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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Amy K Nuttall, Laura C Froyen, Lori E Skibbe, Ryan P Bowles
The present study examined the influence of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms on children's early literacy skills. Home learning-related parenting (HLE) was examined as a mediator of these associations. Families (N = 465) were recruited through preschools. Results indicate an actor effect of fathers', but not mothers', depressive symptoms on HLE parenting such that fathers who reported more depressive symptoms engaged in fewer HLE activities. A partner effect of fathers' depressive symptoms on HLE parenting indicated that higher levels of fathers' depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of mothers' home learning activities...
February 19, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sarah M Kennedy, Jill Ehrenreich-May
Safety behaviors are common in anxiety and have been thought to reduce the efficacy of exposure therapy, although some investigations have indicated that safety behaviors may have a non-significant or beneficial impact on exposure efficacy. There have been few investigations of the characteristics and impact of safety behavior use in youth compared to adults, and no known validated, transdiagnostic youth measure of safety behaviors exists. In Study 1, we investigated the psychometric properties of a transdiagnostic measure of adolescent safety behavior use...
February 19, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Andrew G Guzick, Danielle L Cooke, Joseph P H McNamara, Adam M Reid, Paulo A Graziano, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy, Wayne K Goodman, Eric A Storch, Gary R Geffken
Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has often been characterized as an internalizing disorder, some children with OCD exhibit externalizing behaviors that are specific to their OCD. This study sought to demonstrate that parents perceive both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood OCD by examining the factor structure of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Externalizing/Internalizing Scale (COCEIS), a parent-report questionnaire intended to measure these constructs. This study also investigated clinical correlates of internalizing and externalizing factors in the COCEIS...
February 18, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Lorraine Fliek, Jeffrey Roelofs, Gerard van Breukelen, Peter Muris
This longitudinal study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms on three subsequent time points over a one-year period. Participants were 216 children aged 7-12 years (114 boys and 102 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). On each time point, children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions scale, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission...
February 14, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nathaniel A Shanok, Nancy Aaron Jones, Nikola N Lucas
This study examined socio-emotional skills, utilizing a facial emotion recognition (FER) task featuring unfamiliar and familiar faces, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. Results showed that the TD children were more proficient on the FER overall whereas ASD children recognized familiar expressions more precisely than unfamiliar ones. Further, ASD children did not differ from TD children in recognizing happy expressions but ASD children were less skilled with recognizing negative expressions...
February 11, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Joseph R Cohen, Felix K So, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin, Brenda A Lee
Few studies have examined the incremental validity of multi-informant depression screening approaches. In response, we examined how recommendations for using a multi-informant approach may vary for identifying concurrent or prospective depressive episodes. Participants included 663 youth (AgeM  = 11.83; AgeSD  = 2.40) and their caregiver who independently completed youth depression questionnaires, and clinical diagnostic interviews, every 6 months for 3 years. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that youth-report best predicted concurrent episodes, and that both youth and parent-report were necessary to adequately forecast prospective episodes...
February 8, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Xiafei Wang, Qiong Wu, Susan Yoon
Child aggression and its dire consequences cause social problems. Informed by family systems theory and parenting stress theory, this study specifically examined the mediating pathways from father engagement to child aggression through maternal parenting stress, child resistant attachment, and maternal physical abuse. We conducted a secondary data analysis on 2016 mother-child dyads from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study by building structural equation models. We found indirect effects of father engagement on child aggression through influencing mothers' parenting stress...
February 4, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Cornelia Mohr, Mirja H Gross-Hemmi, Andrea Hans Meyer, Frank H Wilhelm, Silvia Schneider
This study investigates the temporal patterning of infant self-regulatory behaviors (crying/fussing, sleeping) in relation to both infant (age, sex, regulatory problems) and maternal variables (soothing behaviors, mood). Self-regulatory and soothing behaviors were assessed in 121 mother-infant dyads (4-44 weeks) by the Baby's Day Diary at 5 min intervals over 3 days. Further infant characteristics and maternal mood were assessed by questionnaires (DASS, CES-D, STAI) and the Diagnostic Interview for the Assessment of Regulatory Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood...
February 1, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Stefanie F Gonçalves, Tara M Chaplin, Caitlin C Turpyn, Claire E Niehaus, Timothy W Curby, Rajita Sinha, Emily B Ansell
Major depressive disorder begins to increase in early adolescence and is associated with significant impairment (e.g., suicidality). Difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) have been associated with depressive symptoms; however, little research has examined this relation over time beginning in early adolescence. Starting when they were 11-14 years old, 246 adolescents (nboys  = 126; nwhite  = 158) completed self-report questionnaires on their ER at Time 1 and depressive symptoms every year for 2 years...
January 28, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Izabela Chojnicka, Ewa Pisula
Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used standardized diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article presents findings from the validation of the Polish version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R-PL), including new algorithms for toddlers and preschoolers. The validation group consisted of 125 participants: 65 with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD group) and 60 in the control group, including individuals with non-ASD disorders and typical development...
January 19, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Pieter J Vuijk, Hillary H Bush, Patrick S McGuinness, Sheila M O'Keefe, Brenda A Lee, Hillary L Ditmars, Anna R Samkavitz, Hannah S Lind, Ellen B Braaten, Alysa E Doyle
On average, compared to non-referred youth, child psychiatric outpatients show elevated rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), which are predictors of completed suicide. Determining the psychopathology features that associate with highest risk for STBs among youth outpatients may yield opportunities for targeted prevention/intervention. Yet, outpatient studies are limited and have not systematically examined comorbidity and dimensional psychopathology. In 758 youth, aged 6-18, consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation, we examined the extent to which diagnostic groups, comorbid subgroups and dimensional symptoms associated with STBs...
