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Journal of Comparative Psychology

Dara N Orbach, Jane M Packard, William Keener, Angela Ziltener, Bernd Würsig
Sexual selection influences both genital diversity and mating behaviors, yet the integrated coevolution of pre- (behavioral) and postcopulatory (anatomical) traits in both sexes has received little attention. Traits could potentially evolve through an arms race model of escalations in male persistence and female resistance, and/or through a tradeoff model of inverse correlations between investments in pre- and postcopulatory traits. Pre- and postcopulatory traits of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) were compared with bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Federica Amici, Ruben Holland, Trix Cacchione
The ability to solve novel problems is crucial for the survival and fitness of individuals living in dynamic environments. Studies of problem-solving date back to the beginning of the past century, but our knowledge is nonetheless still limited to very few taxa. In this study, we aimed to test a species of the order Carnivora, sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), on the ability to solve a novel foraging task. Bears were individually presented with honey spread on the wall and a familiar bucket, and, depending on the condition, they had to move the bucket and climb on it to access the honey...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Thomas J Manna, Csaba Moskát, Lainga Tong, Miklós Bán, Zachary Aidala, Jason Low, Márk E Hauber
A host that has been targeted by an avian brood parasite can recover most of its potential fitness loss by ejecting the foreign egg(s) from its nest. The propensity for some hosts to engage in egg rejection behavior has put selective pressure on their parasites to evolve mimetic eggshells resembling the host's own shell colors and maculation. In turn, hosts have counterevolved increasingly more sophisticated detection methods such as narrowing visual egg acceptance thresholds or using social cues to recognize parasitism...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Reiki Kishimoto, Sumie Iwasaki, Kazuo Fujita
Flexibly changing information processing based on required cognitive resources allows adaptation in terms of cognitive parsimony. Several species have been shown to use temporal durations between memory acquisition and retrieval as a cue for memory-controlling and to engage selectively in active memorization in situations involving lower cognitive cost. However, few studies have addressed whether signaling delay length at different stages of memory affects memorization differently. In the present study with tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella), we added visual cues signaling upcoming delay length to a delayed matching-to-sample task, so that the monkeys were informed about how long information should be maintained at different points during with-sample or after-sample conditions...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Patrick J Tkaczynski, Caroline Ross, Ann MacLarnon, Mohamed Mouna, Bonaventura Majolo, Julia Lehmann
Three popular approaches exist for quantifying personality in animals: behavioral coding in unconstrained and experimental settings and trait assessment. Both behavioral coding in an unconstrained setting and trait assessment aim to identify an overview of personality structure by reducing the behavioral repertoire of a species into broad personality dimensions, whereas experimental assays quantify personality as reactive tendencies to particular stimuli. Criticisms of these methods include that they generate personality dimensions with low levels of cross-study or cross-species comparability (behavioral coding in unconstrained and experimental settings) or that the personality dimensions generated are not ecologically valid, that is, not reflecting naturally occurring behavior (trait assessment and experimental assays)...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Nicole Barbaro, Todd K Shackelford, Andrew M Holub, Austin J Jeffery, Guilherme S Lopes, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
Life history strategies reflect resource allocation decisions, which manifest as physiological, psychological, and behavioral traits. We investigated whether human ejaculate quality is associated with indicators of relatively fast (greater resource allocation to mating effort) or slow (greater resource allocation to parenting effort) life history strategies in a test of two competing hypotheses: (a) The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis , which predicts that men pursuing a relatively fast life history strategy will produce higher quality ejaculates, and (b) the cuckoldry-risk hypothesis, which predicts that men pursuing a relatively slow life history strategy will produce higher quality ejaculates...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Marie-Hélène Broihanne, Amélie Romain, Josep Call, Bernard Thierry, Claudia A F Wascher, Arianna De Marco, Delphine Verrier, Valérie Dufour
Many studies investigate the decisions made by animals by focusing on their attitudes toward risk, that is, risk-seeking, risk neutrality, or risk aversion. However, little attention has been paid to the extent to which individuals understand the different odds of outcomes. In a previous gambling task involving 18 different lotteries (Pelé, Broihanne, Thierry, Call, & Dufour, 2014), nonhuman primates used probabilities of gains and losses to make their decision. Although the use of complex mathematical calculation for decision-making seemed unlikely, we applied a gradual decrease in the chances to win throughout the experiment...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
William P Shofner, Nicole Yacko, Kristina Bowdrie
One characteristic of human speech perception is a remarkable ability to recognize speech when the speech signal is highly degraded. It has been argued that this ability to perceive highly degraded speech reflects speech-specific mechanisms. The present study tested this hypothesis by measuring the ability of chinchillas to recognize noise-vocoded (NV) versions of naturally spoken monosyllabic words using operant conditioning in a stimulus generalization paradigm. Chinchillas do not generalize the vocoded words to be perceptually equivalent to the naturally spoken words...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Fabrice Damon, Zhihan Li, Yin Yan, Wu Li, Kun Guo, Paul C Quinn, Olivier Pascalis, David Méary
Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences in other humans and also in rhesus macaques and, if they do, whether such preferences would extend beyond conspecific faces...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Andrea Ravignani
Alternative mathematical models predict differences in how animals adjust the timing of their calls. Differences can be measured as the effect of the timing of a conspecific call on the rate and period of calling of a focal animal, and the lag between the two. Here, I test these alternative hypotheses by tapping into harbor seals' (Phoca vitulina) mechanisms for spontaneous timing. Both socioecology and vocal behavior of harbor seals make them an interesting model species to study call rhythm and timing. Here, a wild-born seal pup was tested in controlled laboratory conditions...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
Tecwyn and Buchsbaum (2018) in this issue challenge the idea that dogs display a persistent gravity bias. In four experiments, they probed where dogs search for a ball after it is dropped into a tube. First, they replicated diagonal tube task experiments previously conducted with apes (Cacchione & Call, 2010) to investigate how auditory and visual information about the tubes influenced the dogs' search. Next, they examined how dogs' search shifted when the middle location was no longer an option. Third, they probed whether dogs' search could be explained by proximity between the reward's release point and the search locations (a condition depicted in Figure 1)...
