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Law and Human Behavior

Elizabeth Gale-Bentz, Naomi E S Goldstein, Lindsey M Cole, Kelley Durham
This study examined whether varying the presentation of information about a youth's compliance with probation requirements in community provider reports influenced juvenile probation officers' (JPOs) perceptions and court recommendations. This study used an experimental design to explore the impact of report framing (positive, neutral, negative) and youth risk level (low, high) on JPOs' decision making. Pennsylvania-based JPOs (N = 209) participated in an anonymous, online study. Participants read one of six community provider reports about a hypothetical probationer and answered five questions about impressions of the youth and their recommendations to the court...
January 31, 2019: Law and Human Behavior
Meagan Docherty, Jordan Beardslee, Kevin J Grimm, Dustin Pardini
Longitudinal studies have found that male adolescents who deal drugs, associate with delinquent peers, and engage in aggressive behavior are at increased risk for carrying a gun (between-individual risks). However, it is unclear whether changes in these risk factors help to explain fluctuations in youth gun carrying across adolescence (within-individual risks). The current study examined this issue using a community sample of 970 adolescent males (58% Black, 42% White) assessed annually from ages 14 to 18. Multilevel models examined the extent to which between-individual differences and within-individual changes in drug dealing, peer delinquency, aggressive behavior, and neighborhood disadvantage were associated with gun carrying across adolescence...
January 28, 2019: Law and Human Behavior
Tina M Zottoli, Tarika Daftary-Kapur
Few studies have examined differences in the guilty plea decisions of youth and adults. In interviews with 64 youth (X = 15.9, SD = 1.2) and 56 adults (X = 38.5, SD = 11.5) who pleaded guilty to felonies in New York City, we found important differences between the youths and adults in their understanding of the plea process, the factors they considered when making decisions, and their rationales for their decisions. Youth were less likely to recognize that a guilty plea resulted in a criminal record and to understand the trial process, and they reported having considered fewer potential outcomes in their decision making than adults...
December 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Colleen M Berryessa, Barclay Wohlstetter
The current study, using a meta-analytic approach and moderation analysis, examines 22 studies reporting how psychopathic "labeling" influences perceptions on 3 punishment outcomes (dangerousness, treatment amenability, and legal sentence/sanction) for 2 types of experimental studies utilizing vignettes: (a) studies in which a defendant with a psychopathic "label" is compared to a defendant with no mental health diagnosis (psychopathic label vs. no label) and (b) studies in which a defendant with a psychopathic "label" is compared to a defendant with a different psychiatric diagnosis (psychopathic label vs...
December 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Dayna M Woiwod, Ryan J Fitzgerald, Chelsea L Sheahan, Heather L Price, Deborah A Connolly
When children report abuse, they often report that it occurred repeatedly. In most jurisdictions, children will be asked to report each instance of abuse with as many details as possible. In the current meta-analysis, we analyzed data from 31 experiments and 3099 children. When accuracy was defined as the number of correct details from the target instance (i.e., narrow definition), repeated-event children were less accurate than single-event children. However, we argue that defining accuracy as the number of reported details that were experienced across instances (i...
December 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Todd E Hogue, Craig A Harper
The Attitudes to Sexual Offenders scale (ATS; Hogue, 1993) is one of the most widely used measurement instruments for assessing views about sexual offenders. The ATS has been used in a variety of contexts, most commonly in comparing forensic professionals and nonprofessionals in relation to their views about this population. This article offers a review of the methods used to examine attitudes toward sexual offenders currently available, before systematically outlining the validation of a 21-item shortened version of the ATS measure (the ATS-21)...
December 17, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Tara N Richards
Little is known about actual incidents of gender-based violence reported by college students or the campus adjudication process or outcomes of reported cases. Data from Annual Security Reports (ASRs) and Title IX Coordinators was used to examine the context, processes, and outcomes of reported incidents of sexual misconduct (N = 1,054) at institutions of higher education (IHEs) in a Mid-Atlantic state. Results showed that ASRs undercounted incidents of sexual misconduct. Few incidents reported to Title IX Coordinators resulted in a formal Title IX complaint, and fewer still resulted in a finding of responsibility or suspension/expulsion of the responsible student...
