Journals Annals of the New York Academy...

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hugo Alarcan, Clément Bruno, Patrick Emond, Cédric Raoul, Patrick Vourc'h, Philippe Corcia, William Camu, Jean-Luc Veyrune, Cecilia Garlanda, Massimo Locati, Raúl Juntas-Morales, Safaa Saker, Carey Suehs, Christophe Masseguin, Janine Kirby, Pamela Shaw, Andrea Malaspina, John De Vos, Ammar Al-Chalabi, P Nigel Leigh, Timothy Tree, Gilbert Bensimon, Hélène Blasco
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating motor neuron disease. The immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) are impaired in ALS, and correlate to disease progression. The phase 2a IMODALS trial reported an increase in Treg number in ALS patients following the administration of low-dose (ld) interleukin-2 (IL-2). We propose a pharmacometabolomics approach to decipher metabolic modifications occurring in patients treated with ld-IL-2 and its relationship with Treg response. Blood metabolomic profiles were determined on days D1, D64, and D85 from patients receiving 2 MIU of IL-2 (n = 12) and patients receiving a placebo (n = 12)...
May 21, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Simone Battaglia, Claudio Nazzi, Chiara Di Fazio, Sara Borgomaneri
Swiftly halting ongoing motor actions is essential to react to unforeseen and potentially perilous circumstances. However, the neural bases subtending the complex interplay between emotions and motor control have been scarcely investigated. Here, we used an emotional stop signal task (SST) to investigate whether specific neural circuits engaged by action suppression are differently modulated by emotional signals with respect to neutral ones. Participants performed an SST before and after the administration of one session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the pre-supplementary motor cortex (pre-SMA), the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), and the left primary motor cortex (lM1)...
May 15, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Shashank Ghai, Finn Nilson, Johanna Gustavsson, Ishan Ghai
Compression garments (CGs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and sports contexts to enhance performance and speed up recovery. Despite the growing use of CGs in recent decades, there is no unanimous consensus on their overall influence on joint proprioception. In this current meta-analysis, we aim to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the impact of CGs on joint proprioception. We conducted a literature search across seven databases and one registry. Ultimately, we included 27 studies with 671 participants...
May 9, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Philip Ball
The problem with defining "life" has bedeviled biology throughout its history, and still there is no agreed resolution. But one of the best ways to characterize living entities is not through any of the features or properties usually considered to define it, such as replication, metabolism, or evolution. Rather, living entities are generators of meaning.
April 30, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mara Mather
With age, parasympathetic activity decreases, while sympathetic activity increases. Thus, the typical older adult has low heart rate variability (HRV) and high noradrenaline levels. Younger adults with this physiological profile tend to be unhappy and stressed. Yet, with age, emotional experience tends to improve. Why does older adults' emotional well-being not suffer as their HRV decreases? To address this apparent paradox, I present the autonomic compensation model. In this model, failing organs, the initial phases of Alzheimer's pathology, and other age-related diseases trigger noradrenergic hyperactivity...
April 27, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jonas Håkansson, Brooke L Quinn, Abigail L Shultz, Sharon M Swartz, Aaron J Corcoran
Studying the detailed biomechanics of flying animals requires accurate three-dimensional coordinates for key anatomical landmarks. Traditionally, this relies on manually digitizing animal videos, a labor-intensive task that scales poorly with increasing framerates and numbers of cameras. Here, we present a workflow that combines deep learning-powered automatic digitization with filtering and correction of mislabeled points using quality metrics from deep learning and 3D reconstruction. We tested our workflow using a particularly challenging scenario: bat flight...
April 23, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mark Nicas
Halfmask air-purifying respirators are used by millions of workers to reduce inhaling air contaminants, both chemical (e.g., asbestos, styrene) and biological (e.g., SARS-CoV-2, Mycobacterium tuberculosis). In 2006, the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated a standard that gave halfmask respirators an assigned protection factor (APF) of 10. This signified that OSHA assumes a fit-tested and trained wearer will experience a 10% maximum total inward leakage of contaminated air into the facepiece...
April 20, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sivan Raz
A considerable proportion of women subjectively perceive a detriment to their cognitive capacity during pregnancy, with decreased memory functions being the most frequently self-reported concerns. However, objective investigation of these perceived cognitive deficits has yielded inconsistent results. This study focused on memory functions during late pregnancy using multiple tasks designed to assess various memory indices, for example, working memory, learning rate, immediate recall, proactive and retroactive interference, delayed recall, retrieval efficiency, visuospatial constructional ability, recognition, and executive function...
April 15, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Federico Bertagna, Shiraz Ahmad, Rebecca Lewis, S Ravi P Silva, Johnjoe McFadden, Christopher L-H Huang, Hugh R Matthews, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Hippocampal pyramidal neuronal activity has been previously studied using conventional patch clamp in isolated cells and brain slices. We here introduce the loose patch clamping study of voltage-activated currents from in situ pyramidal neurons in murine cornus ammonis 1 hippocampal coronal slices. Depolarizing pulses of 15-ms duration elicited early transient inward, followed by transient and prolonged outward currents in the readily identifiable junctional region between the stratum pyramidalis (SP) and oriens (SO) containing pyramidal cell somas and initial segments...
