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International Review of Neurobiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638459/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Marios Politis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638458/structural-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
Zuzana Balážová, Marie Nováková, Alžběta Minsterová, Irena Rektorová
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although diagnosis may be challenging, there is increasing evidence that the use of biomarkers according to 2017 revised criteria for diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies can increase diagnostic accuracy. Apart from nuclear medicine techniques, various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been utilized in attempt to enhance diagnostic accuracy. This chapter reviews structural, functional and diffusion MRI studies in DLB cohorts being compared to healthy controls, AD or dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD)...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638457/molecular-imaging-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#3
Oliver Cousins, Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios Politis
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia. The core clinical features of DLB include fluctuating cognition, visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and parkinsonism. Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to assess the brain function in vivo. In this chapter, we reviewed the positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and [123 I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy studies evaluating the pathological processes underlying DLB, including altered brain metabolism and neurotransmitter pathways, abnormal protein aggregation, and neuroinflammation...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638456/functional-mri-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-impairment
#4
Hugo C Baggio, Carme Junqué
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study the neural bases of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease for several years. Traditionally, task-based fMRI has been applied to study specific cognitive functions, providing information on disease-related alterations and regarding the physiological bases of normal cognition, the dopaminergic system, and the frontostriatal circuits. More recently, functional connectivity techniques using resting-state fMRI data have been developed. Unconstrained by specific cognitive tasks, these techniques allow assessing whole-brain patterns of connectivity believed to be useful proxies for the underlying functional architecture of the brain...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638455/hybrid-pet-mri-applications-in-movement-disorders
#5
Giacomo Tondo, Marcello Esposito, George Dervenoulas, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis, Gennaro Pagano
Even before the success of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), the neuroimaging community was conceiving the idea to integrate the positron emission tomography (PET), with very high molecular quantitative data but low spatial resolution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with high spatial resolution. Several technical limitations have delayed the use of a hybrid scanner in neuroimaging studies, including the full integration of the PET detector ring within the MRI system, the optimization of data acquisition, and the implementation of reliable methods for PET attenuation, motion correction, and joint image reconstruction...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638454/neuroimaging-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#6
Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Shady Rahayel, Malo Gaubert, Dario Arnaldi, Michele Hu, Anna Heidbreder, David Rémillard-Pelchat, Michele Terzaghi, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of muscle atonia and the presence of undesirable motor manifestations during rapid eye movement sleep. Research findings have shown that iRBD is a prodromal stage of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A wide array of neuroimaging techniques have improved our understanding of the prodromal stage of these diseases in patients with iRBD, and identified potential biomarkers...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638453/network-imaging-in-parkinsonian-and-other-movement-disorders-network-dysfunction-and-clinical-correlates
#7
Martin Niethammer, David Eidelberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is classically defined as a disease of progressive dopaminergic dysfunction, thus explaining many of the levodopa-responsive motor features. However, even early in the disease, non-motor symptoms can appear, affecting sleep, cognition, and behavior. This implies the involvement of more widespread circuitry beyond the basal ganglia. In addition, the varied clinical presentation and the clinical overlap between PD and other diseases of dopamine degeneration (referred to as atypical parkinsonian syndromes), particularly early in the disease, have complicated diagnosis, treatment, and clinical trials...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638452/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-structural-mri-findings
#8
Julie M Hall, Simon J G Lewis
Cognitive impairment is one of the most salient non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive decline poses a significant burden on the patient as well as the caregiver and a better understanding of the underlying pathological processes will aid in directing disease-specific treatment. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognition in PD has been made using neuroimaging modalities. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for gray matter atrophy and cortical thinning, diffusivity changes and white matter hyperintensities in dementia, mild cognitive impairment and in several cognitive domains...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473199/preface
#9
EDITORIAL
Marios Politis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473198/neuroimaging-applications-in-tourette-s-syndrome
#10
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Yulia Worbe
Tics are neurodevelopmental hyperkinetic symptoms typically associated with unpleasant sensory experiences called premonitory urges. Tourette syndrome (TS) is the primary chronic tic disorder for which medical surveillance is most frequently required, and is associated with a complex phenotypical spectrum encompassing different types of abnormal behaviors. Animal models of tics support their link to phasic activity changes throughout the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473197/neuroimaging-applications-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#11
Giovanni Rizzo, Giuseppe Plazzi