December 17, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Caitlin Cavanagh, Elizabeth Cauffman
Both personal experience and parental attitudes shape youths' attitudes toward the justice system. The present study tested the influence of (a) youth rearrests and (b) parents' attitudes toward police on trajectories of youthful offenders' attitudes toward police over 3 years. Among a sample of 317 first-time male juvenile offenders and their mothers, group-based trajectory modeling identified 4 trajectories of youths' attitudes toward police over the 3 years since the youths' first arrests. Mothers with more positive initial attitudes toward the police were more likely to have sons who were part of 1 of the 2 positive attitude trajectory groups than the 2 negative attitude trajectory groups...
November 26, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Grace Icenogle, Laurence Steinberg, Natasha Duell, Jason Chein, Lei Chang, Nandita Chaudhary, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Kostas A Fanti, Jennifer E Lansford, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Sombat Tapanya, Liliana M Uribe Tirado, Liane P Alampay, Suha M Al-Hassan, Hanan M S Takash, Dario Bacchini
All countries distinguish between minors and adults for various legal purposes. Recent U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the legal status of juveniles have consulted psychological science to decide where to draw these boundaries. However, little is known about the robustness of the relevant research, because it has been conducted largely in the U.S. and other Western countries. To the extent that lawmakers look to research to guide their decisions, it is important to know how generalizable the scientific conclusions are...
February 2019: Law and Human Behavior
Saul M Kassin, Melissa B Russano, Aria D Amrom, Johanna Hellgren, Jeff Kukucka, Victoria Z Lawson
In partnership with a small city police department, we randomly informed or did not inform 122 crime suspects that their interrogations were being video-recorded. Coding of all sessions indicated that camera-informed suspects spoke as often and as much as did those who were not informed; they were as likely to waive Miranda at the outset and later; they were as likely to make admissions and confessions, not just denials; and they were perceived no differently by detectives on a range of dimensions. Looking at distal outcomes, we observed no differences in ultimate case dispositions...
February 2019: Law and Human Behavior
Bradley D McAuliff, Jennifer S Hunt, Lora M Levett, Amanda D Zelechoski, Kyle C Scherr, David DeMatteo
In this editorial, the authors note that steady submission rate and a rejection rate that hovers at 80%, indicates the journal is flourishing and provides them with the fortunate opportunity to make an excellent journal even better. To that end, they describe three initiatives they are working on and explain the changes readers can expect as they begin to implement them in the journal. Specifically, these initiatives include: (1) promoting transparency, openness, and reproducibility in published research; (2) improving author-reviewer fit; and (3) expanding the diversity of journal content and decision makers...
February 2019: Law and Human Behavior
Lauren M Vera, Marcus T Boccaccini, Kelsey Laxton, Claire Bryson, Charlotte Pennington, Brittany Ridge, Daniel C Murrie
We used an experimental design to test the key concern that expressive empathy from evaluators during forensic interviews leads to more disclosure of misbehavior (e.g., stealing, breaking the law, manipulating others) from evaluees. In the context of a psychopathy assessment interview, evaluees (N = 94, 100% male, 57.4% Caucasian) interviewed by an evaluator using expressive empathy techniques were no more likely than those interviewed by an evaluator avoiding expressive empathy techniques to admit to past instances of misbehavior (d = ...
November 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
James Michael Lampinen, Andrew M Smith, Gary L Wells
The present article focuses on a utility-based understanding of criminal justice practice regarding eyewitness identifications. We argue that there are 4 distinct types of utility that should be considered when evaluating an identification procedure. These include the utility associated with all identifications, the utility associated with only the high confidence identifications, the average utility across the full range of identifications, and the maximum utility that can be attained by selecting an ideal criterion...
