IMF trial) and without (control trial) pre-induced IMF. Swimming characteristics, inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, and blood parameters were recorded. IMF and expiratory muscle fatigue (P < 0.05) were evident after both trials and swimming time was slower (P < 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andrew J Harrison, Paul Byrne, Shilpa Sundar
This study examined the kinetic and temporal differences between countermovement jumps (CMJs) and eccentrically loaded CMJs. A survey of 109 coaches and athlete showed that 87% of respondents regularly used jumps with added mass within training. Sixteen male and thirteen female track and field athletes from sprinting, hurdling and jumping events performed 5 bodyweight CMJs 5 jumps wearing a weighted jacket and 5 eccentrically loaded dumbbell (LDB) jumps trials in a randomised order. Peak force (PF), peak power (PP), flight time (FT), concentric time (CON-T), eccentric time (ECT), total time (TIME) and eccentric/concentric ratio (E/C-Ratio) were obtained from force plate data...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kelly de Jesus, Karla de Jesus, Helon Vicente Hultmann Ayala, Leandro Dos Santos Coelho, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Jorge Pinto Fernandes
We aimed to compare multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function neural networks (RBF) and linear models (LM) accuracy to predict the centre of mass (CM) horizontal speed at low-moderate, heavy and severe swimming intensities using physiological and biomechanical dataset. Ten trained male swimmers completed a 7 × 200 m front crawl protocol (0.05 m.s-1 increments and 30 s intervals) to assess expiratory gases and blood lactate concentrations. Two surface and four underwater cameras recorded independent images subsequently processed focusing a three-dimensional reconstruction of two upper limb cycles at 25 and 175 m laps...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Stephanie Santana Pinto, Bruno Brasil, Gabriela Neves Nunes, Cristine Lima Alberton
The neuromuscular adaptations between ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T; n = 15), whole-body high-intensity interval training (HIIT-WB; n = 12) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; n = 14) were compared in forty-one healthy men randomized to 16 weeks of training (3x per week). Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jump height (HIIT-T: 8.5 ± 13.3%; 3.1 ± 9.7%, HIIT-WB: 6.4 ± 9.8%, 10.4 ± 16.1% and MICT: 2...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Irineu Loturco, Ian Jeffreys, César C Cal Abad, Ronaldo Kobal, Vinicius Zanetti, Lucas A Pereira, Sophia Nimphius
This study examined the age-specific development of vertical jump height, straight and change-of-direction (COD) speed, and COD deficit in one-hundred and eighty-two elite soccer players from different age-categories (U15, U17, U20, and Senior). All participants were players of two distinct clubs and were undertaking different training routines, as planned by their technical staff members. For this purpose, the soccer players performed: (1) squat and countermovement jumps; (2) a maximal 20-m linear sprint speed test, and (3) the Zigzag COD test...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Robyn A Capobianco, Melissa M Mazzo, Roger M Enoka
We examined the influence of stretching alone (SS) or combined with self-massage (SM) on maximal ankle dorsiflexion angle, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque and calf muscle activity, and subcutaneous tissue thickness in 15 young (25 ± 3 years) and 15 middle-aged (45 ± 5 years) adults. Participants performed two sessions of calf muscle stretches (3x 30-s stretches, 30-s rest): stretch after a 60-s control condition (SS) and stretch after 60 s of self-massage with therapy balls (SM). Evaluations were performed before and 5 min after the intervention...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Rodrigo Zacca, Argyris Toubekis, Laura Freitas, Ana Filipa Silva, Rui Azevedo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David B Pyne, Flávio A De S Castro, Ricardo J Fernandes
Changes in performance, energetics and kinematics during age-group swimmers off-season inform the prescription of training for the following season. Age-group swimmers (n = 15, age 14.3 ± 0.7 years) of equal maturational stage performed a 400-m front crawl (T400) before and after a four-weeks training cessation period. Performance-related energetic and kinematic variables were obtained controlling for anthropometric changes and non-swimming specific physical activities during off-season. T400 time decreased 3...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ernst-Joachim Hossner, Urs Schnyder, Jürg Schmid, Ralf Kredel
The present study aims to reveal the effects of positioning on decision-making performance in top-level refereeing in association football. To this end, for all 64 matches of the FIFA World Cup 2014, potential foul-play situations were videometrically analysed in terms of the referee's position relative to the infringement. Contrary to earlier studies, viewing angles were analysed in addition to viewing distances and error rates were considered for not only falsely whistled but also falsely non-whistled events...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Claire Bradley, Ailsa Niven, Shaun M Phillips
