Journals Annals of the New York Academy...

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Barbara Bosch, Michael A DeJesus, Dirk Schnappinger, Jeremy M Rock
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the most common infectious killer worldwide despite decades of antitubercular drug development. Effectively controlling the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic will require innovation in drug discovery. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the two main approaches to discovering new TB drugs-phenotypic screens and target-based drug discovery-and outline some of the limitations of each method. We then explore recent advances in genetic tools that aim to overcome some of these limitations...
April 10, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Julie M Sadino, Zoe R Donaldson
Loss of a loved one is a painful event that substantially elevates the risk for physical and mental illness and impaired daily function. Socially monogamous prairie voles are laboratory-amenable rodents that form life-long pair bonds and exhibit distress upon partner separation, mirroring phenotypes seen in humans. These attributes make voles an excellent model for studying the biology of loss. In this review, we highlight parallels between humans and prairie voles, focusing on reward system engagement during pair bonding and loss...
April 9, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Matthew S Durstenfeld, Shannon Weiman, Michael Holtzman, Catherine Blish, Resia Pretorius, Steven G Deeks
In 2023, the Keystone Symposia held the first international scientific conference convening research leaders investigating the pathology of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or Long COVID, a growing and urgent public health priority. In this report, we present insights from the talks and workshops presented during this meeting and highlight key themes regarding what researchers have discovered regarding the underlying biology of PASC and directions toward future treatment. Several themes have emerged in the biology, with inflammation and other immune alterations being the most common focus, potentially related to viral persistence, latent virus reactivation, and/or tissue damage and dysfunction, especially of the endothelium, nervous system, and mitochondria...
April 9, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nicholas B Dirks
When intellectual values are no longer paramount, other commitments-say to the professionalized disciplinary pathways that have congealed as the default means of university organization and governance-not only fill the vacuum but seriously limit our imagination.
April 8, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Suzan Mohammed Ragheb, John Osei Sekyere
This study aimed to screen antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in carbapenem-resistant hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an Egyptian hospital. Among 38 previously confirmed carbapenem-nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae isolates, a string test identified three isolates as positive for hypermucoviscosity. Phenotypic characterization and molecular detection of carbapenemase- and virulence-encoding genes were performed. PCR-based multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetics were used to determine the clonality and global epidemiology of the strains...
April 5, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ellie Bean Abrams, Richa Namballa, Richard He, David Poeppel, Pablo Ripollés
While certain musical genres and songs are widely popular, there is still large variability in the music that individuals find rewarding or emotional, even among those with a similar musical enculturation. Interestingly, there is one Western genre that is intended to attract minimal attention and evoke a mild emotional response: elevator music. In a series of behavioral experiments, we show that elevator music consistently elicits low pleasure and surprise. Participants reported elevator music as being less pleasurable than music from popular genres, even when participants did not regularly listen to the comparison genre...
April 2, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Katherine B Forrest
We are at the beginning of the beginning of the beginning of the development of AI. The ethical issues we first saw and are still grappling with have been overtaken by others, and there are yet others on the horizon.
April 2, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Richard Meitern, Peeter Hõrak
Patterns of individual variation in lifespan and senescence depend on the associations between parental survival and reproductive rates. We studied the associations between parity and survival among 579,271 Estonians born between 1905 and 1945 and in a cohort with a completed lifespan born in 1905-1927. For this cohort, selection for increased lifespan operated on both sexes, but it was stronger in men than in women. However, the median lifespan increased between the subsequent cohorts in women but stagnated in men...
March 27, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Piero Lionello, Roberta D'Agostino, David Ferreira, Hanh Nguyen, Martin S Singh
The Hadley circulation (HC) is a global-scale atmospheric feature with air descending in the subtropics and ascending in the tropics, which plays a fundamental role in Earth's climate because it transports energy polewards and moisture equatorwards. Theoretically, as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, the HC is expected to expand polewards, while indications on the HC strength are equivocal, as weakening and strengthening are expected in response to different mechanisms. In fact, there is a general agreement among reanalyses and climate simulations that the HC has significantly widened in the last four decades and it will continue widening in the future, but there is no consensus on past and future changes of the HC strength...
March 26, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Giovanni Pezzulo, Leo D'Amato, Francesco Mannella, Matteo Priorelli, Toon Van de Maele, Ivilin Peev Stoianov, Karl Friston
This paper considers neural representation through the lens of active inference, a normative framework for understanding brain function. It delves into how living organisms employ generative models to minimize the discrepancy between predictions and observations (as scored with variational free energy). The ensuing analysis suggests that the brain learns generative models to navigate the world adaptively, not (or not solely) to understand it. Different living organisms may possess an array of generative models, spanning from those that support action-perception cycles to those that underwrite planning and imagination; namely, from explicit models that entail variables for predicting concurrent sensations, like objects, faces, or people-to action-oriented models that predict action outcomes...
March 25, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Monique Rainford, Linda A Barbour, Darlena Birch, Patrick Catalano, Ella Daniels, Caron Gremont, Nicole E Marshall, Kurt Wharton, Kent Thornburg
Exposure to deleterious stressors in early life, such as poor nutrition, underlies most adult-onset chronic diseases. As rates of chronic disease continue to climb in the United States, a focus on good nutrition before and during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood provides a potential opportunity to reverse this trend. This report provides an overview of nutrition investigations in pregnancy and early childhood and addresses racial disparities and health outcomes, current national guidelines, and barriers to achieving adequate nutrition in pregnant individuals and children...
