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Annual Review of Biochemistry

Thomas D Pollard, Ben O'Shaughnessy
Division of amoebas, fungi, and animal cells into two daughter cells at the end of the cell cycle depends on a common set of ancient proteins, principally actin filaments and myosin-II motors. Anillin, formins, IQGAPs, and many other proteins regulate the assembly of the actin filaments into a contractile ring positioned between the daughter nuclei by different mechanisms in fungi and animal cells. Interactions of myosin-II with actin filaments produce force to assemble and then constrict the contractile ring to form a cleavage furrow...
January 16, 2019: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Adolfo Cuesta, Jack Taunton
Covalent inhibitors are widely used in drug discovery and chemical biology. Although covalent inhibitors are frequently designed to react with noncatalytic cysteines, many ligand binding sites lack an accessible cysteine. Here, we review recent advances in the chemical biology of lysine-targeted covalent inhibitors and chemoproteomic probes. By analyzing crystal structures of proteins bound to common metabolites and enzyme cofactors, we identify a large set of mostly unexplored lysines that are potentially targetable with covalent inhibitors...
January 11, 2019: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Rahul Banerjee, Jason C Jones, John D Lipscomb
Aerobic life is possible because the molecular structure of oxygen (O2 ) makes direct reaction with most organic materials at ambient temperatures, an exceptionally slow process. Of course, these reactions are inherently very favorable, and they occur rapidly with the release of a great deal of energy at high temperature. Nature has been able to tap this sequestered reservoir of energy with great spatial and temporal selectivity at ambient temperatures through the evolution of oxidase and oxygenase enzymes...
January 11, 2019: Annual Review of Biochemistry
David K Breslow, Andrew J Holland
The centriole is an ancient microtubule-based organelle with a conserved nine-fold symmetry. Centrioles form the core of centrosomes, which organize the interphase microtubule cytoskeleton of most animal cells and form the poles of the mitotic spindle. Centrioles can also be modified to form basal bodies, which template the formation of cilia and play central roles in cellular signaling, fluid movement, and locomotion. In this review, we discuss developments in our understanding of the biogenesis of centrioles and cilia and the regulatory controls that govern their structure and number...
January 2, 2019: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Henry N Chapman
X-ray free-electron lasers provide femtosecond-duration pulses of hard X-rays with a peak brightness approximately one billion times greater than is available at synchrotron radiation facilities. One motivation for the development of such X-ray sources was the proposal to obtain structures of macromolecules, macromolecular complexes, and virus particles, without the need for crystallization, through diffraction measurements of single noncrystalline objects. Initial explorations of this idea and of outrunning radiation damage with femtosecond pulses led to the development of serial crystallography and the ability to obtain high-resolution structures of small crystals without the need for cryogenic cooling...
January 2, 2019: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Shenghong Ma, Zhipeng Meng, Rui Chen, Kun-Liang Guan
The Hippo pathway was initially discovered in Drosophila melanogaster as a key regulator of tissue growth. It is an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade regulating numerous biological processes, including cell growth and fate decision, organ size control, and regeneration. The core of the Hippo pathway in mammals consists of a kinase cascade, MST1/2 and LATS1/2, as well as downstream effectors, transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ. These core components of the Hippo pathway control transcription programs involved in cell proliferation, survival, mobility, stemness, and differentiation...
December 19, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Jochen Baßler, Ed Hurt
Ribosomes, which synthesize the proteins of a cell, comprise ribosomalRNA and ribosomal proteins, which coassemble hierarchically during a process termed ribosome biogenesis. Historically, biochemical and molecular biology approaches have revealed how preribosomal particles form and mature in consecutive steps, starting in the nucleolus and terminating after nuclear export into the cytoplasm. However, only recently, due to the revolution in cryo-electron microscopy, could pseudoatomic structures of different preribosomal particles be obtained...
December 19, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Günter Kramer, Ayala Shiber, Bernd Bukau
The timely production of functional proteins is of critical importance for the biological activity of cells. To reach the functional state, newly synthesized polypeptides have to become enzymatically processed, folded, and assembled into oligomeric complexes and, for noncytosolic proteins, translocated across membranes. Key activities of these processes occur cotranslationally, assisted by a network of machineries that transiently engage nascent polypeptides at distinct phases of translation. The sequence of events is tuned by intrinsic features of the nascent polypeptides and timely association of factors with the translating ribosome...
December 3, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
S Rempel, W K Stanek, D J Slotboom
Energy-coupling factor (ECF)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters catalyze membrane transport of micronutrients in prokaryotes. Crystal structures and biochemical characterization have revealed that ECF transporters are mechanistically distinct from other ABC transport systems. Notably, ECF transporters make use of small integral membrane subunits (S-components) that are predicted to topple over in the membrane when carrying the bound substrate from the extracellular side of the bilayer to the cytosol...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Min Dong, Geoffrey Masuyer, Pâl Stenmark
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the most potent toxins known and cause botulism and tetanus, respectively. BoNTs are also widely utilized as therapeutic toxins. They contain three functional domains responsible for receptor-binding, membrane translocation, and proteolytic cleavage of host proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These toxins also have distinct features: BoNTs exist within a progenitor toxin complex (PTC), which protects the toxin and facilitates its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas TeNT is uniquely transported retrogradely within motor neurons...
