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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

Joseph Aldahl, Eun-Jeong Yu, Yongfeng He, Erika Hooker, Monica Wong, Vien Le, Adam Olson, Dong-Hoon Lee, Won Kyung Kim, Charles L Murtaugh, Gerald R Cunha, Zijie Sun
Androgen signaling is essential for prostate development, morphogenesis, and regeneration. Emerging evidence also indicates a regulatory role of Notch signaling in prostate development, differentiation, and growth. However, the collaborative regulatory mechanisms of androgen and Notch signaling during prostate development, growth, and regeneration are largely unknown. Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1) is a transcriptional regulator of Notch signaling pathways, and its expression is responsive to Notch signaling...
March 22, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Natalia Sánchez-Romero, Pilar Sainz-Arnal, Iris Pla-Palacín, Pablo Royo Dachary, Helen Almeida, Cristina Pastor, Daniela Rubio Soto, Milagros Chico Rodriguez, Emma Olmedo Arbizu, Lourdes Bengochea Martinez, Trinidad Serrano-Aulló, Pedro M Baptista
The liver stem cell niche is a specialized and dynamic microenvironment with biomechanical and biochemical characteristics that regulate stem cell behavior. This is feasible due to the coordination of a complex network of secreted factors, small molecules, neural, blood inputs and extracellular matrix (ECM) components involved in the regulation of stem cell fate (self-renewal, survival, and differentiation into more mature phenotypes like hepatocytes and cholangiocytes). In this review, we describe and summarize all the major components that play essential roles in the liver stem cell niche, in particular, growth factor signaling and the biomechanical properties of the ECM...
March 8, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Pierre-Yves Rescan
Fish axial muscle consists of a series of W-shaped muscle blocks, called myomeres, that are composed primarily of multinucleated contractile muscle cells (myofibres) gathered together by an intricate network of connective tissue that transmits forces generated by myofibre contraction to the axial skeleton. This review summarises current knowledge on the successive and overlapping myogenic waves contributing to axial musculature formation and growth in fish. Additionally, this review presents recent insights into muscle connective tissue development in fish, focusing on the early formation of collagenous myosepta separating adjacent myomeres and the late formation of intramuscular connective sheaths (i...
March 5, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Brandon J Blau, Toshio Miki
The unique microenvironment found within the liver in vivo plays a key role in the induction of functional maturation in the developing hepatocyte. During organogenesis, hepatocytes acquire a polar phenotype that allows them to perform their functions of bile production and transport, protein synthesis, metabolism, and detoxification simultaneously, independently, and efficiently. It is thought that the induction of polarity and functional maturation in hepatocytes is dependent on the complex interplay of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions...
March 2, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Rafal P Piprek, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
The extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play an important role in the establishment of the sex-dependent structure of developing gonads. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major players in the regulation of ECM. Our hypothesis was that the MMPs-dependent regulation of EMC is crucial for the establishment of the correct, either testis or ovary, structure of developing gonad. We cultured developing mouse gonads in vitro in the presence of the MMPs inhibitors (α-2-macroglobulin, leupeptin, phosphoramidon) or the MMPs activator, APMA (4-aminophenylmercuric acetate)...
March 2, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Eva Schmelzer
The aim of this review is to summarize and give an overview on the findings of signaling between hepatic and hematopoietic progenitors of the liver. To date, there are not many findings published in the field, and the aim of this review is to cover all current publications in this area. The liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development. However, little is known about how hepatic and other non-hematopoietic progenitors potentially influence hematopoiesis and vice versa. The concurrent peaks of hepatic and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation during development indicate interactions that could possibly be mediated through cell-cell contact, extracellular matrices, cytokines and growth factors, or other signaling molecules...
February 22, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
M Teresa Donato, Laia Tolosa
Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of drug discovery failure in clinical trials and a leading cause of liver disease. Current preclinical drug testing does not predict hepatotoxicity which highlights the importance of developing highly predictive cell-based models. The use of stem cell technology and differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) could provide a stable source of hepatocytes for multiple applications, including drug screening. HLCs derived from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells have been used to accurately predict hepatotoxicity as well as to test individual-specific toxicity...
February 19, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Ahmed T El-Serafi, Divyasree Sandeep, Sallam Abdallah, Yasmin Lozansson, Moawiah Hamad, Amir A Khan
Adipogenesis is an important biological process that is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, fat regeneration is crucial as a restorative approach following mastectomy or severe burn injury. Furthermore, optimizing an in-vitro model of adipogenesis, which would help in understanding the possible effects and/or side effects of fat-soluble drugs and anti-obesity remedies, in addition to the developmental studies. Epigenetic is an important factor that is involved in cellular differentiation and commitment...
February 15, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Sanne M van Neerven, Louis Vermeulen
The intestinal epithelial layer is the fastest renewing tissue in the human body. Due to its incredible turnover rate, the intestine is especially prone to develop cancer, in particular in the colon. Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is characterized by the stepwise accumulation of mutations over time, of which mutations in the tumor suppressor APC are often very early to occur. Generally, mutations in this gene lead to truncated APC proteins that cannot bind to β-catenin to promote its degradation, resulting in a constant overstimulation of the Wnt pathway...
February 14, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yuya Kida, Kai Pan, Hidekazu Kuwayama
Cell migration in response to morphogen gradients affects morphogenesis. Chemotaxis towards adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is essential for the early stage of morphogenesis in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here, we show that D. discoideum completes morphogenesis without cAMP-chemotaxis-dependent cell migration. The extracellular cAMP gradient is believed to cause cells to form a slug-shaped multicellular structure and fruiting body. The cAMP receptor, cAR1, was not expressed at the cell surface during these stages, correlating with reduced chemotactic activity...
