journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38204156/morphology-and-spectral-sensitivity-of-long-visual-fibers-and-lamina-monopolar-cells-in-the-butterfly-papilio-xuthus
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daiki Wakita, Hiromichi Shibasaki, Michiyo Kinoshita, Kentaro Arikawa
Extensive analysis of the flower-visiting behavior of a butterfly, Papilio xuthus, has indicated complex interaction between chromatic, achromatic, and motion cues. Their eyes are spectrally rich with six classes of photoreceptors, respectively sensitive in the ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red, and broad-band wavelength regions. Here, we studied the anatomy and physiology of photoreceptors and second-order neurons of P. xuthus, focusing on their spectral sensitivities and projection terminals to address where the early visual integration takes place...
January 10, 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38189676/neocortical-neurogenesis-in-development-and-evolution-human-specific-features
#2
REVIEW
Wieland B Huttner, Michael Heide, Felipe Mora-Bermúdez, Takashi Namba
In this review, we focus on human-specific features of neocortical neurogenesis in development and evolution. Two distinct topics will be addressed. In the first section, we discuss the expansion of the neocortex during human evolution and concentrate on the human-specific gene ARHGAP11B. We review the ability of ARHGAP11B to amplify basal progenitors and to expand a primate neocortex. We discuss the contribution of ARHGAP11B to neocortex expansion during human evolution and its potential implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumors...
January 8, 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38175813/vanadium-administration-ameliorates-cortical-structural-and-functional-changes-in-juvenile-hydrocephalic-mice
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Funmilayo Eniola Olopade, Omowumi Moromoke Femi-Akinlosotu, Opeyemi Dauda, Jane Obiako, James Olukayode Olopade, Matthew Temitayo Shokunbi
Vanadium is a prevalent neurotoxic transition metal with therapeutic potentials in some neurological conditions. Hydrocephalus poses a major clinical burden in neurological practice in Africa. Its primary treatment (shunting) has complications, including infection and blockage; alternative drug-based therapies are therefore necessary. This study investigates the function and cytoarchitecture of motor and cerebellar cortices in juvenile hydrocephalic mice following treatment with varying doses of vanadium. Fifty juvenile mice were allocated into five groups (n = 10 each): controls, hydrocephalus-only, low- (0...
January 4, 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38108576/cholinergic-and-nadph-%C3%AE-neurons-in-the-pedunculopontine-and-laterodorsal-tegmental-nuclei-of-human-and-nonhuman-primates
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Vincent Coulombe, Laurent Goetz, Manik Bhattacharjee, Peter V Gould, Stephan Saikali, Mohamad Ali Takech, Éric Philippe, André Parent, Martin Parent
The brainstem pedunculopontine (PPN) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDTg) nuclei are involved in multifarious activities, including motor control. Yet, their exact cytoarchitectural boundaries are still uncertain. We therefore initiated a comparative study of the topographical and neurochemical organization of the PPN and LDTg in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and humans. The distribution and morphological characteristics of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and/or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (Nadph-δ) were documented...
December 18, 2023: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38104270/subpopulations-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-containing-neurons-and-internal-circuits-in-the-chicken-central-extended-amygdala
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alessandra Pross, Alek H Metwalli, Antonio Abellán, Ester Desfilis, Loreta Medina
In mammals, the central extended amygdala is critical for the regulation of the stress response. This regulation is extremely complex, involving multiple subpopulations of GABAergic neurons and complex networks of internal and external connections. Two neuron subpopulations expressing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), located in the central amygdala and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL), play a key role in the long-term component of fear learning and in sustained fear responses akin to anxiety...
December 17, 2023: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38104256/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-secondary-general-visceral-sensory-nucleus-in-goldfish
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shiori Uezono, Takeshi Kato, Yuusuke Yamada, Masami Yoshimoto, Naoyuki Yamamoto
The secondary general visceral sensory nucleus (SVN) receives ascending fibers from the commissural nucleus of Cajal (NCC), or the primary general visceral sensoru in the medulla oblongata of teleosts. However, the full set of fiber connections of the SVN have been studied only in the Nile tilapia. We have investigated the connections of the SVN in goldfish by tracer injection experiments to the nucleus. We paid special attention to the possible presence of spinal afferents, since the spinal cord projects to the lateral parabrachial nucleus, or the presumed homologue of SVN, in mammals...
