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Journal of General Psychology

Anastasia Fabbro, Cristiano Crescentini, Fabio D'Antoni, Franco Fabbro
The present exploratory study investigated possible relationships between language and personality, attachment styles, and mindfulness disposition. Sixty-three participants were assessed through the Big-Five inventory questionnaire, the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, and then they were asked to look at a picture story and describe it. Narrations were analyzed through a multilevel approach: the number of verbal units and information units reported were counted; the Type/Token Ratio, disfluencies and errors of cohesion were also calculated...
March 11, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
John J Sailors, James E Heyman
This paper compares the Selective Accessibility and Scale Distortion theories of anchoring as explanations for anchoring tasks involving (1) perceived dissimilarity between comparison and estimation objects and (2) successive estimation tasks. We begin by describing the two theories of anchoring and what each would predict for these conditions. Two studies are presented in which multiple estimates are made following a single comparison task and the effect sizes of these estimates are correlated to operationalizations of similarity...
February 10, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Melike Eger Aydogmus, James C Hamilton
Previous studies have found a link between emotion processing deficits and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUS). The majority of previous studies have used self-report measures of emotional processing, with the majority focusing on alexithymia, and have produced inconsistent and contradictory results. In the present study, we investigated the role of emotion-processing deficits in MUS by assessing emotion regulation performance and the effects of performance on ego depletion. Participants with high or low levels of self-reported MUS watched emotion-evoking videos under instructions to allow or suppress their emotional reactions, and then performed an anagram task to measure their effort and perseverance...
February 9, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Zahra Khorasanchi, Afsane Bahrami, Amir Avan, Najmeh Jaberi, Majid Rezaey, Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
It is well established that smoking is associated with impaired mental health and sleep problems. However, the possible effects of passive smoking on cognitive and emotional characteristics have not previously been evaluated in adolescents. We investigated the association between passive smoking and cognitive and emotional function, and sleep patterns in 940 adolescent girls. The girls were divided into two groups [305 exposed subjects and 635 non-exposed subjects (the controls)]. The passive smokers had a significantly lower cognitive function and higher depression, aggression, and insomnia scores compared to the control group (P < 0...
February 7, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Octávio Moura, Paulo Costa, Mário R Simões
This study aimed to investigate the presence of specific cognitive impairments and the diagnostic utility of the WISC-III in children with ADHD. Ninety-eight children with ADHD and 81 children without ADHD matched by age and gender (control group), between the ages of 6 and 12 years, participated in the study. Children with ADHD revealed the most pronounced deficits in the subtests tapping working memory and processing speed. Freedom from Distractibility was the cognitive profile most impaired and that showed the highest diagnostic accuracy to discriminate children with ADHD...
February 7, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Sara B Festini, Christopher Hertzog, Ian M McDonough, Denise C Park
Busier people tend to perform better on cognitive tasks than less busy individuals. Nevertheless, the characteristics that are associated with greater perceived busyness are unknown. To address this question participants (N = 463) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (ages 20-89) completed a self-report busyness assessment and demographic, health, personality, and lifestyle measures. Results revealed that perceived busyness peaked in 30-year-olds, showed age-related decreases until age 60, and then remained stable...
January 26, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Elif Cimsir
Given that little is known about the underlying mechanisms of rumination in response to an interpersonal offense, the purpose of this research is to reveal if inferiority feelings, dispositional rumination, and gender predict rumination regarding an interpersonal offense in a college student population. A sample of 147 undergraduate students completed the Ruminative Thought Style Scale, the Inferiority Feelings Scale and the Rumination About an Interpersonal Offense scale. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis confirm that although the majority of variation in interpersonal rumination is accounted for by dispositional rumination, inferiority feelings still explain a significant amount of variation in interpersonal rumination...
January 19, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Hubert Suszek, Mirosław Kofta, Maciej Kopera
Children seem to live more in the present moment than adults. But is it possible to make the present time perspective more available among adults? Four experiments demonstrated that activating childhood selves can lead adults to be more embedded in the hedonistic present. Studies 1 and 2 showed that recalling memories from childhood, either in an open-ended or a structured form, increased participants' focus on the hedonistic present. Study 3 showed that this effect also occurred after an implicit childhood manipulation...
January 19, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Samantha-Kaye Johnston, Neville W Hennessey, Suze Leitão
The attention network test (ANT) assesses efficiency across alerting, orienting, and executive components of visual attention. This study examined approaches to assessing auditory attention networks, and performance was compared to the visual ANT. Results showed (1) alerting was sufficiently elicited in a pitch discrimination and sound localization task, although these effects were unrelated, (2) weak orienting of attention was elicited through pitch discrimination, which varied based on ISI and conflict level, but robust orienting of attention was found through sound localization, and (3) executive control was sufficiently assessed in both pitch discrimination and sound localization tasks, but these effects were unrelated...
January 19, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Heather M Kleider-Offutt
Fear can be acquired for objects not inherently associated with threat (e.g. birds), and this threat may generalize from prototypical to peripheral category members (e.g. crows vs. penguins). When categorizing people, pervasive stereotypes link Black men to assumed violence and criminality. Faces with Afrocentric features (prototypical) are more often associated with threat and criminality than non-Afrocentric (peripheral) faces regardless of whether the individual is Black or White. In this study, using a priming paradigm, threat associations related to negative racial stereotypes were tested as a vehicle for spreading fear across face-type categories...