February 8, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Sriram Bandi, Tatyana Tchaikovskaya, Sanjeev Gupta
Endogenous cell signals regulate tissue homeostasis and are significant for directing the fate of stem cells. During liver development, cytokines released from various cell types are critical for stem/progenitor cell differentiation and lineage expansions. To determine mechanisms in these stage-specific lineage interactions, we modeled potential effects of soluble signals derived from immortalized human fetal liver parenchymal cells on stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. For identifying lineage conversion and maturation, we utilized conventional assays of cell morphology, gene expression analysis and lineage markers...
January 28, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Ryo Seishima, Nick Barker
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) marked by Lgr5 are located at the bottom of the epithelial crypt compartment. Canonical Wnt signaling, activated by Wnt/Rspo ligands, determines the stem cell identity of Lgr5 + ISCs and is strictly regulated by the ISC niche. Emerging evidence indicates that both epithelial and stromal compartments provide the requisite Wnt/Rspo ligands, confining the ISC niche to the lower crypt regions of the intestine. Recent studies have also shown that the ISC niche can reprogram differentiated cells to replenish lost ISCs following tissue injury, accounting for the epithelial cell plasticity within the crypt compartment...
January 25, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Lavanya Moparthi, Stefan Koch
Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are a major health burden worldwide. Numerous conserved signaling pathways control tissue injury and repair during colitis, but owing to the complexity of the inflammatory process, their individual contribution remains poorly understood. A key regulatory pathway in the intestinal mucosa is Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which acts as the central organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and maintenance. Apart from this core function, there is mounting evidence that the Wnt pathway is highly interconnected with numerous other signaling cascades, and that combinatorial signaling events shape epithelial homeostasis and tissue regeneration...
January 24, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Adam Mitchell, Heather Wanczyk, Todd Jensen, Christine Finck
Considerable work has gone into creating cell therapies from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) since their discovery just over a decade ago. However, comparatively little research has been done concerning the safety of iPSCs and their progeny and specifically the mechanisms governing teratogenicity. The aim of this study was to ascertain at what developmental phase iPSCs undergoing differentiation to an alveolar-like phenotype lose their capacity to form a teratoma and uncover potential mechanisms responsible...
January 24, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gediminas Greicius, David M Virshup
Intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the continuous production of differentiated epithelial cells from a sustainable and resilient stem cell compartment. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in this process, cooperating with R-spondins, growth factors and regulators of the TGF-β/BMP pathway to generate a specialized tissue microenvironment that regulates the intestinal stem cell niche. Recent studies revealed that many of these factors are produced in a paracrine manner by specialized cell populations that reside in the subepithelial stroma...
January 8, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Qian Peng, Chaomin Yue, Andy Chun Hang Chen, Kai Chuen Lee, Sze Wan Fong, William Shu Biu Yeung, Yin Lau Lee
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is important for maintaining the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). However, human ESC (hESC) have a high level of connexin (Cx) molecules with unknown function. In this study, we found that the major Cx molecule, Cx43, was highly expressed in undifferentiated hESC. It was down-regulated upon spontaneously differentiation by embryoid body formation and induced differentiation along ectoderm, mesoderm and extraembryonic lineages, but up-regulated along endoderm differentiation...
December 19, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Timo Ditz, Lydia Schnapka-Hille, Nicole Noack, Juliane Dorow, Uta Ceglarek, Dieter Niederwieser, Jürgen Schiller, Beate Fuchs, Michael Cross
Horse serum is commonly used as an additive to support the maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cells in culture. However, the wide variability in the performance of different lots calls for parallel testing of multiple batches over extended periods of culture. Identification of the serum components that determine hematopoietic support would therefore save considerable time and effort and would help to standardize culture procedures. We report here that the ability of horse serum to support the self-renewal of multipotent murine hematopoietic progenitor FDCP-Mix cells is correlated to the concentration of specific fatty acid products of phospholipase A2 and more closely to the spectrum of eicosanoids generated by their further processing through cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways...
December 6, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Giada Pietrosi, Gioacchin Iannolo, Giandomenico Amico, Nicola Cuscino, Valeria Pagano, Pier Giulio Conaldi
We isolated a population of proliferating cells from cultured human fetal hepatocytes of 16-22 weeks gestational age. The cells shared a similar phenotype to that of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) according to the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), including plastic adherence, antigen expression profile, and in vitro multilineage differentiation potential. Fetal liver (FL)-MSCs expressed the albumin gene, and harbored a subpopulation of CK18+ cells (20-40%), which defined their hepatic origin...
December 5, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Tiam Feridooni, Kishore B S Pasumarthi
Mid-gestation mouse ventricles (E11.5) contain a larger number of Nkx2.5+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The proliferation rates are consistently higher in CPCs compared to myocyte population of developing ventricles. Recent studies suggested that CPCs are an ideal donor cell type for replacing damaged tissue in diseased hearts. Thus, the ability to isolate and expand CPCs from embryos or stem cell cultures could be useful for cell fate studies and regenerative therapies. Since embryonic CPCs possess fewer mitochondria compared to cardiomyocytes, we reasoned that CPCs can be fractionated using a fluorescent mitochondrial membrane potential dye (TMRM) and these cells may retain cardiomyogenic potential even in the absence of cardiomyocytes (CMs)...
November 23, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Nadia Rajab, Matthew Rutar, Andrew L Laslett, Christine A Wells
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells resident in every tissue that are not only important for host defence, but are also involved in tissue homeostasis, injury, and disease. Despite increasingly sophisticated methods for in vitro macrophage isolation, expansion and activation over the past three decades, these have largely been restricted to modelling bone-marrow or blood-derived cells. The in vitro derivation of macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells provides new opportunities to study macrophage biology, including the factors that impact human myeloid development and those that induce macrophage activation...
November 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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