Journals Annals of the New York Academy...

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sonja Y Hess, Aatekah Owais, Maria Elena D Jefferds, Melissa F Young, Andrew Cahill, Lisa M Rogers
Anemia is a major public health concern. Young children, menstruating adolescent girls and women, and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable. Anemia is the consequence of a wide range of causes, including biological, socioeconomic, and ecological risk factors. Primary causes include: iron deficiency; inherited red blood cell disorders; infections, such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, and malaria; gynecological and obstetric conditions; and other chronic diseases that lead to blood loss, decreased erythropoiesis, or destruction of erythrocytes...
March 29, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Heidrun Stoeger, Tobias Debatin, Michael Heilemann, Sigrun Schirner, Albert Ziegler
An important first step in talent development in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is getting individuals excited about STEM. Females, in particular, are underrepresented in many STEM fields. Since girls' interest in STEM declines in adolescence, interventions should begin in secondary education at the latest. One appropriate intervention is (online) mentoring. Although its short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated for proximal outcomes during secondary education (e.g., positive changes in elective intentions in STEM), studies of the long-term effectiveness of STEM mentoring provided during secondary education-especially for real-life choices of university STEM majors and professions-are lacking...
March 29, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Viktor Müller, Ulman Lindenberger
Playing music in a concert represents a multilevel interaction between musicians and the audience, where interbrain synchronization might play an essential role. Here, we simultaneously recorded electroencephalographs (EEGs) from the brains of eight people during a concert: a quartet of professional guitarists and four participants in the audience. Using phase synchronization analyses between EEG signals within and between brains, we constructed hyperbrain networks, comprising synchronized brain activity across the eight brains, and analyzed them using a graph-theoretical approach...
March 27, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Irene C Mammarella, Sara Caviola, Serena Rossi, Elisabetta Patron, Daniela Palomba
The present study aimed to analyze the different components of state mathematics anxiety that students experienced while solving calculation problems by manipulating their stress levels. A computerized mathematical task was administered to 165 fifth-graders randomly assigned to three different groups: positive, negative, and control conditions, in which positive, negative, or no feedback during the task was given, respectively. Behavioral (task performance), emotional (negative feelings), cognitive (worrisome thoughts and perceived competence), and psychophysiological responses (skin conductance and vagal withdrawal) were analyzed...
March 25, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Haoming Zhang, Kunkun Zhang, Ziqi Zhang, Mingqi Zhao, Quanying Liu, Wenbo Luo, Haiyan Wu
Human society encompasses diverse social influences, and people experience events differently and may behave differently under such influence, including in forming an impression of others. However, little is known about the underlying neural relevance of individual differences in following others' opinions or social norms. In the present study, we designed a series of tasks centered on social influence to investigate the underlying relevance between an individual's degree of social conformity and their neural variability...
March 25, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jennifer Cable, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Erika L Pearce, Ping-Chih Ho, Marcia C Haigis, Murad R Mamedov, Meng-Ju Wu, Susan M Kaech, Lydia Lynch, Mark A Febbraio, Sagar P Bapat, Hanna S Hong, Weiping Zou, Yasmine Belkaid, Zuri A Sullivan, Andrea Keller, Stefanie K Wculek, Douglas R Green, Catherine Postic, Ido Amit, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Russell G Jones, Miguel Reina-Campos, Santiago Valle Torres, Semir Beyaz, Donal Brennan, Luke A J O'Neill, Rachel J Perry, Dirk Brenner
Immunometabolism considers the relationship between metabolism and immunity. Typically, researchers focus on either the metabolic pathways within immune cells that affect their function or the impact of immune cells on systemic metabolism. A more holistic approach that considers both these viewpoints is needed. On September 5-8, 2022, experts in the field of immunometabolism met for the Keystone symposium "Immunometabolism at the Crossroads of Obesity and Cancer" to present recent research across the field of immunometabolism, with the setting of obesity and cancer as an ideal example of the complex interplay between metabolism, immunity, and cancer...
March 24, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Michela Massimi
The epistemic feat that we call science is not an aseptic outcome of reasoning from an eternal viewpoint but the product of myriad epistemic communities with intersecting and interlacing scientific perspectives.
