Soh Yamamoto, Yuka Sudo-Yokoyama, Noriko Ogasawara, Shin-Ichi Yokota
Murine norovirus (MNV) is used widely as a practical alternative to human norovirus (HuNoV). Plaque-forming assays for MNV are important for developing therapeutic agents against HuNoV infections. Although agarose-overlay MNV assays have been reported, recent improvements in cellulose derivatives suggest that they could be optimized further, particularly with respect to improving the overlay material. To determine which overlay material is optimal for the MNV plaque assay, we compared four typical cellulose derivatives [microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)] with conventional agarose...
March 18, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Amy Crowe, Yves Poy Lorenzo, Darren Jardine, Kumar Visvanathan
BACKGROUND: During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, nasopharyngeal swabs, combined throat and nose swabs and saliva samples have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 detection using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT). Literature on anterior nasal swabs is limited and comparative studies often group anterior nasal and mid-turbinate swabs together (Tsang et al., 2021). We investigated a novel anterior nasal swab that has been designed to standardised self-collection, maximise sample uptake and improve user comfort...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Minal Dakhave, Shruti Gadekar, Asmita Malekar, Gautam Wankhede
We present the point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostic solution, evaluated during COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Dec 2021). The POC comprised of a complete platform from self-sampling to RT-PCR testing of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants on portable Compact Q Real time polymerase chain reaction system. The multiplex assay was designed to target S, ORF1, and N genes of SARS-CoV-2 genome in a single tube with RNaseP as endogenous internal control. The present POC enables high accuracy (>95%) and high-throughput testing with a turnaround time of 45minutes...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Kofi Effah, Isaac Agbemafle, Nana Owusu Essel, Joseph Emmanuel Amuah, Erasmus Nikoi Kotey, Ernest Antwi-Boasiako, Seyram Kemawor, Isaac Gedzah, Ethel Tekpor, Comfort Mawusi Wormenor, Bernard Hayford Atuguba, Stephen Danyo, Patrick Kafui Akakpo
High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing for primary cervical precancer screening offers an opportunity to improve screening in low-middle income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to compare the analytic performances of the AmpFire and MA-6000 platforms for hr-HPV DNA testing in three groups of women screened for hr-HPV types in Ghana: group 1 with 33 GeneXpert-archived ThinPrep/liquid-based samples subjected to both tests, group 2 with 50 AmpFire-archived dry brush samples subjected to MA-6000 testing, and group 3 involving 143 cotton swab samples simultaneously subjected to both tests without archiving...
March 14, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Qingrong Mo, Hao Wang, Wei He, Siyuan Lin, Xin Xie, Yuxu Wang, Xindong Wang, Kang Ouyang, Ying Chen, Weijian Huang, Zuzhang Wei
The mechanism of discontinuous transcription for the synthesis of a series of sub-genomic mRNAs to express the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentially allows for the simultaneous expression of multiple foreign genes. This can occur by insertion of multiple novel independent transcription units between the ORF sequences of the PRRSV genome. Here, an expression cassette consisting of a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene flanked at its 3' end by transcription-regulating sequences (TRS) and an expression cassette consisting of an iLOV gene flanked at its 5' end by TRS, was constructed...
