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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30920287/prospective-metamemory-like-retrospective-metamemory-exhibits-underconfidence-with-practice
#1
John T West, Neil W Mulligan
The majority of research on metamemory focuses on retrospective memory: memory for past events. Prospective memory, in contrast, refers to the process of remembering to carry out intentions in the future. Despite claims that metacognition is essential to prospective remembering, it is unclear whether the metamemorial effects that researchers have observed in studies of retrospective memory extend to prospective memory. In the present study, we tested whether the underconfidence with practice (UWP) effect, the finding that in multitrial learning situations, participants become relatively underconfident following retrieval practice, would generalize to a prospective memory paradigm...
March 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883173/the-impact-of-a-momentary-language-switch-on-bilingual-reading-intense-at-the-switch-but-merciful-downstream-for-l2-but-not-l1-readers
#2
Jason W Gullifer, Debra Titone
We investigated whether cross-language activation is sensitive to shifting language demands and language experience during first and second language (i.e., L1, L2) reading. Experiment 1 consisted of L1 French-L2 English bilinguals reading in the L2, and Experiment 2 consisted of L1 English-L2 French bilinguals reading in the L1. Both groups read English sentences with target words serving as indices of cross-language activation: cross-language homographs, cognates, and matched language-unique control words...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883172/saccadic-selection-does-not-eliminate-attribute-amnesia
#3
Sabine Born, Michael Puntiroli, Damien Jordan, Dirk Kerzel
Attribute amnesia (Chen & Wyble, 2015, 2016) demonstrates that we may not always be able to spontaneously retrieve a simple attribute of a visual object (e.g., its color) for conscious report, even though the object had just been the target in a visual task. Attribute amnesia has been suggested to reflect a lack of consolidation of the task-irrelevant attribute in visual working memory. Here we tested whether saccadic selection eliminates or attenuates attribute amnesia. Saccade targets have been shown to be preferentially encoded into visual working memory and may therefore be spared...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883171/how-to-say-no-in-recognition-tests-of-visual-working-memory-testing-unidimensional-and-two-dimensional-models-with-continuous-or-discrete-memory-states
#4
Hsuan-Yu Lin, Klaus Oberauer
We constructed 4 working memory recognition models to predict behavior in the local recognition task (also called change detection), in which both content (e.g., color) and context (e.g., location) information are necessary to make correct recognition decisions. The theoretical assumptions incorporated in the models come from crossing 2 contrasts: One is the contrast between discrete-state models with continuous-strength models. The other contrast pertains to the dimensionality of information involved in the recognition process: either unidimensional (as in single-process recognition models) or two-dimensional (as in dual-process models)...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883170/-a-cruel-king-is-not-the-same-as-a-king-who-is-cruel-modifier-position-affects-how-words-are-encoded-and-retrieved-from-memory
#5
Hossein Karimi, Michele Diaz, Fernanda Ferreira
We examined whether the position of modifiers in English influences how words are encoded and subsequently retrieved from memory. Compared with premodifiers, postmodifiers might confer more perceptual significance to the associated head nouns, are more consistent with the "given-before-new" information structure, and might also be easier to integrate because the head noun is available before the modifications are encountered. In 4 experiments, we investigated whether premodified (the cruel and merciless king), and postmodified (the king who was cruel and merciless) noun phrases (henceforth, NPs) could induce variations in ease of subsequent retrieval...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883169/recognition-of-incidentally-learned-visual-search-arrays-is-supported-by-fixational-eye-movements
#6
Efsun Annac, Mathias Pointner, Patrick H Khader, Hermann J Müller, Xuelian Zang, Thomas Geyer
Repeated encounter of abstract target-distractor letter arrangements leads to improved visual search for such displays. This contextual-cueing effect is attributed to incidental learning of display configurations. Whether observers can consciously access the memory underlying the cueing effect is still a controversial issue. The current study uses a novel recognition task and eyetracking to tackle this question. Experiment 1 investigated observers' ability to recognize or "generate" the display quadrant of the target in a previous search array when the target was now substituted by distractor element as well as where observers' eye fixations would fall while they freely viewed the recognition display, examining the link between the fixation pattern and explicit recognition judgments...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883168/how-delay-influences-search-processes-at-test
#7