April 11, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Amna N Naser, Tiaosi Xing, Rodney Tatum, Qun Lu, Philip J Boyer, Yan-Hua Chen
The tight junction protein claudin-7 is essential for tight junction function and intestinal homeostasis. Cldn7 deletion in mice leads to an inflammatory bowel disease-like phenotype exhibiting severe intestinal epithelial damage, weight loss, inflammation, mucosal ulcerations, and epithelial hyperplasia. Claudin-7 has also been shown to be involved in cancer metastasis and invasion. Here, we test our hypothesis that claudin-7 plays an important role in regulating colonic intestinal stem cell function. Conditional knockout of Cldn7 in the colon led to impaired epithelial cell differentiation, hyperproliferative epithelium, a decrease in active stem cells, and dramatically altered gene expression profiles...
April 10, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Santiago Pelegrina, M Eva Martín-Puga, M Teresa Lechuga, M José Justicia-Galiano, Rocío Linares
The detrimental effect of math anxiety on math performance is thought to be mediated by executive functions. Previous studies have primarily focused on trait-math anxiety rather than state-math anxiety and have typically examined a single executive function rather than comprehensively evaluating all of them. Here, we used a structural equation modeling approach to concurrently determine the potential mediating roles of different executive functions (i.e., inhibition, switching, and updating) in the relationships between both state- and trait-math anxiety and math performance...
April 10, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Barbara Bosch, Michael A DeJesus, Dirk Schnappinger, Jeremy M Rock
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the most common infectious killer worldwide despite decades of antitubercular drug development. Effectively controlling the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic will require innovation in drug discovery. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the two main approaches to discovering new TB drugs-phenotypic screens and target-based drug discovery-and outline some of the limitations of each method. We then explore recent advances in genetic tools that aim to overcome some of these limitations...
April 10, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Julie M Sadino, Zoe R Donaldson
Loss of a loved one is a painful event that substantially elevates the risk for physical and mental illness and impaired daily function. Socially monogamous prairie voles are laboratory-amenable rodents that form life-long pair bonds and exhibit distress upon partner separation, mirroring phenotypes seen in humans. These attributes make voles an excellent model for studying the biology of loss. In this review, we highlight parallels between humans and prairie voles, focusing on reward system engagement during pair bonding and loss...
April 9, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Matthew S Durstenfeld, Shannon Weiman, Michael Holtzman, Catherine Blish, Resia Pretorius, Steven G Deeks
In 2023, the Keystone Symposia held the first international scientific conference convening research leaders investigating the pathology of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or Long COVID, a growing and urgent public health priority. In this report, we present insights from the talks and workshops presented during this meeting and highlight key themes regarding what researchers have discovered regarding the underlying biology of PASC and directions toward future treatment. Several themes have emerged in the biology, with inflammation and other immune alterations being the most common focus, potentially related to viral persistence, latent virus reactivation, and/or tissue damage and dysfunction, especially of the endothelium, nervous system, and mitochondria...
April 9, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nicholas B Dirks
When intellectual values are no longer paramount, other commitments-say to the professionalized disciplinary pathways that have congealed as the default means of university organization and governance-not only fill the vacuum but seriously limit our imagination.
April 8, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Suzan Mohammed Ragheb, John Osei Sekyere
This study aimed to screen antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in carbapenem-resistant hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an Egyptian hospital. Among 38 previously confirmed carbapenem-nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae isolates, a string test identified three isolates as positive for hypermucoviscosity. Phenotypic characterization and molecular detection of carbapenemase- and virulence-encoding genes were performed. PCR-based multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetics were used to determine the clonality and global epidemiology of the strains...
April 5, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ellie Bean Abrams, Richa Namballa, Richard He, David Poeppel, Pablo Ripollés
While certain musical genres and songs are widely popular, there is still large variability in the music that individuals find rewarding or emotional, even among those with a similar musical enculturation. Interestingly, there is one Western genre that is intended to attract minimal attention and evoke a mild emotional response: elevator music. In a series of behavioral experiments, we show that elevator music consistently elicits low pleasure and surprise. Participants reported elevator music as being less pleasurable than music from popular genres, even when participants did not regularly listen to the comparison genre...
April 2, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Katherine B Forrest
We are at the beginning of the beginning of the beginning of the development of AI. The ethical issues we first saw and are still grappling with have been overtaken by others, and there are yet others on the horizon.
April 2, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Richard Meitern, Peeter Hõrak
Patterns of individual variation in lifespan and senescence depend on the associations between parental survival and reproductive rates. We studied the associations between parity and survival among 579,271 Estonians born between 1905 and 1945 and in a cohort with a completed lifespan born in 1905-1927. For this cohort, selection for increased lifespan operated on both sexes, but it was stronger in men than in women. However, the median lifespan increased between the subsequent cohorts in women but stagnated in men...
March 27, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Piero Lionello, Roberta D'Agostino, David Ferreira, Hanh Nguyen, Martin S Singh
The Hadley circulation (HC) is a global-scale atmospheric feature with air descending in the subtropics and ascending in the tropics, which plays a fundamental role in Earth's climate because it transports energy polewards and moisture equatorwards. Theoretically, as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, the HC is expected to expand polewards, while indications on the HC strength are equivocal, as weakening and strengthening are expected in response to different mechanisms. In fact, there is a general agreement among reanalyses and climate simulations that the HC has significantly widened in the last four decades and it will continue widening in the future, but there is no consensus on past and future changes of the HC strength...
March 26, 2024: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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