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Accident; Analysis and Prevention

David Shinar, Ben Gurion
There are interrelationships between crash causes, countermeasures, and policy implications, but they are not necessarily direct and obvious. Part of the problem is the definition of a cause. The seminal 1979 Indiana University "Study of Accident Causes" has cemented some false assumptions that must be overcome to yield an effective crash countermeasures policy. The taxonomy of crash causes and the prevalence of different causes are determined by the investigators, who are biased in different ways...
February 18, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Fulei Chu, Yue Fu, Shuzhen Liu
Although studies have suggested that personality can forecast safety performance at the individual level, the link between organizational-level personality and safety performance is rarely considered. On the basis of the Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) theory, the present study investigated the direct and indirect effects of the organizational emergence of personality (Five-Factor Model) on individual-level outcomes (safety performance) in the high-speed rail industry. The sample consisted of 1035 high-speed rail operators in China...
February 15, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Abdullah Khan, Corey D Harper, Chris T Hendrickson, Constantine Samaras
Most light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error. Many of these crashes could be avoided or made less severe with the aid of crash avoidance technologies. These technologies can assist the driver in maintaining control of the vehicle when a possibly dangerous situation arises by issuing alerts to the driver and in a few cases, responding to the situation itself. This paper estimates the societal and private benefits and costs associated with three crash avoidance technologies, blind-spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward-collision warning, for all light duty passenger vehicles in the U...
February 14, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Deniz Atalar, Pete Thomas
Powered two wheeler (PTW) riders are a group of vulnerable road users that are overrepresented compared to other road user groups with regards to crash injury outcomes. The understanding of the dynamics that occur before a crash benefits in providing suitable countermeasures for said crashes. A clearer interpretation of which factors interact to cause collisions allows an understanding of the mechanisms that produce higher risk in specific situations in the roadway. Real world in-depth crash data provides detailed data which includes human, vehicular and environmental factors collected on site for crash analysis purposes...
February 13, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kai Wang, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Shanshan Zhao, Naveen Eluru, Eric Jackson
This study employs a copula-based multivariate temporal ordered probit model to simultaneously estimate the four common intersection crash consequence metrics - driver error, crash type, vehicle damage and injury severity - by accounting for potential correlations due to common observed and unobserved factors, while also accommodating the temporal instability of model estimates over time. To this end, a comprehensive literature review of relevant studies was conducted; four different copula model specifications including Frank, Clayton, Joe and Gumbel were estimated to identify the dominant factors contributing to each crash consequence indicator; the temporal effects on model estimates were investigated; the elasticity effects of the independent variables with regard to all four crash consequence indicators were measured to express the magnitude of the effects of an independent variable on the probability change for each level of four indicators; and specific countermeasures were recommended for each of the contributing factors to improve the intersection safety...
February 13, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lu Xing, Jie He, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai, Ye Li, Ou Zheng
Despite the recognized benefits of electronic toll collection (ETC) system as an important part of toll plaza area, the mixed traffic of electronic toll collection (ETC) vehicles and manual toll collection (MTC) vehicles in the toll plaza diverging area are considered risky to vehicles, in which complex diverging and crossing behavior of vehicles would increase the collision risks. Therefore, it is vitally important to investigate the vehicle collision risk in the up stream toll plaza area. Video data are collected from a typical toll plaza in Nanjing, China, and vehicle trajectory data are extracted using an automated analysis system based on OpenCV...
February 13, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Laura Petitta, Tahira M Probst, Valerio Ghezzi, Claudio Barbaranelli
The purpose of this study was to examine contagion of positive and negative emotions among employees as an antecedent of cognitive failures and subsequent workplace accidents. Using emotional contagion theory and the neural model of emotion and cognition, we tested the proposition that higher contagion of anger (i.e., a negative emotion accompanied by dysfunctional cognition) would be associated with greater cognitive failures, whereas higher contagion of joy (i.e., a positive emotion accompanied by pleasant information processing, attention and positive cognition) would be associated with fewer cognitive failures...
February 11, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
David Arbis, Vinayak V Dixit
The study employs a Quantal Response Equilibrium framework to model lane changing manoeuvres. Prior game theoretic studies in lane changing have pre-eminently assumed Nash equilibrium solutions with deterministic payoffs for actions. The study method involves developing expected utility models for drivers' merge and give-way decisions. These utility models incorporate explanatory variables representing driver trajectories during a lane changing manoeuvre. The model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood on lane changing data at a freeway on-ramp using the NGSIM dataset...
February 11, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Hanne Beate Sundfør, Fridulv Sagberg, Alena Høye
Distraction and inattention pose a considerable threat to road safety, not only for car drivers, but also for vulnerable road users. Previous studies show that inattention and distraction are more often contributing factors in severe crashes, compared to less severe crashes. The correlation with severity appears to vary with the type of inattention. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive mapping of the types of inattention that contribute to fatal road crashes. This was done by exploring data from in-depth investigations of all fatal road crashes in Norway between 2011 and 2015 conducted by crash investigation teams of the Norwegian Public Roads Administration...
February 11, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christian Lehsing, Florian Ruch, Felix M Kölsch, Georg N Dyszak, Christian Haag, Ilja T Feldstein, Steven W Savage, Alex R Bowers
PURPOSE: Interaction is the process of behavior adaption between two or more participants primarily based on what they visually perceive. It is an important aspect of traffic participation and supports a safe and efficient flow of traffic. However, prior driving simulator studies investigating the effects of vision impairment have typically used pre-programmed pedestrians that did not interact with the human driver. In the current study we used a linked pedestrian and driving simulator setting to increase the ecological validity of the experimental paradigm...
