Read by QxMD icon Read

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology

Huanping Guo, Yang Gao, Honglin Jia, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Tatsunori Masatani, Mingming Liu, Seung-Hun Lee, Eloiza May Galon, Jixu Li, Yongchang Li, Maria Agnes Tumwebaze, Byamukama Benedicto, Xuenan Xuan
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can invade any nucleated cell of mammals and cause toxoplasmosis. Dense granule proteins play major structural functions within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the cyst wall of T. gondii. Moreover, their particular location within the PV allows them to be involved in various interactions between parasites and the host cells. Dense granule protein 9 (GRA9) gene has been identified in T. gondii, although its role in the lytic cycle remains unclear...
March 5, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Héctor Acosta, Richard Burchmore, Christina Naula, Melisa Gualdrón-López, Ender Quintero-Troconis, Ana J Cáceres, Paul A M Michels, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
In Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, the first seven steps of glycolysis are compartmentalized in glycosomes, which are authentic but specialized peroxisomes. Besides glycolysis, activity of enzymes of other metabolic processes have been reported to be present in glycosomes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, purine salvage, pentose-phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis and biosynthesis of ether-lipids, isoprenoids, sterols and pyrimidines. In this study, we have purified glycosomes from T...
March 1, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Ann-Kathrin Mehnert, Caroline Sophie Simon, Julien Guizetti
Immunofluorescence staining is the key technique for visualizing organization of endogenous cellular structures in single cells. Labeling and imaging of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum has always been challenging since it is a small intracellular parasite. A widely-used standard for parasite immunofluorescence is fixation in suspension with addition of minute amounts of glutaraldehyde to the paraformaldehyde-based solution. While this maintains red blood cell integrity, it has been postulated that antigenicity of the parasite proteins was, if at all, only slightly reduced...
March 1, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
T Basika, G P Paludo, F M Araujo, A C Salim, F Pais, L Maldonado, N Macchiaroli, J Camargo de Lima, M Rosenzvit, G Oliveira, L Kamenetzky, H B Ferreira
Cestode development involves complex morphological and physiological changes. Here, we performed a differential expression analysis of gene transcripts between two developmental stages of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti. A RNA-seq-based approach was used to compare the transcriptomes of the tetrathyridium (larval, TT) and strobilated worm (ST) stages of the parasite. We found 19,053 transcripts, from which ˜45% were complete matches to genes previously annotated in the available M. corti draft genome sequence, ˜24% were considered novel isoforms, and ˜24% were considered potential novel transcripts...
February 21, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Anita Leocadio Freitas-Mesquita, Claudia F Dick, André L A Dos-Santos, Michelle T C Nascimento, Natalia C Rochael, Elvira M Saraiva, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
Leishmaniasis is one of the most significant of the neglected tropical diseases, with 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide living at risk of developing one of the many forms of the disease. During the transmission of the parasite from its vector to the vertebrate host, neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the site of the sandfly bite. Using different strategies, neutrophils can often kill a large number of parasites. However, some parasites can resist neutrophil-killing mechanisms and survive until macrophage arrival at the infection site...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Larissa Romanello, Ana Eliza Zeraik, Adriano de Freitas Fernandes, Juliana Roberta Torini, Louise E Bird, Joanne E Nettleship, Heather Rada, Yamini Reddivari, Ray J Owens, Vitor Hugo Balasco Serrão, Ricardo DeMarco, José Brandão-Neto, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira
Schistosoma mansoni, the parasite responsible for schistosomiasis, lacks the "de novo" purine biosynthetic pathway and depends entirely on the purine salvage pathway for the supply of purines. Numerous reports of praziquantel resistance have been described, as well as stimulated efforts to develop new drugs against schistosomiasis. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is a key enzyme of the purine salvage pathway. Here, we describe a crystallographic structure of the S. mansoni HPGRT-1 (SmHGPRT), complexed with IMP at a resolution of 2...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Israel Canela-Pérez, Imelda López-Villaseñor, Luis Mendoza, Ana María Cevallos, Roberto Hernández
The nuclear import of proteins in eukaryotic cells is a fundamental biological process. While it has been analysed to different extents in model eukaryotic organisms, this event has rarely been studied in the early divergent protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida. The work presented here represents an overview of nuclear import in these important species of human pathogens. Initially, an in silico study of classical nuclear localization signals within the published nuclear proteomes of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi was carried out...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Emma Saavedra, Rusely Encalada, Citlali Vázquez, Alfonso Olivos-García, Paul A M Michels, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez
Entamoeba histolytica has neither Krebs cycle nor oxidative phosphorylation activities; therefore, glycolysis is the main pathway for ATP supply and provision of carbon skeleton precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules. Glucose is metabolized through fermentative glycolysis, producing ethanol as its main end-product as well as some acetate. Amoebal glycolysis markedly differs from the typical Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway present in human cells: (i) by the use of inorganic pyrophosphate, instead of ATP, as the high-energy phospho group donor; (ii) with one exception, the pathway enzymes can catalyze reversible reactions under physiological conditions; (iii) there is no allosteric regulation and sigmoidal kinetic behavior of key enzymes; and (iv) the presence of some glycolytic and fermentation enzymes similar to those of anaerobic bacteria...