March 13, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Xinyue Wu, Kousuke Notsu, Yuichi Matsuura, Shuya Mitoma, Hala El Daous, Junzo Norimine, Satoshi Sekiguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Ikaro Alves de Andrade, Luísa Valério Franca, Caterynne Melo Kauffmann, Matheus Hideki Kihara Maeda, Lucas Hideo Hataka Koyama, Pedro Ricardo Vieira Hamann, Leonardo Lopes-Luz, Matheus Bernardes Torres Fogaça, Brenda Rabello de Camargo, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Tatsuya Nagata
A plant-based heterologous expression system is an attractive option for recombinant protein production because it is based on a eukaryotic system of high feasibility, and low biological risks. Frequently, binary vector systems are used for transient gene-expression in plants. However, plant virus vector-based systems offer advantages for higher protein yields due to their self-replicating machinery. In the present study, we show an efficient protocol using a plant virus vector based on a tobravirus, pepper ringspot virus, that was employed for transient expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 partial gene fragments of the spike (named S1-N) and the nucleocapsid (named N) proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
March 11, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Anisha Valsalam, Kooloth Valappil Rajendran, Jeena Kezhedath, Ankita Godavarikar, Neeraj Sood, Megha Kadam Bedekar
A serological test for screening of TiLV in Oreochromis niloticus would be useful for the epidemiological investigations. Using polyclonal antisera against TiLV (TiLV-Ab), an indirect enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (iELISA) was developed for the detection of TiLV antigen in fish tissue and mucus. After a cutoff value was established and antigen and antibody concentrations were optimized, the iELISA's sensitivity and specificity were assessed. We found the ideal dilutions of TiLV-Ab as 1: 4000 and secondary antibody as 1:65,000...
March 5, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Xinyue Wu, Kousuke Notsu, Yuichi Matsuura, Shuya Mitoma, Hala El Daous, Junzo Norimine, Satoshi Sekiguchi
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of a B-cell tumor called enzootic bovine leukosis. Preventing BLV spreading is required to reduce economic loss related to BLV infection of livestock. To quantify proviral load (PVL) more easily and rapidly, we developed a quantification system of PVL using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). This method uses a multiplex TaqMan assay of the BLV provirus and housekeeping gene RPP30 for the quantification of BLV in BLV-infected cells. Furthermore, we combined ddPCR with DNA purification-free sample preparation (unpurified genomic DNA)...
February 25, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Angela Ostuni, Valentina Iovane, Magnus Monné, Maria Antonietta Crudele, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Roberto Nardini, Paolo Raimondi, Raffaele Frontoso, Raffaele Boni, Alfonso Bavoso
Lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), are considered viral quasispecies because of their intrinsic genetic, structural and phenotypic variability. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) for EIAV reported in the literature were obtained mainly by using the capsid protein p26, which is derived almost exclusively from a single strain (Wyoming), and do not reflect the great potential epitopic variability of the EIAV quasispecies. In this investigation, the GenBank database was exploited in a systematic approach to design a set of representative protein antigens useful for EIAV serodiagnosis...
February 24, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
M Greeshma, A I Bhat, A Jeevalatha
Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is a pararetrovirus associated with stunt disease in black pepper. As the primary spread of the virus occurs through vegetative propagation, effective diagnostics are required for the production of virus-free plants. Currently available assays are time-consuming, require expensive equipment, and are not suitable for on-site detection. In the present study, two rapid assays based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) coupled with lateral flow assay (LFA) using (i) 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled nfo probe and biotin-labeled reverse primer and (ii) FAM labeled forward and biotin-labeled reverse primer was developed for the detection of PYMoV...
February 21, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Uriel A Sánchez-Pacheco, Brenda M Bahena-Mondragón, Francisco R Hernández-Piedras, Raúl Soria-Osorio, Angélica Meneses-Acosta
The immunotherapy agents derived from horses are biological products that allow the neutralization of clinically relevant immunogens, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, or the neutralization of toxins present in the venoms of snakes, spiders, and other poisonous animals. Due to their importance, detecting adventitious viruses in equine hyperimmune serum (raw material in industrial processes) is a critical step to support the safety of products for human use, and, in consequence, it is a requirement for commercialization and distribution...
February 21, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Velmurugan Balaraman, Natasha N Gaudreault, Jessie D Trujillo, Sabarish V Indran, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen. Real time RT-qPCR genotyping (GT) assays were developed to differentiate between two RVFV wild-type strains (128B-15 and SA01-1322) and a vaccine strain (MP-12). The GT assay uses a one-step RT-qPCR mix, with two different RVFV strain-specific primers (either forward or reverse) with long or short G/C tags and a common primer (either forward or reverse) for each of the 3 genomic segments. The GT assay produces PCR amplicons with unique melting temperatures that are resolved in a post PCR melt curve analysis for strain identification...
