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Journal of Toxicological Sciences

Takaharu Tanaka, Yasunori Masubuchi, Rena Okada, Kota Nakajima, Kazuki Nakamura, Sosuke Masuda, Junta Nakahara, Robert R Maronpot, Toshinori Yoshida, Mihoko Koyanagi, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
Developmental hypothyroidism as a model of autism spectrum disorders disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis through the adult stage. The present study investigated the ameliorating effect of postweaning exposure to antioxidant on the hypothyroidism-induced disruptive neurogenesis. Mated female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0 or 10 ppm 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) as an anti-thyroid agent in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. PTU-exposed male offspring were fed either basal diet, diet containing α-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) at 5,000 ppm or α-lipoic acid (ALA) at 1,000 ppm as an antioxidant from PND 21 to PND 77...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Akira Kubota, Yusuke K Kawai, Natsumi Yamashita, Jae Seung Lee, Daisuke Kondoh, Shuangyi Zhang, Yasunobu Nishi, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Takio Kitazawa, Hiroki Teraoka
Increasing use of zebrafish in biomedical, toxicological and developmental studies requires explicit knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP), given the central role of CYP in oxidative biotransformation of xenobiotics and many regulatory molecules. A full complement of CYP genes in zebrafish and their transcript expression during early development have already been examined. Here we established a comprehensive picture of CYP gene expression in the adult zebrafish liver using a RNA-seq technique. Transcriptional profiling of a full complement of CYP genes revealed that CYP2AD2, CYP3A65, CYP1A, CYP2P9 and CYP2Y3 are major CYP genes expressed in the adult zebrafish liver in both sexes...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Do-Hee Kim, Juthika Kundu, In Gyeong Chae, Jong Kwon Lee, Jung Sun Heo, Kyung-Soo Chun
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) are used to improve the aesthetic of toothpaste. While TiO2 -NPs have been used safely in toothpaste products for a long time, there haven't been studies to determine whether absorption of TiO2 -NPs by the mucous membranes in the mouth induces pathogenic conditions. Here, we assessed whether TiO2 -NPs induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-inflammatory effect of TiO2 -NPs on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Tomoya Fujie, Fukuta Takenaka, Eiko Yoshida, Shuji Yasuike, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Shinkai, Yoshito Kumagai, Chika Yamamoto, Toshiyuki Kaji
Metallothionein (MT) is a low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich, and metal-binding protein that protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals and reactive oxygen species. Previously, we found that transcriptional induction of endothelial MT-1A was mediated by not only the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1)-metal responsive element (MRE) pathway but also the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element/electrophile responsive element (ARE) pathway, whereas that of MT-2A was mediated only by the MTF-1-MRE pathway, using the organopnictogen compounds tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, tris(pentafluorophenyl)arsane, and tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphane as molecular probes in vascular endothelial cells...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Bodong Li, Haibo Xie, Xian Wang, Xiaodong Yang, Ling Yang, Jiaxiang Zhang, Feng Wang, Tong Shen, Qixing Zhu
The purpose of this study was to explore whether renal endothelial cell injury is associated with oxidative stress in trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced immune kidney damage by detecting adhesion molecules and oxidative stress indexes. In this study, a mouse model of skin sensitization with the antioxidant Tempol was used to explore the mechanism. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), and histological examination were used for kidney function evaluation. Kidney homogenates were used for detecting renal nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Tomoki Kimura, Takuomi Hosaka, Tsuyoshi Nakanishi, Osamu Aozasa
Cadmium, a ubiquitous heavy metal, is a toxic industrial and environmental pollutant. The initial biological response to cadmium exposure is induction of metallothioneins (MTs), a family of cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight proteins that bind primarily zinc, cadmium, or both. This MT induction protects against cadmium toxicity by quenching cadmium. However, the effects of long-term cadmium exposure on MT1 gene expression are largely unknown. To investigate these effects, we used P1798 mouse lymphosarcoma cells, in which the MT1 gene is suppressed...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Nana Long, Huaqiao Tang, Lin Lin, Jianlong Li, Lijuan Guo, Fenghui Sun, Min Dai