November 1, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Lindsey E Wylie, Katrina A Rufino
Although research has linked mental health symptoms and prior victimization to recidivism for youth on probation or in detention, little attention has been given to these risk factors for early system-involved youth. We conducted a survival/hazard model to estimate the impact of official records of abuse/neglect, crime victimization, and mental health issues (mood, anxiety, disruptive, and substance use disorders) on recidivism in a sample of 2,792 youth in a large Midwestern diversion program. Results indicated that youth with official records of abuse/neglect, person crime victimization, and property crime victimization were more likely to recidivate sooner than those without these victimization experiences (hazard ratio: 1...
November 1, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Christopher J Normile, Kyle C Scherr
Research has identified numerous factors that influence suspects during police interrogations. However, the dynamics between individuals' physiologic reactivity and their confession decision making is in its infancy. This research sought to advance the interrogation literature by examining the relationships among different interrogation tactics, suspects' resistance to confess, and their physiologic reactivity during a mock interrogation. After manipulating innocence and guilt, participants (N = 154) were accused and interrogated using either a minimization or false evidence tactic...
October 4, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
William G Iacono, Gershon Ben-Shakhar
Fifteen years have elapsed since a report was released by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on the scientific status of polygraph testing. The NAS report concluded that the scientific basis of the comparison question technique (CQT) was weak, the extant research was of low quality, the polygraph profession's claims for the high accuracy of the CQT were unfounded, and, although the CQT has greater than chance accuracy, its error rate is unknown. Polygraph proponents argue that current research indicates that the CQT has 90% or better accuracy, the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences' (2003) analysis supports this accuracy claim, and the CQT qualifies as legally admissible scientific evidence...
October 4, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Evelyn Klein Haneveld, Craig S Neumann, Wineke Smid, Edwin Wever, Jan H Kamphuis
Theory and accumulating data suggest systematic heterogeneity among offenders with psychopathic traits. Several empirical investigations converge on the nature of subtypes, but little is known about differences in treatment responsivity. We have used the 4-facet model of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to provide a framework for detecting subtypes. The present study used the full range of PCL-R scores in a sample of male violent offenders (N = 190) to replicate subtypes found in a partly overlapping sample by Neumann, Vitacco, and Mokros (2016), using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), and subsequently to examine potential differences in treatment responsivity...
October 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Joseph A Vitriol, Margaret Bull Kovera
During capital voir dire, prospective jurors are questioned about their views on capital punishment to determine their ability and willingness to impose the penalty as required by law. Two experiments replicated and extended Haney's (1984a) research on the effects of exposure to capital voir dire, which has been cited to support the proposition that jurors who are exposed to a capital voir dire are more prone to convict. In the first study, watching a capital voir dire increased participants' pretrial estimates of the likelihood of the defendant's guilt and conviction, replicating earlier findings...
October 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Richard L Wiener, Trace C Vardsveen
In Title VII sexual harassment jurisprudence, U.S. courts use a 2-prong subjective-objective test to determine the viability of a sexual harassment claim: The complainant must show that the employer's conduct was unwelcome and sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of employment and create an abusive working environment because of the complainant's sex from both the complainant's perspective (subjective prong) and a reasonable person's perspective (objective prong). This online study used a diverse national sample (361 MTurk Community Members) to investigate whether people apply the objective prong in a uniform manner, as the law assumes, or show predictable differences...
October 1, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E Lamb, Yael Karni-Visel, Elizabeth C Ahern
Child maltreatment victims are often reluctant to report abuse when formally interviewed. Evidence-based guidelines like the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Standard Investigative Interview Protocol do not adequately address such reluctance because they are focused on cognitive rather than socioemotional strategies. The present study was designed to determine whether the Revised National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol, which emphasizes supportive interviewing more than the standard protocol does, might predict increases in the overall informativeness and reductions in the reluctance of alleged victims...
September 20, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
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