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Sophie Betka, Lisa Harris, Charlotte Rae, Bence Palfi, Gaby Pfeifer, Henrique Sequeira, Theodora Duka, Hugo Critchley
RATIONALE: Insular cortex supports the representation of motivational feelings through the integration of interoceptive information concerning bodily physiology. Compromised insular integrity is implicated in alcohol and drug use disorders. Alcohol-associated insular dysfunction may arise through aberrant glutamatergic neurotransmission associated with selective neuronal death and atrophy. OBJECTIVE: In a sample of alcohol users, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with voxel and surface-based morphometry (VBM, SBM) to test the hypothesis that the neurochemical and structural properties of the insula relate to alcohol use...
April 22, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Julia Aresti Sanz, Sahar El Aidy
The gut microbiota is comprised of a vast variety of microbes that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and exert crucial roles for the host health. These microorganisms, partially via their breakdown of dietary components, are able to modulate immune response, mood, and behavior, establishing a chemical dialogue in the microbiota-gut-brain interphase. Changes in the gut microbiota composition and functionality are associated with multiple diseases, in which altered levels of gut-associated neuropeptides are also detected...
April 17, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Gavin N Petrie, Kiri L Wills, Fabiana Piscitelli, Reem Smoum, Cheryl L Limebeer, Erin M Rock, Ashlyn E Humphrey, Madeleine Sheppard-Perkins, Aron H Lichtman, Raphael Mechoulam, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Linda A Parker
RATIONALE: Oleoyl glycine (OlGly), a recently discovered fatty acid amide that is structurally similar to N- acylethanolamines, which include the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), as well as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), has been shown to interfere with nicotine reward and dependence in mice. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Behavioral and molecular techniques were used to investigate the ability of OlGly to interfere with the affective properties of morphine and morphine withdrawal (MWD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 16, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Katherine R Meckel, Drew D Kiraly
Pathological substance use disorders represent a major public health crisis with limited effective treatment options. While much work has been done to understand the neuronal signaling networks and intracellular signaling cascades associated with prolonged drug use, these studies have yielded few successful treatment options for substance use disorders. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to explore interactions between the peripheral immune system, the gut microbiome, and the CNS. In this review, we will present a summary of existing evidence, suggesting a potential role for gut dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of substance use disorders...
April 14, 2019: Psychopharmacology
M V Uthaug, R Lancelotta, K van Oorsouw, K P C Kuypers, N Mason, J Rak, A Šuláková, R Jurok, M Maryška, M Kuchař, T Páleníček, J Riba, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (hereinafter referred to as 5-MeO-DMT) is a psychedelic substance found in the secretion from the parotoid glands of the Bufo alvarius toad. Inhalation of vapor from toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT has become popular in naturalistic settings as a treatment of mental health problems or as a means for spiritual exploration. However, knowledge of the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in humans is limited. AIMS: The first objective of this study was to assess sub-acute and long-term effects of inhaling vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT on affect and cognition...
April 13, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Many physiological and pathological changes in brain function manifest in eye-movement control. As such, assessment of oculomotion is an invaluable part of a clinical examination and affords a non-invasive window on several key aspects of neuronal computation. While oculomotion is often used to detect deficits of the sort associated with vascular or neoplastic events; subtler (e.g. pharmacological) effects on neuronal processing also induce oculomotor changes. We have previously framed oculomotor control as part of active vision, namely, a process of inference comprising two distinct but related challenges...
April 13, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Iman Saber, Andrew Milewski, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls, Ellen A Walker
RATIONALE: The underlying pharmacological mechanisms of mephedrone, especially as related to interactions with different neurotransmitter systems, are a critical area of study as mephedrone continues to be abused. OBJECTIVE: Direct-acting 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists and antagonists and D1-3 receptor antagonists were examined in two groups of rats trained to discriminate mephedrone. A high dose of mephedrone was trained to extend previous results with traditional monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrate releasers...
April 13, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Courtney A Bryce, Stan B Floresco
RATIONALE: Nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) plays an integral role in overcoming effort costs, as blockade of D1 and D2 receptors reduces the choice of larger, more-costly rewards. Similarly, the stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates DA transmission and mediates stress-induced alterations in effort-related choice. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored how excessive stimulation of different DA receptors within the NAc core and shell alters effort-related decision-making and compared these effects to those induced by CRF stimulation...
April 10, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Katherine R Bonson, Tyler Dalton, Dominic Chiapperino
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Cathinones are amphetamine analogues that produce stimulant effects with rewarding properties. For many decades, synthetic cathinones have been used in the United States (USA) for abuse purposes, leading to concern about public safety by the federal government. Under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the federal government may place drugs with high abuse potential but no currently accepted medical use into Schedule I of the CSA. The process of scheduling an abusable drug involves both the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the Department of Justice, through the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)...
April 10, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Vincent T Mensen, Annabel Vreeker, Johan Nordgren, Amanda Atkinson, Rafael de la Torre, Magi Farré, Johannes G Ramaekers, Tibor M Brunt
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of new psychoactive substances that have been rapidly evolving around the world throughout recent years. Many different synthetic cannabinoid analogues are on the consumer market and sold under misleading names, like "spice" or "incense." A limited number of studies have reported serious health effects associated with SC use. In this study, we compared clinical and subclinical psychopathological symptoms associated with SC use and natural cannabis (NC) use...