Oliver Kliegl, Tarek Carls, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Delay-induced forgetting refers to the finding that memory for studied material typically decreases as the delay between study and test is increased. The results of 3 experiments are reported designed to examine whether this form of forgetting is primarily caused by interference effects or contextual drift effects when people engage in neutral distractor tasks during the delay. Response latency analysis was used to contrast predictions of the interference and the contextual drift view of the forgetting. The results demonstrated that prolonged delay between study and test of a list of items reduced both recall rates and mean response latencies...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883167/converging-semantic-and-phonological-information-in-lexical-retrieval-and-selection-in-young-and-older-adults
#8
Abhilasha A Kumar, David A Balota, Julia Habbert, Michele Scaltritti, Geoffrey B Maddox
The present experiments investigated the influence of combined phonological and semantic information on lexical retrieval, metacognitive retrieval states, and selection in an immediate multiple-choice task. Younger and older adults attempted to retrieve words (e.g., abdicate) from low-frequency word definitions. Retrieval was preceded by primes that were "both" semantically and phonologically related (e.g., abandon), phonologically related (e.g., abdomen), semantically related (e.g., resign), or unrelated (e...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30883166/specialized-memory-systems-for-learning-spoken-words
#9
James M McQueen, Frank Eisner, Merel A Burgering, Jean Vroomen
Learning new words entails, inter alia, encoding of novel sound patterns and transferring those patterns from short-term to long-term memory. We report a series of 5 experiments that investigated whether the memory systems engaged in word learning are specialized for speech and whether utilization of these systems results in a benefit for word learning. Sine-wave synthesis (SWS) was applied to spoken nonwords, and listeners were or were not informed (through instruction and familiarization) that the SWS stimuli were derived from actual utterances...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30869953/the-effects-of-divided-attention-and-of-stimulus-repetition-on-item-item-binding-in-verbal-working-memory
#10
Dwight J Peterson, Reed Decker, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
An unresolved issue regarding working memory (WM) processes relates to whether domain-general attentional resources are required to form and store bound representations. Recent evidence suggests that visual WM performance during tasks that require binding of face-scene pairs is disrupted by concurrent divided attention to a greater degree than when needing to remember only faces or scenes (Peterson & Naveh-Benjamin, 2017). These findings contrast with associative long-term memory (LTM) studies, which have found no differential impact of divided attention on associative relative to item memory (Naveh-Benjamin, Guez, & Marom, 2003)...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30829515/how-does-aging-impact-decision-making-the-contribution-of-cognitive-decline-and-strategic-compensation-revealed-in-a-cognitive-architecture
#11
Hanna B Fechner, Thorsten Pachur, Lael J Schooler
Older adults often face decline in cognitive resources. How does this impact their decision making-especially under high cognitive demands from concurrent activities? Do older adults' decision processes uniformly decline with increasing mental strain relative to younger adults, or do they compensate for decline by strategically reallocating resources? Using empirical data and computational modeling, we investigated older and younger adults' execution of two decision strategies in a multiattribute judgment task, while varying the demands from a concurrent task...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816767/influencing-the-time-and-space-of-lexical-competition-the-effect-of-gradient-foreign-accentedness
#12
Vincent Porretta, Aki-Juhani Kyröläinen
This article examines the influence of gradient foreign accentedness on lexical competition during spoken word recognition. Using native and Mandarin-accented English words ranging in degree of foreign accentedness, we investigate the effect of increased accentedness on (a) the size of the competitor space and (b) the strength and duration of competitor activation. Here, we analyze the number of misperceptions in a transcription task, as well as the time course of competitor activation in a Visual World Paradigm eye-tracking task...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816766/sequence-as-context-in-category-learning-an-eyetracking-study
#13
Safa R Zaki, Isabella L Salmi
In the current research, we tested the idea that the proximity of contrasting categories in a learning sequence would determine the features to which participants attend in a categorization task. For the first experiment, we designed a 4-category structure in which pairs of categories could be perfectly distinguished using 1 feature. Two of the categories were paired together in the first part of the learning phase, followed by the other 2 categories in the second part of this phase. In a transfer test in which all 4 categories were shown, participants attended more to the features that differentiated the paired categories than to the other, equally diagnostic features...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816765/dissociation-between-reaction-time-and-pupil-dilation-in-the-stroop-task