January 19, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Saeed Ghorbani
The OPTIMAL theory proposes that enhancing expectancies and autonomy facilitate motor performance and learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite). Present study with two experiments aimed to examine this proposition by using a modified dart throwing as motor task. In both experiments, motor learning (i.e., retention test) was enhanced by practice conditions, which enhance expectancies for future performance and support learners' autonomy. Moreover, they led to significantly superior self-efficacy scores during all acquisition phase, retention, and transfer tests...
January 17, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Joseph C Kush
Inspection time tasks assess the ability to make a simple visual discrimination, typically in milliseconds. Typically, IT stimuli consists of a pi-shaped figure, in which subjects select the side with the significantly longer leg. To prevent storage in iconic memory, a backward mask is then introduced. However, some participants have reported that the mask may cause the shorter leg to appear to lengthen, creating a possible strategy that facilitates performance. As a result, alternative stimuli/masks have been developed; however, these alternative stimuli may be processed differently...
January 12, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Wei Zhou, Yadong Gao, Yulin Chang, Mengmeng Su
Hemispheric predominance has been well documented in the visual perception of alphabetic words. However, the hemispheric processing of lexical information in Chinese character recognition and its relationship to reading performance are far from clear. In the divided visual field paradigm, participants were required to judge the orthography, phonology, or semantics of Chinese characters, which were presented randomly in the left or right visual field. The results showed a right visual field/left hemispheric superiority in the phonological judgment task, but no hemispheric advantage in the orthographic or semantic task was found...
January 11, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Masoumeh Alavi, Seyed Abolghasem Mehrinezhad, Davoud Amini, Mohd Tajudin Ninggal, Adibah Abdul Latif
This study investigated the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and executive skills (ESs), and the differences between TEI and ESs among Malaysian and Iranian youths. In this study, 226 Malaysians and 248 Iranians completed the TEIQue-SF and Executive Skills Questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested with Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings indicated that TEI had significant predictions on ESs, depending on cultural contexts. Significant differences were found in the effects of TEI on ESs, including emotional control, metacognition, goal-directed persistence, response inhibition, planning/prioritization, sustained attention, stress tolerance, task initiation, and working memory among Malaysian and Iranian youth...
January 7, 2019: Journal of General Psychology
Ikuo Suzuki
False memories of one's past are often created by unconscious influences of previous experiences. This study examined whether action sequences, scripts that are frequent in everyday life, might induce false beliefs of having visited a location. Participants were shown photos of places they had not previously visited. Next, they rated how strongly they felt that they had visited the locations in the target scenes. Results indicated that when typical actions were presented in canonical order before the target scene, the feeling of having previously visited the location increased, relative to a condition with a random ordering of typical actions or to one with no presented actions...
November 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Shuyuan Yu, Baichen Li, Shudong Zhang, Tao Yang, Ting Jiang, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong
Many previous studies have demonstrated the SNARC effect-i.e., participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers. However, there is a debate on whether it is based on working or long-term memory (i.e., relative or absolute magnitude). Here, we examined the flexibility of the spatial-numerical associations using orientation judgment tasks. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a rotated frame surrounding an Arabic digit under numerical ranges 1-6, 4-9 (Experiment 1), and 1-9 (Experiment 2)...
November 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Jennifer C Veilleux, Melissa J Zielinski, Nicole E Moyen, Matthew A Tucker, Erin K Dougherty, Matthew S Ganio
In the current study, we tested the effects of core body temperature increases (e.g. heat stress) on affect, self-reported physical discomfort, and subsequent self-control in male smokers and nonsmokers using a novel passive heat stress paradigm, within a distress tolerance framework. Twenty-eight men (14 smokers), completed both heat stress and control sessions in randomized order. Results revealed that increases in core body temperature were associated with increased anxiety, irritability, and body discomfort as well as decreased happiness, with stronger effects for smokers...
October 25, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Magali Ginet, Olivier Dodier, Brigitte Bardin, Michel Désert, Catherine Greffeuille, Fanny Verkampt
The two present studies examined the influence of perspective instructions given during encoding and retrieval on the recall of a visual event. Participants viewed slides or a film depicting a day in the life of a man. Before viewing the to-be-remembered event, they were instructed to adopt the perspective of an alcoholic vs. an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 1), or of an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 2). Participants in the first study were interviewed twice, with the second recall being preceded by either a change perspective instruction or without any specific instruction...
October 16, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Arnold L Glass, Neha Sinha
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether performance on a subsequent exam was affected when two lessons were as similar as possible except that one was presented in class and the other was presented online. In a hybrid course, half of the lessons were presented in the classroom as narrated Power Point presentations and half of the lessons were presented online as narrated Power Point presentations. Online student-teacher interaction took place in a chatroom. Furthermore, for each question on the midterm or final examination, the students had answered a pre-lesson and post-lesson question, integrated with the appropriate lesson, which queried the same fact statement as the exam question...
October 15, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Frédérique Robin, Tifenn Cébron, Marine Letellier, Julien Nizard
Source confusion refers to a person's failure to distinguish whether an event has been actually seen or simply imagined. Nevertheless, prior research has demonstrated a reduction of source confusion for negative arousing information. According to the emotional-congruence effect, this emotional benefit is likely observed in patients suffering from chronic pain. This hypothesis was tested on 15 patients suffering of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 15 healthy women. In a source-monitoring task, participants had to decide whether positive, negative, and neutral words were imagined or seen with a picture...
September 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
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