February 9, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
P Lacherez, S Virupaksha, J M Wood, M J Collins
The distracting effects of mobile telephone use while driving are well known, however the effects of other sources of distraction, such as auditory navigation devices, are less well understood. Whether the effects of auditory distraction might interact with other sensory impairments, such as vision impairment, is of interest given that visual impairment is relatively common within the population, particularly as a result of uncorrected refractive error. In this experiment, 20 current drivers (mean age of 29...
February 8, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
T Hill, M J M Sullman, A N Stephens
There is extensive evidence that using a mobile phone whilst driving is one of the biggest contributors to driver distraction, which in turn increases the risk of motor vehicle collisions. Whilst most of the developed countries have been trying to deter this behaviour through legislation, enforcement and educational campaigns, in Ukraine, where the road fatality rate is the highest in Europe, this issue has only recently become publicised. The present study examined psychological factors that are associated with hand-held mobile phone use while driving among a sample of Ukrainian drivers, in particular writing or reading a text message while driving...
February 8, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Pengpeng Xu, Yaobang Gong
In previous studies, the safety-in-numbers effect has been found, which is a phenomenon that when the number of pedestrians or cyclists increases, their crash rates decrease. The previous studies used data from highly populated areas. It is questionable that the safety-in-numbers effect is still observed in areas with a low population density and small number of pedestrians. Thus, this study aims at analyzing pedestrian crashes in a suburban area in the United States and exploring if the safety-in-numbers effect is also observed...
February 7, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Chang Wang, Zhen Li, Rui Fu, Yingshi Guo, Wei Yuan
Driver distraction is widely recognized as a major contributor to traffic crashes. Although the effect of distraction on simulated driving performance has been studied extensively, comparatively little research based on field tests has been performed on the effects of high driving speeds on lateral driving performance during naturalistic distraction (the driver was unaware of the research topic). In this study, an instrumented vehicle is used to examine the impact of speed and naturalistic visual distraction (rear vehicle's velocity and relative distance estimation) on a driver's ability to keep in the lane...
February 6, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Karl Kim, Jiwnath Ghimire, Pradip Pant, Eric Yamashita
In spite of research and awareness of the hazards associated with handheld mobile device use while driving, many motorists continue to engage in this risky behavior. The mobile device use while driving has a detrimental effect on the operation of the vehicle. It contributes significantly to distraction which is a leading cause of accidents. Especially, the use of text messaging and the dialing of a 10-digit number while driving can be attributable to crash risks. Phone use bans have a positive role in reducing mobile phone use for texting while operating vehicles...
February 6, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Eleonora Papadimitriou, Ashleigh Filtness, Athanasios Theofilatos, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Claire Quigley, George Yannis
The objective of this paper is the review and comparative assessment of infrastructure related crash risk factors, with the explicit purpose of ranking them based on how detrimental they are towards road safety (i.e. crash risk, frequency and severity). This analysis was carried out within the SafetyCube project, which aimed to identify and quantify the effects of risk factors and measures related to behaviour, infrastructure or vehicles, and integrate the results in an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS)...
February 5, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Haruhiko Inada, Jun Tomio, Masao Ichikawa, Shinji Nakahara
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent and patterns of regional disparities of road traffic injury rates involving elementary and junior high school children while commuting among Japan's 47 prefectures. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional ecological study using the national police data for 2004-2013 on the number of children who were killed or seriously injured (KSI) in traffic collisions stratified by prefecture, grade, mode of transport, and purpose of trip (commuting or non-commuting)...
February 4, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Rongjie Yu, Yin Zheng, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Zhen Gao
Understanding the occurrence mechanisms of crashes is critical for traffic safety improvement. Efforts have been investigated to reveal the crash mechanisms and analyze the contributing factors from the aspects of vehicle, driver, and operational perspectives. In this study, special attention has been paid to the operational level analyses while bridging the research gaps of: (1) failing to identify the heterogeneous impact of microscopic traffic flow variables on crash occurrence, and (2) focusing on correlation effects without further investigations for the causal relationships...
February 4, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Rune Elvik
This paper proposes a comprehensive and unified framework for analysing the impacts on traffic injury of measures influencing speed. The key tool for analysis is a specification of the speed distribution, which in most cases closely approximates a standard normal distribution. The speed distribution can be represented, for example, by twelve intervals each comprising one half standard deviation. The exponential model of the relationship between speed and the number of injured road users is applied to estimate the expected injury rate for drivers travelling at the mean speed of any part of the distribution...
February 4, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gila Albert, Tsippy Lotan
Smartphone usage while driving, and particularly texting, are well recognized as a major road safety concern. This paper presents an attempt to evaluate the effect of countermeasures aimed at mitigating this usage. These countermeasures, which are automatically activated, may be considered "soft blockers": silencing and hiding notifications, as well as sending an automatic reply to the person trying to contact the driver. A naturalistic study was conducted with 167 young Israeli drivers, who installed a research-oriented smartphone app, which continuously monitored their smartphones usage while driving and, in addition, activated "soft blocking" in the study's intervention stage...
February 4, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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