March 21, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jennifer Cable, Kenneth W Witwer, Robert J Coffey, Aleksandar Milosavljevic, Ariana K von Lersner, Lizandra Jimenez, Ferdinando Pucci, Maureen M Barr, Niek Dekker, Bahnisikha Barman, Daniel Humphrys, Justin Williams, Michele de Palma, Wei Guo, Nuno Bastos, Andrew F Hill, Efrat Levy, Michael P Hantak, Clair Crewe, Elena Aikawa, Alan M Adamczyk, Tamires M Zanotto, Matias Ostrowski, Tanina Arab, Daniel C Rabe, Aadil Sheikh, Danilo Rodrigues da Silva, Jennifer C Jones, Chioma Okeoma, Thomas Gaborski, Qin Zhang, Olesia Gololobova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, lipid-bilayer-bound particles released by cells that can contain important bioactive molecules, including lipids, RNAs, and proteins. Once released in the extracellular environment, EVs can act as messengers locally as well as to distant tissues to coordinate tissue homeostasis and systemic responses. There is a growing interest in not only understanding the physiology of EVs as signaling particles but also leveraging them as minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers (e...
March 18, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yan Peng, Huiyi Wang, Xin Huang, Heyu Liu, Junhong Xiao, Chuan Wang, Li Ma, Xiaoxuan Wang, Zhengguo Cao
Porphyromonas gingivalis is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple polymicrobial biofilm-induced inflammatory diseases, including apical periodontitis, and it triggers pyroptosis accompanied by robust inflammatory responses. Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), an epigenetic modifier enzyme, has been is correlated with inflammation, though an association of TET1 and P. gingivalis-related pyroptosis in cementoblasts and the molecular mechanisms has not been shown. Our study here demonstrated that P. gingivalis downregulated Tet1 expression and elicited CASP11- and GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis...
March 18, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Arindam Nandi, Fatima Zahra, Karen Austrian, Nicole Haberland, Thoại D Ngô
Adolescent motherhood has been linked with poor health outcomes at birth for children, including high neonatal mortality, low birthweight, and small-for-gestational-age rates. However, longer-term growth outcomes in the children of adolescent mothers in low-resource settings remain inadequately studied. We used longitudinal data from the India Human Development Surveys, 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 (n = 12,182) and employed regression and propensity score matching analysis to compare the following growth indicators of children born to adolescent mothers (ages 19 years or below) with those born to older mothers...
March 15, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Susan G Assouline, Duhita Mahatmya, Lori M Ihrig, Stephanie Lynch, Nesibe Karakis
The pipeline of highly trained STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) professionals has narrowed in recent decades, forcing society to re-examine how schools are discovering and developing STEM talent. Of particular concern is the finding that rural students attend post-secondary schools at lower rates than their urban counterparts, and when they do attend, they are less likely to graduate from STEM programs. One reason may be that they are not prepared for advanced STEM coursework because they lack access to essential STEM talent-development programs in middle or high school...
March 12, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Baljit S Khakh, Steven A Goldman
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, monogenic, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine-encoding CAG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene that results in mutant huntingtin proteins (mHTT) in cells throughout the body. Although large parts of the central nervous system (CNS) are affected, the striatum is especially vulnerable and undergoes marked atrophy. Astrocytes are abundant within the striatum and contain mHTT in HD, as well as in mouse models of the disease...
March 2, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Reyna L Gordon, Daphne O Martschenko, Srishti Nayak, Maria Niarchou, Matthew D Morrison, Eamonn Bell, Nori Jacoby, Lea K Davis
New interdisciplinary research into genetic influences on musicality raises a number of ethical and social issues for future avenues of research and public engagement. The historical intersection of music cognition and eugenics heightens the need to vigilantly weigh the potential risks and benefits of these studies and the use of their outcomes. Here, we bring together diverse disciplinary expertise (complex trait genetics, music cognition, musicology, bioethics, developmental psychology, and neuroscience) to interpret and guide the ethical use of findings from recent and future studies...
February 27, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gabriela Cormick, Eugenia Settecase, Michaella L Wu, Paulina M Nichols, Mara Devia, Alisha Dziarski, Natalia Matamoros, María B Puchulu, José M Belizán, Luz Gibbons
Dietary calcium intake is low in many countries, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Water is often overlooked as a source of dietary calcium despite it being universally consumed and providing good calcium bioavailability. Our objective was to assess water distribution systems in LMICs and to develop a formula to simulate the contribution of different water sources to calcium availability. We calculated the contribution of drinking water considering different calcium concentration levels to estimate total calcium availability...