April 9, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Tangxin Gao, Bai Li, Yangyang Hou, Shaolei Luo, Lei Feng, Jun Nie, Yi Ma, Le Xiao, Xu Chen, Hongkun Bao, Xianmin Lu, Feilong Huang, Gang Wang, Chunjie Xiao, Jing Du
RATIONALE: Converging evidence suggests that neuroimmunity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety. Interleukin (IL)-4 is a key cytokine regulating neuroimmune functions in the central nervous system. More efficient anxiolytics with neuro-immune mechanisms are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 3'-deoxyadenosine (3'-dA) exerts an anxiolytic effect and to examine the role of IL-4 in the anxiolytic effect of 3'-dA in mice. METHODS: We investigated the effects of 3'-dA on anxiety-like behaviors using elevated plus maze (EPM) or light-dark box (LDB) tests after 45 min or 5 days of treatment...
April 8, 2019: Psychopharmacology
N Heym, B C Heasman, K Hunter, S R Blanco, G Y Wang, R Siegert, A Cleare, G R Gibson, V Kumari, A L Sumich
RATIONALE: The gut-brain axis includes bidirectional communication between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. have been implicated in psychological health, such as depression, through various pathways (e.g. inflammation). Research needs a better understanding of direct and indirect effects through examination of psychological factors that make people susceptible to, or offer protection against, depression. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationships between gut microbiota, inflammation and psychological risk and resilience factors for depression...
April 7, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Francesca Zoratto, Francesca Franchi, Simone Macrì, Giovanni Laviola
RATIONALE: Deficits in empathy constitute a distinctive feature of several psychopathologies, including conduct disorder (CD). The co-occurrence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, excess rates of aggression and violation of societal norms confers specific risk for adult psychopathy. To date, the off-label use of methylphenidate (MPH) constitutes the drug treatment of choice. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we tested the therapeutic potential of MPH in a recently devised mouse model recapitulating the core phenotypic abnormalities of CD...
April 6, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Lisa E Hauger, Dominic Sagoe, Anja Vaskinn, Espen A Arnevik, Siri Leknes, Marie L Jørstad, Astrid Bjørnebekk
RATIONALE: Illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown into a serious public health concern throughout the Western World. AAS use is associated with adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. Around 30% of AAS users develop a dependence syndrome with sustained use despite adverse side effects. AAS dependence is associated with a high frequency of intra- and interpersonal problems, and it is central to identify factors related to the development and maintenance of dependence...
April 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops
RATIONALE: Non-medical prescription opioid use and opioid use disorder (OUD) present a significant public health concern. Identifying behavioral mechanisms underlying OUD will assist in developing improved prevention and intervention approaches. Behavioral economic demand has been extensively evaluated as a measure of reinforcer valuation for alcohol and cigarettes, whereas prescription opioids have received comparatively little attention. OBJECTIVES: Utilize a purchase task procedure to measure the incremental validity and test-retest reliability of opioid demand...
March 29, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Courtney E King, Howard C Becker
RATIONALE: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention in the treatment of both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and stress-related psychiatric illnesses. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the effects of systemically administered (intraperitoneal (i.p.)) OXT treatment on alcohol relapse-like behavior in male and female mice. METHODS: Adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained to lever respond in operant conditioning chambers for alcohol in daily self-administration sessions...
March 28, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Arnold Gutierrez, Samantha L Regan, Christopher S Hoover, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
RATIONALE: Methamphetamine (MA) is an abused psychostimulant that causes cognitive deficits after chronic use. Neostriatal dopamine receptors play a role in MA monoamine neurotoxicity. Blocking dopamine receptors prior to MA exposure in adult rats attenuates monoamine reductions and reactive gliosis. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether blocking dopamine receptors protects against cognitive deficits. METHODS: First, we determined the effects of MA alone versus MA in combination with the dopamine receptor D1 antagonist SCH-23390 or the dopamine receptor D2 antagonist sulpiride on cFos expression and monoamines at the age when rats in the cognitive experiment were to begin testing and monoamines in rats after cognitive testing...
March 27, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Ismene L Petrakis, Elizabeth Ralevski, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Matthew E Sloan, Lesley Devine, Gihyun Yoon, Albert J Arias, Mehmet Sofuoglu
RATIONALE: Alcohol has both acute and chronic effects on neuroimmune signaling, including triggering pro-inflammatory cytokine release by microglia. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline antibiotic, inhibits microglial activation and reduces neuroinflammation in preclinical studies. In mice, minocycline also reduces ethanol intake, attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, and inhibits ethanol-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. OBJECTIVE: Here, for the first time, we tested the effects of minocycline on subjective response to ethanol and acute ethanol-induced inflammation in humans...
March 27, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Swapnil Gupta, Joao P De Aquino, Deepak C D'Souza, Mohini Ranganathan
RATIONALE: Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) produces psychotomimetic effects in humans. However, the role of dopamine signaling in producing such effects is unclear. We hypothesized that dopaminergic antagonism would reduce the psychotomimetic effect of Δ-9-THC. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pre-treatment with haloperidol would alter the psychotomimetic and perceptual-altering effects of Δ-9-THC, measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative Symptom Scale (CADSS) in humans...
March 27, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Laura Baines, Matt Field, Paul Christiansen, Andrew Jones
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication and alcohol cue exposure impair 'reactive' inhibitory control and increase motivation to drink. However, inhibitory control is a multi-component process that also comprises signal detection and proactive control. It is unknown whether intoxication and cue exposure selectively influence these subprocesses in heavy drinkers. OBJECTIVES: In two pre-registered studies, we investigated whether exposure to alcohol-related cues (study 1) and alcohol priming (study 2) impair each of these subprocesses of inhibitory control and increase motivation to drink...
March 27, 2019: Psychopharmacology
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