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Journal of Comparative Neurology

Taro Koike, Susumu Tanaka, Yukie Hirahara, Souichi Oe, Kiyoshi Kurokawa, Mitsuyo Maeda, Mitsuo Suga, Yosky Kataoka, Hisao Yamada
In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), two types of glial cells (Schwann cells and satellite glial cells) have been identified based on cell morphology and expression of specific markers. In the present study, we observed unknown glial cells that were positive for p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and therefore were immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally characterized for the first time. These cells exhibited stronger immunoreactivity against an anti-p75NTR antibody than the DRG neurons (hereafter referred to as p75NTR++ cells)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Byunghyuk Kim
The developing nervous system generates remarkably precise synaptic connections between neurons and their postsynaptic target cells. Numerous neural cell adhesion proteins have been identified to mediate cell recognition between synaptic partners in several model organisms. Here, I review the role of protein interactions of cell adhesion molecules in neural circuit assembly and address how these interactions are utilized to form different neural circuitries in different species. The emerging evidence suggests that the extracellular trans-interactions of cell adhesion proteins for neural wiring are evolutionarily conserved across taxa, but they are often used in different steps of circuit assembly...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ida Luisa Boccalaro, Leonardo Cristiá-Lara, Cornelia Schwerdel, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Lena Rubi
The striatum is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, mediating motor and cognitive functions. Striatal projection neurons are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSN), expressing either the dopamine receptor type 1 (D1 -R MSN) and forming the direct, movement-promoting pathway, or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2 -R MSN), forming the indirect movement-suppressing pathway. Locally, activity and synchronization of MSN are modulated by several subtypes of GABAergic and cholinergic interneurons. Overall, GABAergic circuits in the striatum remain poorly characterized, and little is known about the intrastriatal connectivity of interneurons and the distribution of GABAA receptor (GABAA R) subtypes, distinguished by their subunit composition, in striatal synapses...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Motokazu Uchigashima, Amy Cheung, Julie Suh, Masahiko Watanabe, Kensuke Futai
Synapses, highly specialized membrane junctions between neurons, connect presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites and postsynaptic ligand-gated channels. Neurexins (Nrxns), a family of the presynaptic adhesion molecules, have been characterized as major regulators of synapse development and function. Via their extracellular domains, Nrxns bind to different postsynaptic proteins, generating highly diverse functional readouts through their postsynaptic binding partners. Not surprisingly given these versatile protein interactions, mutations and deletions of Nrxn genes have been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities and schizophrenia...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Stephen C Noctor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dengyun Ge, Peter G Noakes, Nickolas A Lavidis
At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), prolonged inactivity leads to muscle denervation and atrophy. By contrast, amphibian NMJs do not show such degeneration even though they can remain in a state of drought-imposed dormancy (hibernation) for many years. We have previously reported that during the dry season, toad (Bufo marinus) NMJs display decreased sensitivity to extracellular calcium dependent neurotransmitter release, which leads to minimal neuromuscular transmission. In the present study, we examined and compared NMJ morphology of toads obtained from the wild during the wet season (February-March) when these toads are active, to toads obtained from dry season (October-November) when toads are inactive...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mohammad Shahangir Biswas, Yuanjun Luo, Gideon Anokye Sarpong, Izumi Sugihara
The basilar pontine nucleus (PN) is the key relay point for the cerebrocerebellar link. However, the projection pattern of pontocerebellar mossy fiber axons, which is essential in determining the functional organization of the cerebellar cortex, has not been fully clarified. We reconstructed the entire trajectory of 25 single pontocerebellar mossy fiber axons labeled by localized injection of biotinylated dextran amine into various locations in the PN and mapped all their terminals in an unfolded scheme of the cerebellum in 10 mice...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Luis Puelles, Antonia Alonso, Elena García-Calero, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre
Models aiming to explain causally the evolutionary or ontogenetic emergence of the pallial isocortex and its regional/areal heterogeneity in mammals use simple or complex assumptions about the pallial structure present in basal mammals and non-mammals. The question arises: how complex is the pattern that needs to be accounted for in causal models? This topic is also paramount for comparative purposes, since some topological relationships may be explained as being ancestral, rather than newly emerged. The mouse pallium is apt to be reexamined in this context, due to the breadth of available molecular markers and correlative experimental patterning results...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Andrew M Bell, Fraser Shepherd, Erika Polgár, Masahiko Watanabe, Takahiro Furuta, Andrew J Todd
Excitatory interneurons account for the majority of dorsal horn neurons, and are required for perception of normal and pathological pain. We have identified largely non-overlapping populations in laminae I-III, based on expression of substance P, gastrin-releasing peptide, neurokinin B and neurotensin. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is expressed by many dorsal horn neurons, particularly in the deeper laminae. Here we have used immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation to characterise the CCK cells. We show that they account for ~7% of excitatory neurons in laminae I-II, but between a third and a quarter of those in lamina III...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Poissenot Kevin, Anger Karine, Constantin Paul, Cornilleau Fabien, Lomet Didier, Tsutsui Kazuyoshi, Dardente Hugues, Calandreau Ludovic, Beltramo Massimiliano
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide first discovered in the quail brain that is involved in the control of reproductive physiology and behaviors, and stress response. GnIH gene encodes a second peptide, GnIH-related peptide-2 (RP2), the distribution and function of which remain unknown. We therefore studied GnIH-RP2 distribution by immunohistochemistry using a novel antibody capable of discriminating between GnIH and GnIH-RP2. The overall distribution of GnIH-RP2 is similar to that of GnIH...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mark E Warchol, Roxanna Massoodnia, Remy Pujol, Brandon C Cox, Jennifer S Stone