This study investigated the effect of self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise on affective responses to, self-efficacy for and intention to repeat low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Thirty-six healthy participants (mean age 21 ± 2 years) were split into high tolerance (HT; n = 19), low tolerance (LT; n = 9), and very low tolerance (VLT; n = 8) of exercise intensity groups. Participants completed 10 × 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery. Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, after sprints 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20 min post-HIIE...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Nicola Lovecchio, Matteo Giuriato, Matteo Zago, Alan Nevill
The purpose of the study was to identify the optimal body shape and composition associated with physical fitness levels of children living in urban and rural areas of Italy. A total of 7102 children (11-14 years) were assessed for weight, height, percentage body fat (FM%), sit-and-reach flexibility (SAR), standing broad jump (SBJ) and sit-ups (SUP). A multiplicative allometric model, Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 ·ε, was used to predict the physical outcome variables Y = SBJ and SUP. The model was expanded to incorporate FM% and SAR as follows Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 · FM%k3 · exp(b· FM% + c· SAR) ·ε...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Lewis A Gough, Sanjoy K Deb, Danny Brown, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
This study investigated the effects of two separate doses of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) on 4 km time trial (TT) cycling performance and post-exercise acid base balance recovery in hypoxia. Fourteen club-level cyclists completed four cycling TT's, followed by a 40 min passive recovery in normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2  = 14.5%) following one of either: two doses of NaHCO3 (0.2 BM; SBC2, or 0.3 BM; SBC3), a taste-matched placebo (0.07 BM sodium chloride; PLA), or a control trial in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures and crossover design study...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Elizabeth A Thomson, Kayla Nuss, Ashley Comstock, Steven Reinwald, Sophie Blake, Richard E Pimentel, Brian L Tracy, Kaigang Li
This study compared heart rate (HR) measurements for the Fitbit Charge HR 2 (Fitbit) and the Apple Watch devices with HR measurements for electrocardiogram (ECG). Thirty young adults (15/15 females/males, age 23.5 ± 3.0 years) completed the Bruce Protocol. HR measurements were recorded from the ECG and both devices every minute. Average HR for each participant was calculated for very light, light, moderate, vigorous and very vigorous intensities based on ECG-measured HR. A concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was calculated to examine the strength of the relationship between ECG measured HR and HR measured by each device...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jared R Fletcher, Michael J Asmussen, Sandro R Nigg, Brian R MacIntosh, Benno M Nigg
Altering torsional stiffness of cycling shoe soles may be a novel approach to reducing knee joint moments and overuse injuries during cycling. We set out to determine if the magnitude of three-dimensional knee moments were different between cycling shoe soles with different torsional stiffnesses. Eight trained male cyclists cycled at 90% lactate threshold power output in one of two cycling shoe conditions in a randomized crossover design. The shoe sole was considered torsionally flexible (FLEX) compared to a relatively stiffer (STIFF) sole...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
D G A Stefanaki, A Dzulkarnain, S R Gray
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training to volitional failure at low (30% 1 repetition maximum (RM)) or high (80%1RM) loads on gains in muscle size and strength in young women. Thirteen women (age: 29.7 ± 4.7years; height 166.7 ± 6.4cm; weight 64.2 ± 12.2kg) completed 2 training sessions per week for 6 weeks and muscle strength (1RM), muscle thickness (ultrasound) were measured before and after training. Training comprised 1 set to volitional failure of unilateral leg extensions and bicep curls with each limb randomly assigned to train at either 80% 1RM or 30% 1RM...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Stephanie Santana Pinto, Aline Borges De Carvalho Praia, Cristine Lima Alberton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Roman Farana, Gerda Strutzenberger, Timothy Exell, Jiri Skypala, Huw Wiltshire, Gareth Irwin
The aim of the study was to determine if sex differences exist in the key elbow and wrist joint injury risk factors during different cartwheel (CW) and round-off (RO) techniques performed by young male and female artistic gymnasts. Sixteen active young gymnasts (8 males and 8 females) performed 30 successful trials of CW and RO with three different hand positions (parallel (10), T-shape (10) and reverse (10)). Synchronised kinematic and kinetic data were collected for each trial. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (3 × 2, technique × sex) and effect-sizes (ES) were used for statistical analysis...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
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