December 17, 2023: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38433660/visual-afferents-from-an-eye-in-the-terrestrial-slug-limax-valentianus
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yuko Matsuo, Airi Kawakami, Ryota Matsuo
Terrestrial gastropods have a lens-bearing eye on the tip of their tentacles. There are two morphologically distinct photoreceptors, called Type-I and Type-II photoreceptors, in the retina. Type-I photoreceptors are equipped with highly developed photoreceptive microvilli in their outer rhabdomeric segment, whereas Type-II photoreceptors have short and fewer microvilli. Although both types of photoreceptors send afferent projections directly to the brain, their destinations in the brain, called optic neuropiles, have not been sufficiently investigated...
March 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38427380/nuclei-and-tracts-in-the-thalamus-of-crocodiles
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael B Pritz
The thalamus is one of the most important divisions of the forebrain because it serves as the major hub for transmission of information between the brainstem and telencephalon. While many studies have investigated the thalamus in mammals, comparable analyses in reptiles are incomplete. To fill this gap in knowledge, the thalamus was investigated in crocodiles using a variety of morphological techniques. The thalamus consists of two parts: a dorsal and a ventral division. The dorsal thalamus was defined by its projections to the telencephalon, whereas the ventral thalamus lacked this circuit...
March 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38411251/evidence-for-glia-mediated-age-dependent-remodeling-of-myelin-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Miki Furusho, Mark Terasaki
Due to its proximity to the axon initial segment (AIS), the paranode of the first myelin segment can influence the threshold for action potentials and how a neuron participates in a neuronal circuit. Using serial section electron microscopy, we examined its three-dimensional (3D) organization in the ventral horn of the mouse spinal cord. The myelin loops of postnatal day 18 mice resemble those at the node of Ranvier. However, in 3-month-old mice, 13 of 22 para-AIS showed 4 types of alteration: (A) A cytoplasmic foot process, with ultrastructural characteristics of an astrocyte, was interposed between the axolemma and the myelin loops...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38407509/distinct-distribution-of-subplate-neuron-subtypes-between-the-sensory-cortices-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Minzi Chang, Sophia Nehs, Zheng Xu, Patrick O Kanold
Subplate neurons (SpNs) are a heterogeneous neuronal population actively involved in early cortical circuit formation. In rodents, many SpNs survive and form layer 6b. The molecular heterogeneity of SpNs raises the question of whether different subpopulations of SpNs survive through the early postnatal period similarly and whether such diverse SpN populations in the auditory cortex (ACtx) share a common distribution pattern with other sensory systems. To address that, we investigated the expression pattern of multiple specific SpN markers in the ACtx, as well as in the visual (VCtx) and somatosensory (SCtx) cortices as controls, using complexin 3 (Cplx3) antibodies and different SpN-specific Cre-driver mice, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), dopamine receptor D1 (Drd1a), and neurexophilin 4 (Nxph4)...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38375612/efficacy-and-specificity-of-melanopsin-reporters-for-retinal-ganglion-cells
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ryan Maloney, Lauren Quattrochi, James Yoon, Rachel Souza, David Berson
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are specialized retinal output neurons that mediate behavioral, neuroendocrine, and developmental responses to environmental light. There are diverse molecular strategies for marking ipRGCs, especially in mice, making them among the best characterized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). With the development of more sensitive reporters, new subtypes of ipRGCs have emerged. We therefore tested high-sensitivity reporter systems to see whether we could reveal yet more...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38362770/erratum
#12
John L R Rubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38341648/three-dimensional-topography-of-rat-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-using-a-combination-of-retrograde-labeling-and-tissue-clearing-techniques
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eriko Kuramoto, Makoto Fukushima, Ryozo Sendo, Sachi Ohno, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Tetsuya Goto
The trigeminal nerve is the sensory afferent of the orofacial regions and divided into three major branches. Cell bodies of the trigeminal nerve lie in the trigeminal ganglion and are surrounded by satellite cells. There is a close interaction between ganglion cells via satellite cells, but the function is not fully understood. In the present study, we clarified the ganglion cells' three-dimensional (3D) localization, which is essential to understand the functions of cell-cell interactions in the trigeminal ganglion...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38335058/distinct-cellular-expression-and-subcellular-localization-of-kv2-voltage-gated-k-channel-subtypes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-conserved-between-mice-and-humans
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Robert G Stewart, Miriam Camacena, Bryan A Copits, Jon T Sack