November 2, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Johan Elf, Irmeli Barkefors
In the past decades, advances in microscopy have made it possible to study the dynamics of individual biomolecules in vitro and resolve intramolecular kinetics that would otherwise be hidden in ensemble averages. More recently, single-molecule methods have been used to image, localize, and track individually labeled macromolecules in the cytoplasm of living cells, allowing investigations of intermolecular kinetics under physiologically relevant conditions. In this review, we illuminate the particular advantages of single-molecule techniques when studying kinetics in living cells and discuss solutions to specific challenges associated with these methods...
October 25, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
David L Brautigan, Shirish Shenolikar
Protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPPs) are ancient enzymes, with distinct types conserved across eukaryotic evolution. PPPs are segregated into types primarily on the basis of the unique interactions of PPP catalytic subunits with regulatory proteins. The resulting holoenzymes dock substrates distal to the active site to enhance specificity. This review focuses on the subunit and substrate interactions for PPP that depend on short linear motifs. Insights about these motifs from structures of holoenzymes open new opportunities for computational biology approaches to elucidate PPP networks...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Gunnar von Heijne
This article introduces the Protein Evolution and Design theme of the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87.
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Shiou-Chuan (Sheryl) Tsai
Polyketides are a large family of structurally complex natural products including compounds with important bioactivities. Polyketides are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs), multienzyme complexes derived evolutionarily from fatty acid synthases (FASs). The focus of this review is to critically compare the properties of FASs with iterative aromatic PKSs, including type II PKSs and fungal type I nonreducing PKSs whose chemical logic is distinct from that of modular PKSs. This review focuses on structural and enzymological studies that reveal both similarities and striking differences between FASs and aromatic PKSs...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Junhong Choi, Rosslyn Grosely, Arjun Prabhakar, Christopher P Lapointe, Jinfan Wang, Joseph D Puglisi
Translation elongation is a highly coordinated, multistep, multifactor process that ensures accurate and efficient addition of amino acids to a growing nascent-peptide chain encoded in the sequence of translated messenger RNA (mRNA). Although translation elongation is heavily regulated by external factors, there is clear evidence that mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences control elongation dynamics, determining both the sequence and structure of synthesized proteins. Advances in methods have driven experiments that revealed the basic mechanisms of elongation as well as the mechanisms of regulation by mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Tamaki Suganuma, Jerry L Workman
Chromatin is a mighty consumer of cellular energy generated by metabolism. Metabolic status is efficiently coordinated with transcription and translation, which also feed back to regulate metabolism. Conversely, suppression of energy utilization by chromatin processes may serve to preserve energy resources for cell survival. Most of the reactions involved in chromatin modification require metabolites as their cofactors or coenzymes. Therefore, the metabolic status of the cell can influence the spectra of posttranslational histone modifications and the structure, density and location of nucleosomes, impacting epigenetic processes...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Laura J Niedernhofer, Aditi U Gurkar, Yinsheng Wang, Jan Vijg, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Paul D Robbins
The nuclear genome decays as organisms age. Numerous studies demonstrate that the burden of several classes of DNA lesions is greater in older mammals than in young mammals. More challenging is proving this is a cause rather than a consequence of aging. The DNA damage theory of aging, which argues that genomic instability plays a causal role in aging, has recently gained momentum. Support for this theory stems partly from progeroid syndromes in which inherited defects in DNA repair increase the burden of DNA damage leading to accelerated aging of one or more organs...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Charisma Enam, Yifat Geffen, Tommer Ravid, Richard G Gardner
Nuclear proteins participate in diverse cellular processes, many of which are essential for cell survival and viability. To maintain optimal nuclear physiology, the cell employs the ubiquitin-proteasome system to eliminate damaged and misfolded proteins in the nucleus that could otherwise harm the cell. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about the major ubiquitin-protein ligases involved in protein quality control degradation (PQCD) in the nucleus and how they orchestrate their functions to eliminate misfolded proteins in different nuclear subcompartments...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Emily M Zygiel, Elizabeth M Nolan
In response to microbial infection, the human host deploys metal-sequestering host-defense proteins, which reduce nutrient availability and thereby inhibit microbial growth and virulence. Calprotectin (CP) is an abundant antimicrobial protein released from neutrophils and epithelial cells at sites of infection. CP sequesters divalent first-row transition metal ions to limit the availability of essential metal nutrients in the extracellular space. While functional and clinical studies of CP have been pursued for decades, advances in our understanding of its biological coordination chemistry, which is central to its role in the host-microbe interaction, have been made in more recent years...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Lianet Noda-Garcia, Wolfram Liebermeister, Dan S Tawfik
How individual enzymes evolved is relatively well understood. However, individual enzymes rarely confer a physiological advantage on their own. Judging by its current state, the emergence of metabolism seemingly demanded the simultaneous emergence of many enzymes. Indeed, how multicomponent interlocked systems, like metabolic pathways, evolved is largely an open question. This complexity can be unlocked if we assume that survival of the fittest applies not only to genes and enzymes but also to the metabolites they produce...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
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