March 23, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ole J Kemi, Morten A Hoydal, Per M Haram, Godfrey L Smith, Oyvind Ellingsen, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Ulrik Wisloff
Cardiorespiratory performance segregates into rat strains of inherited low- and high-capacity runners (LCRs and HCRs); during adulthood, this segregation remains stable, but widens in senescence and is followed by segregated function, health, and mortality. However, this segregation has not been investigated prior to adulthood. We, therefore, assessed cardiorespiratory performance and cardiac cell (cardiomyocyte) structure-function in 1- and 4-month-old LCRs and HCRs. Maximal oxygen uptake was 23% less in LCRs at 1-month compared to HCRs at 1-month, and 72% less at 4 months...
March 23, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Alessandro Giovanni Cerchiara, Paola Imbrici, Raffaella Quarta, Enrica Cristiano, Brigida Boccanegra, Erika Caputo, Dominic J Wells, Ornella Cappellari, Annamaria De Luca
Myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle formation, growth, and regeneration and can be altered in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder due to the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Ion channels play a pivotal role in muscle differentiation and interact with the dystrophin complex. To investigate ion channel involvement in myogenesis in dystrophic settings, we performed electrophysiological characterization of two immortalized mouse cell lines, wild-type (WT) H2K-2B4 and the dystrophic (DYS) H2K-SF1, and measured gene expression of differentiation markers and ion channels...
March 22, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Thomas Krendl Gilbert
There is much public anxiety about how today's students use chatbots to complete assignments. But AI's integration within schools will more deeply impact the next generation of college graduates. The market value of future college degrees is far from certain.
March 21, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Subbarao Kambhampati
While humans sometimes do show the capability of correcting their own erroneous guesses with self-critiquing, there seems to be no basis for that assumption in the case of LLMs.
March 6, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lynea R Witczak, Jaclyn Samra, Madison Dufek, Leana R Goetze, Sara M Freeman, Allison R Lau, Emily S Rothwell, Logan E Savidge, Rocío Arias-Del Razo, Alexander Baxter, Chloe L Karaskiewicz, Emilio Ferrer, Karen L Bales
Social bonds influence physiology and behavior, which can shape how individuals respond to physical and affective challenges. Coppery titi monkey (Plecturocebus cupreus) offspring form selective bonds with their fathers, making them ideal for investigating how father-daughter bonds influence juveniles' responses to oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) manipulations. We quantified the expression of father-daughter bond-related behaviors in females (n = 10) and gave acute intranasal treatments of saline, low/medium/high OT, low/high AVP, or an OT receptor antagonist (OTA) to subjects prior to a parent preference test...
March 5, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kumi O Kuroda, Kansai Fukumitsu, Takuma Kurachi, Nami Ohmura, Yuko Shiraishi, Chihiro Yoshihara
This review consolidates current knowledge on mammalian parental care, focusing on its neural mechanisms, evolutionary origins, and derivatives. Neurobiological studies have identified specific neurons in the medial preoptic area as crucial for parental care. Unexpectedly, these neurons are characterized by the expression of molecules signaling satiety, such as calcitonin receptor and BRS3, and overlap with neurons involved in the reproductive behaviors of males but not females. A synthesis of comparative ecology and paleontology suggests an evolutionary scenario for mammalian parental care, possibly stemming from male-biased guarding of offspring in basal vertebrates...
March 1, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lucia Amoruso, Adolfo M García, Sandra Pusil, Polina Timofeeva, Ileana Quiñones, Manuel Carreiras
Can lifelong bilingualism be robustly decoded from intrinsic brain connectivity? Can we determine, using a spectrally resolved approach, the oscillatory networks that better predict dual-language experience? We recorded resting-state magnetoencephalographic activity in highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals, calculated functional connectivity at canonical frequency bands, and derived topological network properties using graph analysis. These features were fed into a machine learning classifier to establish how robustly they discriminated between the groups...
February 28, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hector Qirko
Human musicality (the capacity to make and appreciate music) is difficult to explain in evolutionary terms, though many theories attempt to do so. This paper focuses on musicality's potential adaptive precursors, particularly as related to rhythm. It suggests that pace setting for walking and running long distances over extended time periods (endurance locomotion, EL) is a good candidate for an adaptive building block of rhythmic musicality. The argument is as follows: (1) over time, our hominin lineage developed a host of adaptations for efficient EL; (2) the ability to set and maintain a regular pace was a crucial adaptation in the service of EL, providing proximate rewards for successful execution; (3) maintaining a pace in EL occasioned hearing, feeling, and attending to regular rhythmic patterns; (4) these rhythmic patterns, as well as proximate rewards for maintaining them, became disassociated from locomotion and entrained in new proto-musical contexts...
February 27, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Chika V Anekwe, Yoon Ji Ahn, Simar Singh Bajaj, Fatima Cody Stanford
This review aims to summarize pharmacological interventions that may affect adiposity and metabolic equilibrium in individuals with obesity. Pharmacological therapy is frequently used to treat medical conditions that are both directly related to obesity (such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and indirectly related to obesity (such as asthma, insomnia, and type 1 diabetes). This pharmacological therapy may result in weight gain and alterations in the metabolic profile. Many medication classes are implicated in the pharmacologic causes of weight gain, including antipsychotics, glucocorticoids, beta-adrenergic blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, insulin, neuropathic agents, sleep agents, and steroids...
February 22, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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