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) leads to serious infections, but it is not known whether it changes the expression of kidney drug metabolizing enzymes during infection. The mice were infected with different doses of MRSA and the oxidative stress and inflammation levels in the kidney were examined. The mRNA expression and activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme was analysed. Mice infected with high levels of MRSA showed a decrease in renal antioxidant capability and an elevated level of oxidative metabolites, which was accompanied by the release of inflammatory cytokines...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Hanae Kobayashi-Tsukumo, Kanami Oiji, Dan Xie, Yuka Sawada, Kunihiko Yamashita, Shinichi Ogata, Hajime Kojima, Hiroshi Itagaki
We previously developed a test for detecting naturally occurring protein-induced skin sensitization based on the markers and criteria of the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) and showed that the h-CLAT was useful for assessing the allergenic potency of proteins. However, test proteins were contaminated with varying amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might have contributed to the stimulation of CD86 and CD54 expression. In this study, we developed a method to exclude the effects of LPS in the assessment of skin sensitization by naturally occurring proteins...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Keiichi Itoh, Shoji Masumori, Daisuke Mukai, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Michiko Yasuda, Kayoko Shimoi
Previously, we reported that the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) in the peripheral blood of male C3H/He mice intraperitoneally administered ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (25 mg/kg body weight) in the dark period (zeitgeber time, ZT15) was higher than in the light period (ZT3). In this study, to clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we investigated the differences in micronucleus (MN) induction observed between ZT3 and ZT15 using five chemicals, methylnitrosourea (MNU), ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide and vincristin...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Satoshi Yokota, Takuya Shirahata, Junko Yusa, Yuko Sakurai, Hiroshi Ito, Shigeru Oshio
Vitamin A and its derivatives contribute to many physiological processes, including vision, neural differentiation, and reproduction. Vitamin A deficiency causes early cessation of spermatogenesis, characterized by a marked depletion of germ cells. However, there has been no clear understanding about the role of chronic intake of vitamin A excess (VAE) in spermatogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether chronic intake of VAE diet causes arrest of spermatogenesis. To examine the effects of VAE on spermatogenesis, we used ICR male mice fed with control (AIN-93G purified diet: 4 IU/g) diet or VAE (modified AIN-93G diet with VAE: 1,000 IU/g) diet for 7 weeks (from 3 to 10 weeks of age)...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Kaori Ambe, Yuko Sakakibara, Aya Sakabe, Hayato Makino, Tatsuya Ochibe, Masahiro Tohkin
Phthalate esters (PEs) are widely used as plasticizers in various kinds of plastic products. Some PEs have been known to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) as well as hepatotoxicity in laboratory animals. In some cases of DART, the strength of toxicity of PEs depends on the side chain lengths, while the relationship between hepatotoxicity and side chain length is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we compared DART and hepatotoxicity in rats, focusing on 6 PEs with different side chains. We collected toxicity data of 6 PEs, namely, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), from open data source, then, we constructed the toxicity database to comprehensively and efficiently compare the toxicity effects...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Jin Hee Kim
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in polyvinylchloride-based materials and remains intact in the environment. Lungs are one route of entry of DEHP into the body; however, there is limited information on the effects and mechanism of action of DEHP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we addressed this by examining the effect of DEHP on the proliferation of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by MTS assay. The induction of inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, were assessed by western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Shelli Schomaker, Shashi Ramaiah, Nasir Khan, John Burkhardt
Biomarkers are invaluable drug development tools to assess and monitor safety in early clinical trials especially when exposure margins are limiting for promising therapeutics. Although progress has been made towards identifying and implementing translational safety biomarkers for a number of organ toxicities such as kidney and liver, significant biomarker gaps still exist to monitor toxicities for testis, pancreas, etc. Several precompetitive consortia [e.g., Predictive Safety Testing Consortia (PSTC), Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI)] are working with industry, academia, government, patient advocacy groups and foundations with a goal to qualify biomarkers such that they can be used in preclinical studies and clinical trials to accelerate drug development...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Takafumi Mitachi, Mai Kouzui, Ryo Maruyama, Kunihiko Yamashita, Shinichi Ogata, Hajime Kojima, Hiroshi Itagaki