The vestibular organs of reptiles, birds, and mammals possess type I and type II sensory hair cells, which have distinct morphologies, physiology, and innervation. Little is known about how vestibular hair cells adopt a type I or type II identity or acquire proper innervation. One distinguishing marker is the transcription factor Sox2, which is expressed in all developing hair cells but persists only in type II hair cells in maturity. We examined Sox2 expression and formation of afferent nerve terminals in mouse utricles between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P17...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Seong-Gyu Lee, Christine Fogarty Celestino, Jeffrey Stagg, Christoph Kleineidam, Neil J Vickers
Olfactory projection neurons convey information from the insect antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain centers. Previous reports have demonstrated that pheromone-responsive projection neurons with cell bodies in the moth medial cell cluster (mcPNs) predominantly have dendritic arborizations in the sexually dimorphic macroglomerular complex (MGC) and send an axon from the AL to the calyces of the mushroom body (CA) as well as the lateral horn (LH) of the protocerebrum via the medial AL tract. These neurons typically exhibit a narrow odor tuning range related to the restriction of their dendritic arbors within a single glomerulus (uniglomerular)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jessika Nystedt, Peter Mannfolk, Andreas Jönsen, Petra Nilsson, Tor O Strandberg, Pia C Sundgren
To investigate core resting state networks in SLE patients with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms by examining functional connectivity changes correlating with results of cognitive testing. Structural MRI and resting state-fMRI (rs-fMRI) were performed in 61 female SLE patients (mean age: 36.8 years, range 18.2-52.0 years) and 20 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 36.2 years, range 23.3-52.2 years) in conjunction with clinical examination and cognitive testing. Alterations in core resting state networks, not found in our healthy controls sample, correlated with cognitive performance gauged by neuropsychological tests in non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nNP) as well as in neuropsychiatric SLE patients (NP)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Matthew Crowley, Alayna Lilak, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Corinna Darian-Smith
Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are cutaneous mechanoreceptors found in glabrous skin and are exquisitely sensitive to light touch. Along with other receptors, they provide continuous sensory feedback that informs the execution of fine manual behaviors. Following cervical spinal deafferentation injuries, hand use can be initially severely impaired, but substantial recovery occurs over many weeks, even when ~95% of the original input is permanently lost. While most SCI research focuses on central neural pathway responses, little is known about the role of peripheral receptors in facilitating recovery...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Shankhamala Sen, Pooja Parishar, Arvind Singh Pundir, Anton Reiner, Soumya Iyengar
Birds of the family Corvidae which includes diverse species such as crows, rooks, ravens, magpies, jays and jackdaws are known for their amazing abilities at problem-solving. Since the catecholaminergic system, especially the neurotransmitter dopamine, plays a role in cognition, we decided to study the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines in the brain of house crows (Corvus splendens). We also studied the expression of DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein), which is expressed in dopaminoceptive neurons...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Alexa Dollas, Helmut H A Oelschlaeger, Sabine Begall, Hynek Burda, E Pascal Malkemper
African mole-rats are subterranean rodents that spend their whole life in underground burrow systems. They show a range of morphological and physiological adaptations to their ecotope, for instance severely reduced eyes and specialized somatosensory, olfactory and auditory systems. These adaptations are also reflected in the accessory sensory pathways in the brain that process the input coming from the sensory organs. So far, a brain atlas was available only for the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). The Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) has been the subject of many investigations in various disciplines (ethology, sensory physiology, anatomy) including magnetic orientation...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
François Friocourt, Peter Kozulin, Morgane Belle, Rodrigo Suárez, Nicolas Di-Poï, Linda J Richards, Paolo Giacobini, Alain Chédotal
In Bilaterians, commissural neurons project their axons across the midline of the nervous system to target neurons on the opposite side. In mammals, midline crossing at the level of the hindbrain and spinal cord requires the Robo3 receptor which is transiently expressed by all commissural neurons. Unlike other Robo receptors, mammalian Robo3 receptors do not bind Slit ligands and promote midline crossing. Surprisingly, not much is known about Robo3 distribution and mechanism of action in other vertebrate species...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
William D Jones, Sarah M Guadiana, Elizabeth A Grove
In the mouse, two telencephalic signaling centers orchestrate embryonic patterning of the cerebral cortex. From the rostral patterning center in the telencephalon (RPC), the Fibroblast Growth Factor, FGF8, disperses as a morphogen to establish the rostral to caudal (R/C) axis of the neocortical area map. FGF8 coordinates with Wnt3a from the cortical hem to regulate graded expression of transcription factors that position neocortical areas, and control hippocampal development. Whether similar signaling centers pattern the much larger cortices of carnivore and primate species, however, is unclear...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Philip H Smith, Daniel J Uhlrich, Karen A Manning
The medial division of the medial geniculate (MGM) and the posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN) are association nuclei of the auditory thalamus. We made tracer injections in these nuclei to evaluate/compare their presynaptic terminal and post-synaptic target features in auditory cortex, amygdala and striatum, at the light and electron microscopic levels. Cortical labeling was concentrated in layer 1 but in other layers distribution was location-dependent. In cortical areas designated dorsal, primary and ventral (AuD, Au1, AuV) terminals deep to layer 1 were concentrated in infragranular layers and sparser in the supragranular and middle layers...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is the only extant species of the order Ceratodontiformes, which retained most of the primitive features of ancient lobe finned-fishes. Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates and their study is important for deducing the neural traits that were conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. We have investigated the nitrergic system with neural nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which yielded almost identical results except for the primary olfactory projections and the terminal and preoptic nerve fibers labeled only for NADPH-d...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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