February 14, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Sadia Saeed, Ching In Lau, Annie Z Tremp, Tessa Crompton, Johannes T Dessens
Malaria parasite oocysts generate sporozoites by a process termed sporogony. Essential for successful sporogony of Plasmodium berghei in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes is a complex of six LCCL lectin domain adhesive-like proteins (LAPs). LAP null mutant oocysts undergo growth and mitosis but fail to form sporozoites. At a cytological level, LAP null mutant oocyst development is indistinguishable from its wildtype counterparts for the first week, supporting the hypothesis that LAP null mutant oocysts develop normally before cytokinesis...
February 9, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Melissa C Sanchez, Pauline M Cupit, Lijing Bu, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic infection estimated to affect over 206 million people, the majority of whom live in Africa where the trematode worms Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium are the major causative agents. While a number of drugs have been used to treat schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ) is the only one that is widely available, relatively cheap, and easy to use. The reliance on a single drug for the treatment of such a prevalent disease is a cause for concern due to the potential for resistance to render PZQ ineffective...
January 15, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
José Ignacio de la Mora-de la Mora, Sergio Enríquez-Flores, Cynthia Fernández-Lainez, Pedro Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Alfonso Olivos-García, Augusto González-Canto, Roberto Hernández, Hugo D Luján, Itzhel García-Torres, Gabriel López-Velázquez
Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoan infectious agents in the world and is responsible for diarrheal disease and chronic postinfectious illness. During the host-parasite interaction, proteases are important molecules related to virulence, invasion, and colonization, not only for Giardia but also for other parasites. We aimed to characterize the cysteine protease activity detected in trophozoite lysates. This proteolytic activity showed the ability to cleave NH-terminal sequences with either a recognition sequence for a viral protease or a recognition sequence for thrombin...
January 15, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Chunhui Duan, Dandan Hu, Xinming Tang, Jingxia Suo, Si Wang, Sixin Zhang, Geru Tao, Chao Li, Chaoyue Wang, Xiaolong Gu, Xiaoli Tang, Guangping Huang, Biqi Xiang, Shaoqiang Wu, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Xun Suo, Xianyong Liu
Eimeria spp., the causative agents of coccidiosis, are the most common protozoan pathogens of chickens. Infection with these parasites can result in poor development or death of animals leading to a devastating economic impact on poultry production. The establishment of transfection protocols for genetic manipulation of Eimeria species and stable expression of genes would help advance the biology of these parasites as well as establish these organisms as novel vaccine delivery vehicles. Here, we report the selection of the first stable transgenic E...
January 15, 2019: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Gisele S Philippsen, Ricardo DeMarco
The parasites belonging to the genus Schistosoma are agents of schistosomiasis, a disease estimated as affecting 235 million people in the world. To better understand the structure of Schistosoma mansoni genome, transposable elements (TEs) distribution and impact on gene structures were investigated. Our analyses indicated a differential distribution of TEs throughout the gene structure. Introns located at the 5' end of the genes are less prone to display TEs and introns lacking TEs tend to be shorter. Therefore, this could be one of the factors explaining previous data showing that S...