February 15, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Wakaki Kami, Takeshi Kinjo, Hiroe Hashioka, Wakako Arakaki, Kohei Uechi, Ami Takahashi, Hiroya Oki, Kentaro Tanaka, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Masashi Nakamatsu, Shiro Maeda, Kazuko Yamamoto, Jiro Fujita
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is the gold standard for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. However, genetic mutations in the virus can affect the result. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of N genes and their association with mutations using SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens diagnosed by the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 were examined in this study. In total, 196 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection using the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, and 34 were positive...
February 14, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Graham Cowan, Stuart MacFarlane, Lesley Torrance
Effective screening of plant germplasm collections for resistance to plant viruses requires that there is a rapid and efficient system in place to challenge individual plants with the virus. Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), a commercially important pathogen of potato, is able naturally to infect only the phloem-associated tissue of plants and is delivered to this tissue by feeding aphids. Mechanical (non-vector-mediated) infection by PLRV does not occur thus screening for PLRV resistance is currently laborious and time consuming...
February 12, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Msi Siddiqui, Anja Globig, Bernd Hoffmann, M M Rahman, M R Islam, E H Chowdhury
This study was conducted to develop a cell culture based PPR virus vaccine candidate using recent Bangladeshi strain of peste des petits ruminant's (PPR) virus. PPR virus was isolated from field outbreaks, confirmed by RT-PCR and used as viral inoculum for serial passaging in Vero cells for adaptation and attenuation. 60th serial passage had completed and and RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR were done in every 5 passages for confirmation of PPR virus in tissue culture fluid (TCF). To assess the adaptation and attenuation cytopathology, virus titration, sequencing of both F and N genes and live animal experimentation were done...
February 10, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Kazuhiro Noguchi, Yasuhiro Ikawa, Mika Takenaka, Yuta Sakai, Toshihiro Fujiki, Rie Kuroda, Maxwell Chappell, Valentina Ghiaccio, Stefano Rivella, Taizo Wada
The development of hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) gene therapy for DNA repair disorders, such as Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome, is challenging because of the induction of HSCs apoptosis by cytokine stimulation. Although the Baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vector (BaEV-Rless-LV) has been reported as a non-stimulatory gene transfer tool, the virus titer of BaEV-Rless-LV is too low for use in clinical applications. Transfected 293T cells with helper plasmids, including the BaEV-Rless plasmid, showed morphological changes, such as syncytium formation and detachment...
February 3, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Kuan-Wei Chen, Tzu-Yi Chen, Sin-Tian Wang, Ting-Yu Hou, Shainn-Wei Wang, Kung-Chia Young
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) represents an efficient approach for public pathogen surveillance as it provides early warning of disease outbreaks; however, it has not yet been applied to dengue virus (DENV), which might cause endemics via mosquito spread. In this study, a working platform was established to provide direct virus recovery and qPCR quantification from wastewater samples that were artificially loaded with target DENV serotypes I to IV and noncognate spike control viral particles. The results showed qPCR efficiencies of 91...
February 1, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Carola J Maturana, Angela Chan, Jessica L Verpeut, Esteban A Engel
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has great potential as a source of treatments for conditions that might respond to potent and ubiquitous transgene expression. However, among its drawbacks, the genetic "payload" of AAV vectors is limited to <4.9kb and some commonly used gene promoters are sizeable and susceptible to transcriptional silencing. We recently described a short (404bp), potent, and persistent promoter obtained from the genome of pseudorabies virus (PrV) called alphaherpesvirus latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP2)...
February 1, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
Agathe Auer, Valentina Panzarin, Isabella Monne, Marika Crimaudo, Angelique Angot, Morgane Gourlaouen, Charles E Lamien, Giovanni Cattoli
Global surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) in birds is essential for assessing public and animal health risks and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is among the official methods recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) to confirm the presence of the virus in laboratory specimens. Yet, in low-resource setting laboratories, the detection of AIV can be hampered by the need to maintain a cold chain for wet reagents. In such cases, alternatives should be ready to maximize surveillance capacities and mining of AIV...
January 30, 2023: Journal of Virological Methods
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