February 2019: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Yulán Úbeda, Sara Ortín, Judy St Leger, Miquel Llorente, Javier Almunia
The comparative study of animal personality has received great interest in recent years. Some studies have analyzed personalities in cetaceans (exclusively in dolphins), but none have analyzed the factorial structure of personality of any species in this order. Our objective was to evaluate a sample of captive killer whales (n = 24) adapting one of the most widely used models of personality in humans and nonhuman animals: the five-factor model. A total of 38 personality descriptive adjectives were rated by 55 raters (mainly trainers and curators)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Claudia Fugazza, Eszter Petro, Ádám Miklósi, Ákos Pogány
A goal-directed action is composed of two main elements on which the observer may focus its attention: the movement performed (i.e., the action) and the outcome (i.e., the goal). In a social learning situation, consequently, the observer may imitate the action of the model or emulate the result of its action. In humans and primates, the tendency to selectively engage in any of these two processes is considered to be dependent upon the availability and saliency of information about the goal, implying the capacity to recognize the goals of others' actions...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Garrett M Fogo, Alyssa M Goodwin, Ohanes S Khacherian, Brandi J Ledbetter, Andrew J Gall
Environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle and temperature, affect the display of circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity patterns in mammals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating these environmental conditions would affect wheel-running activity patterns in a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). Grass rats are diurnal in the field, however, a subset switch from a day-active pattern to a night-active pattern of activity after the introduction of a running wheel...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Péter Szenczi, Zyanya I Velázquez-López, Andrea Urrutia, Robyn Hudson, Oxána Bánszegi
The comparative study of the perception of visual illusions between different species is increasingly recognized as a useful noninvasive tool to better understand visual perception and its underlying mechanisms and evolution. The aim of the present study was to test whether the domestic cat is susceptible to the Delboeuf illusion in a manner similar to other mammalian species studied to date. For comparative reasons, we followed the methods used to test other mammals in which the animals were tested in a 2-way choice task between same-size food stimuli presented on different-size plates...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Nóra Bunford, Barbara Csibra, Csenge Peták, Bence Ferdinandy, Ádám Miklósi, Márta Gácsi
In humans, behavioral disinhibition is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limitations to rodent models of ADHD-like behaviors/symptoms may be augmented by complementary ones, such as the domestic dog. We examined associations between family dogs' (N = 29; of 14 breeds and 12 mongrels) performance on a self-developed touchscreen behavioral Go/No-Go paradigm and their owner-rated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, accounting for relevant covariates. A greater proportion of commission errors was associated with greater hyperactivity/impulsivity...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Christèle Borgeaud, Redouan Bshary
It has been suggested that social challenges in group-living species in which individuals maintain long-term relationships select for advanced cognitive processes. A key challenge for testing this hypothesis is to design experiments that allow the assessment of animals' knowledge of conspecifics and how they use that information to their own advantage. Here, we present data on wild vervets using an experimental paradigm that induced a competitive context. After training females to obtain food from a personal box, we placed their box in proximity to another monkey's personal box to create potential conflict...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Manon K Schweinfurth, Sarah E DeTroy, Edwin J C van Leeuwen, Josep Call, Daniel B M Haun
Although there is good evidence that social animals show elaborate cognitive skills to deal with others, there are few reports of animals physically using social agents and their respective responses as means to an end-social tool use. In this case study, we investigated spontaneous and repeated social tool use behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented a group of chimpanzees with an apparatus, in which pushing two buttons would release juice from a distantly located fountain. Consequently, any one individual could only either push the buttons or drink from the fountain but never push and drink simultaneously...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jeffrey R Lucas, Katherine E Gentry, Kathryn E Sieving, Todd M Freeberg
The Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis proposes that individuals in complex social groups require sophisticated social cognition. This hypothesis has advanced our understanding of the complex social lives of animals and how individuals interact with others in their groups. Machiavellian intelligence is the capacity of an individual to alter the behavior of others around it to the individual's own advantage. This capacity is typically facilitated by complex communicative systems, social systems, and cognitive abilities...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Andrew Whiten
The years since the publication of Machiavellian Intelligence have witnessed a golden age in discoveries concerning social cognition in human and nonhuman primates and many other animal taxa too. Here, I briefly dissect some of the variants of the social intelligence hypotheses that have evolved in this time and offer a selective overview of the scientific discoveries in this field, particularly in primates, over the last 30 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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