December 28, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Torsten Wundenberg, Marcus M Nalaskowski, Benjamin Löser, Werner Fanick, Thomas Hackl, Ursula Fürnkranz, Christoph Rehbach, Hongying Lin, Georg W Mayr
The parasitic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis is the pathogen of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease in humans. Inositol phosphates function in the pathomechanisms of a number of human pathogenic protozoa. Recent findings point to a role of inositol phosphates in T. vaginalis' adaption to oxygen exposure during change of host. Six inositol phosphate kinase genes (tvip6k1-4, tvipk1-2) were identified in the T. vaginalis genome by us all coding for proteins containing canonical sequence motifs of the major group of animal inositol phosphate kinases (P-D-K-G, SSLL, DFG/A)...
December 26, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Scott M Landfear
Kinetoplastid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania species rely upon their insect and vertebrate hosts to provide a plethora of nutrients throughout their life cycles. Nutrients and ions critical for parasite survival are taken up across the parasite plasma membrane by transporters and channels, polytopic membrane proteins that provide substrate-specific pores across the hydrophobic barrier. However, transporters and channels serve a wide range of biological functions beyond uptake of nutrients...
December 24, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Gregory S Buechner, Matthew E Millington, Kay Perry, Edward L D'Antonio
Glucokinase from pathogenic protozoa of the genus Leishmania is a potential drug target for the chemotherapeutic treatment against leishmaniasis because this enzyme is located at a nodal point between two critically important metabolic pathways, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). L. braziliensis glucokinase (LbGlcK) was evaluated for its structural characterization and enzymatic performance. The enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-glucose with co-substrate ATP to yield the products G6P and ADP...
December 17, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Clare Halliday, Karen Billington, Ziyin Wang, Samuel Dean, Jack Daniel Sunter, Richard John Wheeler
The kinetoplastids Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana are eukaryotes with a highly structured cellular organisation that is reproduced with great fidelity in each generation. The pattern of signal from a fluorescently tagged protein can define the specific structure/organelle that this protein localises to, and can be extremely informative in phenotype analysis in experimental perturbations, life cycle tracking, post-genomic assays and functional analysis of organelles. Using the vast coverage of protein subcellular localisations provided by the TrypTag project, an ongoing project to determine the localisation of every protein encoded in the T...
December 11, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Damien M O'Halloran
The pace of research towards a genetic model to understand the unique molecular biology of parasitic nematodes has increased recently. This research has developed a diverse suite of genetic tools for a variety of parasitic nematodes. CRISPR/Cas9 technology in particular offers much promise as a game changing tool for researchers studying parasitic nematodes. Unlike RNAi, which depends on diverse nematode effectors to silence gene expression, the effectors for CRISPR/Cas9 mutations are typically supplied by the experimenter, making gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 ideal for testing on genetically intractable nematode systems...
December 7, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Jeong-Ho Kim, Jong-Oh Kim, Chan-Hyeok Jeon, U-Hwa Nam, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Seung-Il Yoo, Jun-Hyung Park
We analyzed transcriptome profiles of Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae) 3rd (ASL3) and 4th larvae (ASL4) obtained by RNA-seq, to understand the molecular pathways linked to parasite survival and discover stage-enriched gene expressions. ASL3 were collected from chum salmon and ASL4 were obtained by in vitro culture. Whole transcriptome sequencing was conducted with Illumina sequencer, and de novo assembly was conducted. 47,179 and 41,934 genes were expressed in ASL3 and ASL4 transcriptomes. Of them, 17,633 were known and 29,546 were unmapped sequence for ASL3...
December 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Nikolay G Kolev, Trisha K Ramsdell, Christian Tschudi
Trypanosoma brucei relies on two types of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription of VSG pre-mRNA. Trypanosomes developing into infectious metacyclic cells in the tsetse vector use metacyclic VSG ESs (MESs) and proliferating parasites in the mammalian host deploy bloodstream VSG ESs (BESs). Unlike the monocistronic MESs, BESs are polycistronic and their highly conserved promoters differ considerably from the MES promoters. The significance of the divergent sequences of MES and BES promoters remains to be determined...
December 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"