The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization test that measures the expression of cell surface proteins CD86 and CD54 to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of test chemicals. However, some skin irritants have been reported to induce dramatically high CD54 expression leading to false-positive h-CLAT results. Furthermore, CD54 expression is strongly induced by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, or danger signals that activate its signaling pathways...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Nobuyuki Kakutani, Toyomichi Nanayama, Yukihiro Nomura
This study was aimed to predict drug-induced liver injury caused by reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites covalently bind to proteins and could result in severe outcomes in patients. However, the relation between the extent of covalent binding and clinical hepatotoxicity is still unclear. From a perspective of body burden (human in vivo exposure to reactive metabolites), we developed a risk assessment method in which reactive metabolite burden (RM burden), an index that could reflect the body burden associated with reactive metabolite exposure, is calculated using the extent of covalent binding, clinical dose, and human in vivo clearance...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yo Shinoda, Shunsuke Ehara, Satoshi Tatsumi, Eiko Yoshida, Tsutomu Takahashi, Komyo Eto, Toshiyuki Kaji, Yasuyuki Fujiwara
Exposure to organic mercury, especially methylmercury (MeHg), causes Minamata disease, a severe chronic neurological disorder. Minamata disease predominantly affects the central nervous system, and therefore, studies on the mechanisms of MeHg neurotoxicity have focused primarily on the brain. Although the peripheral nervous system is also affected by the organometallic compound and shows signs of neural degeneration, the mechanisms of peripheral MeHg neurotoxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we performed quantitative immunohistochemical analyses of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and associated sensory and motor fibers to clarify the mechanisms of MeHg-induced peripheral neurotoxicity in Wistar rats...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Qi Yu, Namin Feng, Yan Hu, Foquan Luo, Weihong Zhao, Weilu Zhao, Zhiyi Liu, Mengyuan Li, Lin Xu, Liuqing Wu, Yulin Liu
Recent studies have shown that sevoflurane can cause long-term neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment in developing and progressively neurodegenerative brains. Sevoflurane is a widely used volatile anesthetic in clinical practice. Late gestation is a rapidly developing period in the fetal brain, but whether sevoflurane anesthesia during late gestation affects learning and memory of offspring is not fully elucidated. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays an important regulatory role in learning and memory...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Xiaoyu Qu, Huan Gao, Lina Tao, Yueming Zhang, Jinghui Zhai, Jingmeng Sun, Yanqing Song, Sixi Zhang
The aim of this study was to explore the role of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing (NLRP3) inflammasome and autophagy in Astragaloside IV (AS IV)-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced liver and kidney injury in rats. Rats were intraperitoneally administered cisplatin at a dose of 15 mg/kg and orally administered AS IV for 7 days. Histopathological and biochemical analysis were used to assess liver and kidney function. The levels and localization of NLRP3 and autophagy-associated protein were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Juan Tang, Xiangjun Lu, Bin Chen, Enqi Cai, Wenli Liu, Jinxiao Jiang, Feifei Chen, Xiaodong Shan, Hangjun Zhang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly utilized in a number of applications. This study was designed to investigate AgNPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE). The RTE cells were treated with 0, 100 μg/L and 10,000 μg/L of the AgNPs with diameters of 10 nm and 100 nm for 12 hr. The cell inhibition level, apoptosis ratio, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and metallothionein (MT) content were determined. The mRNA expression of cytoc, caspase 3, and caspase 9 was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yuki Kishino, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shingo Arakawa, Yukari Shibaya, Takashi Yamoto, Kazuhiko Mori
A high incidence of positive results is obtained with in vitro genotoxicity tests, which do not correlate with the in vivo negative results in many cases. To address this issue, the metabolic profile of rat liver 9000 × g supernatant fraction (S9) pretreated with phenobarbital (PB) and 5,6-benzoflavone (BNF) was characterized. Furthermore, the in vitro micronucleus tests of 10 compounds were performed with PB-BNF-induced rat S9. PB-BNF increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C6, CYP3A1, and CYP3A2 expression in rat S9, whereas it decreased CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 expression...
2019: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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