The distinct organization of Kv2 voltage-gated potassium channels on and near the cell body of brain neurons enables their regulation of action potentials and specialized membrane contact sites. Somatosensory neurons have a pseudounipolar morphology and transmit action potentials from peripheral nerve endings through axons that bifurcate to the spinal cord and the cell body within ganglia including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Kv2 channels regulate action potentials in somatosensory neurons, yet little is known about where Kv2 channels are located...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38335050/neuroanatomical-electrophysiological-and-morphological-characterization-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-cells-coexpressing-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Persephone A Miller, Jesukhogie G Williams-Ikhenoba, Aditi S Sankhe, Brendan H Hoffe, Melissa J Chee
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) cells in the hypothalamus regulate fundamental physiological functions like energy balance, sleep, and reproduction. This diversity may be ascribed to the neurochemical heterogeneity among MCH cells. One prominent subpopulation of MCH cells coexpresses cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and as MCH and CART can have opposing actions, MCH/CART+ and MCH/CART- cells may differentially modulate behavioral outcomes. However, it is not known if there are differences in the cellular properties underlying their functional differences; thus, we compared the neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and morphological properties of MCH cells in male and female Mch-cre;L10-Egfp reporter mice...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38335048/apparent-absence-of-hypothalamic-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-common-ostrich-and-emu-implications-for-global-brain-states-during-sleep
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pedzisai Mazengenya, John A Lesku, Niels C Rattenborg, Paul R Manger
We examined the presence/absence and parcellation of cholinergic neurons in the hypothalami of five birds: a Congo grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), a Timneh grey parrot (P. timneh), a pied crow (Corvus albus), a common ostrich (Struthio camelus), and an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Using immunohistochemistry to an antibody raised against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, hypothalamic cholinergic neurons were observed in six distinct clusters in the medial, lateral, and ventral hypothalamus in the parrots and crow, similar to prior observations made in the pigeon...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38335047/2024-editorial-peer-review-sucks-but-it-beats-the-alternative-so-let-s-make-it-better
#17
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38335045/distribution-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-the-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baeri-comparison-with-other-fishes
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ramón Anadón, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Fátima Adrio
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. Immunohistochemical techniques with specific antibodies against GABA or against its synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) allowed characterizing GABAergic neurons and fibers in the CNS. However, studies on the CNS distribution of GABAergic neurons and fibers of bony fishes are scant and were done in teleost species. With the aim of understanding the early evolution of this system in bony vertebrates, we analyzed the distribution of GABA-immunoreactive (-ir) and GAD-ir neurons and fibers in the CNS of a basal ray-finned fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Chondrostei, Acipenseriformes), using immunohistochemical techniques...
February 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38289194/fetal-development-of-the-human-amygdala
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Damir Mulc, Dinko Smilović, Željka Krsnik, Alisa Junaković-Munjas, Janja Kopić, Ivica Kostović, Goran Šimić, Mario Vukšić
The intricate development of the human amygdala involves a complex interplay of diverse processes, varying in speed and duration. In humans, transient cytoarchitectural structures deliquesce, leading to the formation of functionally distinct nuclei as a result of multiple interdependent developmental events. This study compares the amygdala's cytoarchitectural development in conjunction with specific antibody reactivity for neuronal, glial, neuropil, and radial glial fibers, synaptic, extracellular matrix, and myelin components in 39 fetal human brains...
January 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38289193/betz-cells-of-the-primary-motor-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Matthew Nolan, Connor Scott, Patrick R Hof, Olaf Ansorge
Betz cells, named in honor of Volodymyr Betz (1834-1894), who described them as "giant pyramids" in the primary motor cortex of primates and other mammalian species, are layer V extratelencephalic projection (ETP) neurons that directly innervate α-motoneurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. Despite their large volume and circumferential dendritic architecture, to date, no single molecular criterion has been established that unequivocally distinguishes adult Betz cells from other layer V ETP neurons...
January 2024: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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