January 17, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jordan P Davis, Philip C Kendall, Cynthia M Suveg
The current study examined emotional awareness as a predictor of differential outcomes for youth treated for an anxiety disorder. 37 youth ages 7-15 received either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy or family cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Diagnoses were determined by independent evaluators, following semi-structured interviews (ADIS-IV-C/P) with youth and their parents. Self-report questionnaires, including the multidimensional anxiety scale for children and the emotion expressivity scale for children, were completed at pre- and posttreatment...
January 2, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Vincent Bégin, Michèle Déry, Yann Le Corff
The three dimensions of psychopathic traits in childhood have been consistently associated with high levels of conduct problems among children. However, little is known about the continuity and change in psychopathic traits among children with conduct problems. This study aimed to examine the homotypic continuity and change of the three dimensions of psychopathic traits from 8 to 14 years old among 370 children (40.3% girls) who were identified at school as having conduct problems at study inception. Results supported the structural continuity of the tridimensional model of psychopathic traits and revealed that the callous-unemotional dimension is more stable than the two other dimensions...
January 2, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu
Posttramatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are persistent disorders with heterogeneous comorbidity. Cross-sectional design limitations have prevented previous studies from examining symptom pattern transitions, which limits the understanding on the change of mental health over time since trauma. This study examined transition patterns of PTSD and depression comorbidity and assessed the role of personality. PTSD, depression, and personality scales were used to assess 619 adolescents 1 year after the Wenchuan earthquake and then to longitudinally assess 332 adolescents 2 years post-earthquake...
January 2, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Subina Upadhyaya, Roshan Chudal, Terhi Luntamo, Jari Sinkkonen, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Hitoshi Kaneko, Andre Sourander
This nationwide population-based register study examined the family and parental risk factors associated with offspring reactive attachment disorder (RAD). We identified 614 children diagnosed with RAD from the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and each case was matched with four controls. Univariate and multivariate models examined the associations between risk factors and RAD. In the multivariate model, offspring RAD was associated with only mother, only father and both parents having psychiatric diagnoses...
December 29, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Daniel Walter, Lydia Dachs, Johanna Farwick Zum Hagen, Hildegard Goletz, Anja Goertz-Dorten, Claudia Kinnen, Christiane Rademacher, Stephanie Schuermann, Paula Viefhaus, Tanja Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Manfred Doepfner
Compared to randomized controlled trials, studies examining the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with mental disorders are rare, and a teacher perspective is scarce. The present study investigated the effectiveness of routine CBT in 519 patients aged 6-18 years with mental disorders. Changes in mental health problems were assessed in teacher (Teacher Report Form, TRF) and parent rating (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL) and were analyzed within the total sample, yielding statistically significant, small to medium effect sizes (teacher rating: d = ...
December 18, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Kimberly E Kamper-DeMarco, Jamie M Ostrov
The present short-term longitudinal study examined the stability and role of peer influence on both physical and relational aggression in early childhood using a dyadic data analytic framework. Following the peer-individual interaction model, forms of aggressive behavior (i.e., physical and relational) were observed in 43 dyads of close friendships in early childhood (M = 47.37 months, SD = 7.56) to better understand how friendships may maintain aggressive behavior over time. Friendship quality (FQ) was included as a moderator to explain how friendships may maintain aggression...
December 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Emily A Hutchinson, Dana Rosen, Kristy Allen, Rebecca B Price, Marlissa Amole, Jennifer S Silk
Although dysfunctions in attention have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression in adults, findings from studies of depressed adolescents have been inconsistent. While some research has shown that youth with depressive symptoms exhibit increased attention to negative stimuli, other findings demonstrated attentional avoidance. Additionally, given the increase in parent-child conflict during adolescence, parent-child relationship quality may be an important moderating factor in the association between depressive symptoms and attention...
November 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
David Hoskins, Brandon D L Marshall, Daphne Koinis-Mitchell, Katharine Galbraith, Marina Tolou-Shams
This study examines the prevalence of trauma exposure and its association with psychiatric symptoms, substance use, and sexual activity among First-Time Offending, Court-Involved Non-Incarcerated (FTO-CINI) Latinx youth. Latinx youth (N = 181), ages 12-18, were recruited from a family court in the Northeastern region of the United States as part of a longitudinal cohort study of 423 FTO-CINI youth. Baseline data on trauma exposure and symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, substance use (alcohol/marijuana), and sexual activity among the Latinx sample were analyzed by age, gender, and offense type (status versus delinquent)...
November 27, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Emma Bajeux, David H Klemanski, Mathilde Husky, Emmanuelle Leray, Christine Chan Chee, Taraneh Shojaei, Christophe Fermanian, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
The study compares parent and child reports of child mental health to determine the relationship between parent-child disagreement and parental psychological and attitudinal factors, and to determine how parent-child disagreement is associated with the use of specialized services. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1268 children aged 6-11 years using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Psychological distress and negative parental attitudes were associated with greater reporting of mental health problems, leading to greater parent-child agreement on symptom presence, and to parental over-reporting of symptoms...
December 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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