Neuroimaging studies provide information useful to understand the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. Molecular PET and SPECT imaging findings mainly supported dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways involving not only the nigrostriatal but also mesolimbic pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used different techniques. Studies using iron-sensitive sequences supported the presence of a regionally variable low brain iron content, mainly at the level of substantia nigra and thalamus. The search for brain structural or microstructural abnormalities by voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging or cortical thickness analysis has reported none or variable findings in restless legs syndrome patients, most of them in regions belonging to sensorimotor and limbic/nociceptive networks...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473196/imaging-transplantation-in-movement-disorders
#12
Edoardo Rosario de Natale, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios Politis
Cell replacement therapy with graft transplantation has been tested as a disease-modifying treatment in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the damage of a predominant cell type, such as substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) or striatal medium spiny projection neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). The results of these trials are mixed with success in preclinical and pilot open-label trials, which were not consistently reproduced in randomized controlled trials. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging allow the graft survival, and its relationship with the host tissues to be studied in vivo...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473195/transcranial-b-mode-sonography-in-movement-disorders
#13
Rezzak Yilmaz, Daniela Berg
Applying a 2-4MHz probe at the temporal bone window transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables the depiction of the brain parenchyma through the intact skull. Meanwhile it has been applied for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of movement disorders for decades. In the first part of this chapter, we summarize the technical requirements and describe the ultrasound method for optimal TCS examination. Imaging planes and the relevant structures are explained in detail. In the second part of the chapter, we focus on the role of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and prodromal PD...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473194/neuroimaging-applications-in-functional-movement-disorders
#14
Luis Pedro Faria de Abreu, Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards
Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders are a subtype of functional neurological disorder, a common and disabling cause of neurological symptoms. Abnormal movement in people with functional movement disorders has specific characteristics (e.g., distractibility, variability, incongruence with deficits caused by neurological disease), allowing positive diagnosis and differentiation from other causes of movement disorder. Attempts to understand the pathophysiology of this disorder have previously focused mainly on the psychological level, emphasizing the importance of psychological trauma and adverse life events...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473193/neuroimaging-applications-in-chronic-ataxias
#15
Mario Mascalchi, Alessandra Vella
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the main instruments for neuroimaging investigation of patients with chronic ataxia. MRI has a predominant diagnostic role in the single patient, based on the visual detection of three patterns of atrophy, namely, spinal atrophy, cortical cerebellar atrophy and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, which correlate with the aetiologies of inherited or sporadic ataxia. In fact spinal atrophy is observed in Friedreich ataxia, cortical cerebellar atrophy in Ataxia Telangectasia, gluten ataxia and Sporadic Adult Onset Ataxia and olivopontocerebellar atrophy in Multiple System Atrophy cerebellar type...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473192/neuroimaging-applications-in-dystonia
#16
Kristina Simonyan
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements. Although the precise mechanisms of dystonia development remain unknown, the diversity of its clinical phenotypes is thought to be associated with multifactorial pathophysiology, which is linked not only to alterations of brain organization, but also environmental stressors and gene mutations. This chapter will present an overview of the pathophysiology of isolated dystonia through the lens of applications of major neuroimaging methodologies, with links to genetics and environmental factors that play a prominent role in symptom manifestation...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409262/preface
#17
EDITORIAL
Marios Politis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409261/structural-imaging-in-atypical-parkinsonism
#18
Beatrice Heim, Florian Krismer, Klaus Seppi
Qualitative and quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging offer objective measures of the underlying neurodegeneration in atypical parkinsonism. Regional changes in tissue volume, signal changes and increased deposition of iron as assessed with different structural MRI techniques are surrogate markers of underlying neurodegeneration and may reflect cell loss, microglial proliferation and astroglial activation. Structural MRI has been explored as a tool to enhance diagnostic accuracy in differentiating atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs)...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409260/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-huntington-s-disease
#19
Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill
Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disturbance. The effects of the underlying pathology on brain morphology are relatively well understood. Numerous structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated macrostructural change with widespread striatal and cortical atrophy and microstructural white matter loss in premanifest and manifest HD gene carriers. However, disease effects on brain function are less well characterized...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409259/spect-molecular-imaging-in-atypical-parkinsonism
#20
Joachim Brumberg, Ioannis U Isaias
Atypical parkinsonism is the second most common diagnosis for patients with hypokinetic movement disorders. Beside common parkinsonian symptoms (i.e. bradykinesia and muscular rigidity) patients may also present a variety of additional motor and non-motor symptoms, such as oculomotor abnormalities, postural instability, ataxia, limb apraxia, autonomic dysfunctions, etc. Clinical heterogeneity and gradual manifestation during the disease course often hamper the diagnosis and adequate treatment. This chapter provides an overview of the contribution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
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