#14
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik
It has been suggested that the Stroop task gives rise to 2 conflicts: the information conflict (color vs. word meaning) and the task conflict (name the color vs. read the word). However, behavioral indications for task conflict (reaction time [RT] congruent condition longer than RT neutral condition) appear under very restricted conditions. We conducted Stroop experiments and measured RT and pupil dilation. The results show a clear dissociation between RT and pupil dilation. We found the regular RT pattern-large interference and small, nonsignificant facilitation...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816764/does-letter-rotation-decrease-transposed-letter-priming-effects
#15
Huilan Yang, Stephen J Lupker
Perceptual learning accounts of orthographic coding predict that transposed-letter (TL) priming effects should be smaller when the prime and target stimuli are not presented in their canonical (left-to-right horizontal in English) orientation (Dehaene, Cohen, Sigman, & Vinckier, 2005; Grainger & Holcomb, 2009). In contrast, abstract letter unit accounts would propose that TL priming effects should be essentially unaffected by presenting stimuli in most unfamiliar text orientations (Witzel, Qiao, & Forster, 2011)...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30802093/does-response-modality-influence-conflict-modelling-vocal-and-manual-response-stroop-interference
#16
Alex Fennell, Roger Ratcliff
In the Stroop task, color words are presented in colored fonts and the task of the subject is to either name the word or name the color. If the word and font color are in agreement, then the stimulus is said to be congruent (e.g., RED in red font color); however, if the word and font color are not in agreement, the stimulus is said to be incongruent (e.g., RED in blue font color). Conflict in the Stroop task is measured by both RT and accuracy. In prior research, the amount of conflict differs depending on the response modality, vocal versus manual...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730179/task-switching-costs-disappear-if-non-chinese-participants-respond-to-chinese-characters
#17
Xiangqian Li, Bingxin Li, Xuhong Liu, Martin Lages, Gijsbert Stoet
In experiments with univalent target stimuli, task-switching costs can be eliminated if participants are unaware of the task rules and apply cue-target-response associations. However, in experiments with bivalent target stimuli, participants show task-switching costs. Participants may exhibit switch costs even when no task rules are provided in the instructions because they can infer the task rules. We tested this prediction by controlling the meaningfulness of cues and targets and therefore the ability to apply the task rules in 2 groups of participants...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730178/learning-the-phonotactics-of-button-pushing-consolidation-retention-and-syllable-structure
#18
Adnan Rebei, Nathaniel D Anderson, Gary S Dell
Every language has unique phonotactics, general rules about how phonemes combine to make syllables. We know that people can implicitly learn new phonotactic rules in the laboratory, and these rules then affect their speech errors. Some types of rules, however, require a consolidation period before they influence speech errors. Two experiments are reported that replicate a recent study that transferred this finding to a nonspeech domain. In this study and our replications, the production of a consonant-vowel-consonant syllable is replaced by pushing three buttons-a finger, a thumb, and another finger...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714755/verbatim-editing-a-general-model-of-recollection-rejection
#19
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, M Chang, D M Bialer
Recollection rejection is traditionally defined as using verbatim traces of old items' presentations to reject new similar test cues, in old/new recognition (e.g., rejecting that couch is old by retrieving verbatim traces of sofa's presentation). We broaden this conceptualization to include (a) old as well as new similar test cues, (b) using verbatim traces for acceptance as well as rejection, and (c) using illusory verbatim traces of unpresented items (phantom recollection) as well as actual verbatim traces (true recollection)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702314/advance-planning-in-written-and-spoken-sentence-production
#20
Jens Roeser, Mark Torrance, Thom Baguley
Response onset latencies for sentences that start with a conjoined noun phrase are typically longer than for sentences starting with a simple noun phrase. This suggests that advance planning has phrasal scope, which may or may not be lexically driven. All previous studies have involved spoken production, leaving open the possibility that effects are, in part, modality-specific. In 3 image-description experiments (Ns = 32) subjects produced sentences with conjoined (e.g., Peter and the hat) and simple initial noun phrases (e...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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