February 25, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ioannis Dafnomilis, Michel den Elzen, Detlef P van Vuuren
More than 100 countries have communicated or adopted new Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and net-zero target pledges. We investigate the impact on global, national, sectoral, and individual greenhouse gas emissions projections under different scenarios based on the announced NDCs and net-zero pledges using the IMAGE integrated assessment model. Our results show that while the net-zero pledges, if implemented, could be an important step forward, they are still not enough to achieve the Paris Agreement goals of well below 2°C and preferably 1...
February 25, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Xinxin Du, Lijuan Liu, Xue Dong, Min Bao
Training of viewing an altered-reality environment dichoptically has been found to reactivate human adult ocular dominance plasticity, allowing improvement of vision for amblyopia. One suspected mechanism for this training effect is ocular dominance rebalancing through interocular disinhibition. Here, we investigated whether the training modulated the neural responses reflecting interocular inhibition. Thirteen patients with amblyopia and 11 healthy controls participated in this study. Before and after six daily altered-reality training sessions, participants watched flickering video stimuli with their steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) signals recorded simultaneously...
February 21, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Rui Li, Xiaoyan Miao, Buxin Han, Juan Li
Hearing impairment is considered a leading modifiable risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia. While most evidence has been established on clinical assessment of peripheral hearing loss, understanding of how central hearing in real-world conditions is associated with cognitive aging is limited. This study analyzed the data of 473 unrelated healthy adults aged 36-100 years old from the Lifespan Human Connectome Project in Aging. Central hearing was evaluated using the Words-in-Noise decibel threshold. Cognitive functions were evaluated by the performance on cognitive tests, and cortical thickness was estimated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
February 17, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ipek Selcen, Emily Prentice, Patrizia Casaccia
The epigenetic landscape of oligodendrocyte lineage cells refers to the cell-specific modifications of DNA, chromatin, and RNA that define a unique gene expression pattern of functionally specialized cells. Here, we focus on the epigenetic changes occurring as progenitors differentiate into myelin-forming cells and respond to the local environment. First, modifications of DNA, RNA, nucleosomal histones, key principles of chromatin organization, topologically associating domains, and local remodeling will be reviewed...
February 5, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Isaac Saywell, Brittany Child, Lauren Foreman, Lyndsey Collins-Praino, Irina Baetu
Cognitive reserve has been used to justify neuropathologically unexplainable mismatches in Alzheimer's disease outcomes. Recent evidence has suggested this effect may be replicable across other conditions. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive reserve applies to α-synucleinopathies or to motor outcomes, or if medication confounds effects. This review protocol follows PRISMA-P guidelines and aims to investigate whether cognitive reserve can predict both cognitive and motor outcomes for α-synucleinopathy patients...
February 5, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Oscar Hartogensis, Imme Benedict, Hugo de Boer, Peter J M Bosman, Santiago Botía, Micael Amore Cecchini, Kim A P Faassen, Raquel González-Armas, Kevin van Diepen, Bert G Heusinkveld, Martin Janssens, Felipe Lobos-Roco, Ingrid T Luijkx, Luiz A T Machado, Mary Rose Mangan, Arnold F Moene, Wouter B Mol, Michiel van der Molen, Robbert Moonen, H G Ouwersloot, So-Won Park, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Reinder Ronda, Martin Sikma, Ruben Schulte, Bart J H van Stratum, Menno A Veerman, Margreet C van Zanten, Chiel C van Heerwaarden
Vegetation and atmosphere processes are coupled through a myriad of interactions linking plant transpiration, carbon dioxide assimilation, turbulent transport of moisture, heat and atmospheric constituents, aerosol formation, moist convection, and precipitation. Advances in our understanding are hampered by discipline barriers and challenges in understanding the role of small spatiotemporal scales. In this perspective, we propose to study the atmosphere-ecosystem interaction as a continuum by integrating leaf to regional scales (multiscale) and integrating biochemical and physical processes (multiprocesses)...
February 1, 2023: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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