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Indian Journal of Medical Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666991/glucose-energy-homeostasis-lessons-from-animal-studies
#1
REVIEW
N V Giridharan
Glucose in our body is maintained within a narrow range by the humoral control and a 'lipostat' system regulated by leptin from adipose tissues, which keep our accumulated fat stores in check. Any disturbance in this delicately poised homeostasis could be disastrous as it can lead to obesity and its associated metabolic manifestations. Laboratory animals, especially rodents, have contributed to our knowledge in understanding this physiological mechanism through an array of genetic and non-genetic animals developed over the years...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666990/body-composition-techniques
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca Kuriyan
Body composition is known to be associated with several diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Body composition measurements are useful in assessing the effectiveness of nutritional interventions and monitoring the changes associated with growth and disease conditions. Changes in body composition occur when there is a mismatch between nutrient intake and requirement. Altered body composition is observed in conditions such as wasting and stunting when the nutritional intake may be inadequate...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666989/pros-cons-of-some-popular-extreme-weight-loss-diets
#3
REVIEW
Shilpa Joshi, Viswanathan Mohan
Obesity has now become a huge public health issue not only in the developed world but also in developing countries. In view of the health hazards associated with obesity and more importantly for cosmetic reasons, many people, particularly the youth, have started resorting to 'extreme' weight-loss diets to achieve a rapid reduction in weight. These extreme diets are either very low in carbohydrate or very low in fat. Such extreme diets not only make the diet unbalanced but also have safety issues. Moreover, these are not sustainable in the long run...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666988/nutrigenomics-opportunities-challenges-for-public-health-nutrition
#4
REVIEW
V Sudhakar Reddy, Ravindranadh Palika, Ayesha Ismail, Raghu Pullakhandam, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
The hierarchical information flow through DNA-RNA-protein-metabolite collectively referred to as 'molecular fingerprint' defines both health and disease. Environment and food (quality and quantity) are the key factors known to affect the health of an individual. The fundamental concepts are that the transition from a healthy condition to a disease phenotype must occur by concurrent alterations in the genome expression or by differences in protein synthesis, function and metabolites. In other words, the dietary components directly or indirectly modulate the molecular fingerprint and understanding of which is dealt with nutrigenomics...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666987/nutritional-security-through-crop-biofortification-in-india-status-future-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Devendra Kumar Yadava, Firoz Hossain, Trilochan Mohapatra
Malnutrition has emerged as one of the most serious health issues worldwide. The consumption of unbalanced diet poor in nutritional quality causes malnutrition which is more prevalent in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Deficiency of proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals leads to poor health and increased susceptibility to various diseases, which in turn lead to significant loss in Gross Domestic Product and affect the socio-economic structure of the country. Although various avenues such as dietary-diversification, food-fortification and medical-supplementation are available, biofortification of crop varieties is considered as the most sustainable and cost-effective approach where the nutrients reach the target people in natural form...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666986/undernutrition-in-children-critical-windows-of-opportunity-in-indian-context
#6
REVIEW
R Hemalatha, K V Radhakrishna, B Naveen Kumar
It is intriguing to note that majority of the wasting among the under 5 yr in India is present at birth. The National Family Health Survey 4 (NFHS-4) data analysis shows 31.9 per cent wasting at birth, which is decreasing to 17.7 per cent in the under five children; clearly suggesting that any reduction in wasting should come from improvement in foetal growth. In addition, children with both severe wasting and severe stunting, in whom the risk of mortality increases many folds, are <1 per cent in almost all the States; and these are the children in whom special care is required under the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666985/a-review-of-selected-nutrition-health-surveys-in-india
#7
REVIEW
Komal Rathi, Preeti Kamboj, Priyanka Gupta Bansal, G S Toteja
Assessment of the status of health and nutrition of a population is imperative to design and implement sound public health policies and programmes. The various extensive national health and nutrition surveys provide national-level information on different domains of health. These provide vital information and statistics for the country, and the data generated are used to identify the prevalence and risk factors for the diseases and health challenges faced by a country. This review describes the various national health and nutrition surveys conducted in India and also compares the information generated by each of these surveys...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666984/nature-s-bountiful-gift-to-humankind-vegetables-fruits-their-role-in-cardiovascular-disease-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Kamala Krishnaswamy, Rajagopal Gayathri
Fruits and vegetables (FVs) are recognized as healthy constituents of diet and a sustainable solution to the existing twin burden of micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases in developing and developed countries. In general, FVs are nutrient dense foods low in energy, containing varying amounts of vitamins and minerals including carotenoids, B vitamins, vitamin C, iron, zinc, potassium, calcium, magnesium and fibre. These are abundantly rich in phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory agents...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666983/protein-quality-amino-acid-requirements-in-relation-to-needs-in-india
#9
REVIEW
Nirupama Shivakumar, Sumedha Minocha, Anura V Kurpad
The relevance of protein and its constituent amino acids (AAs) in the structure and function of the human body is well known. Accumulating evidence has conferred specific functional and regulatory roles for individual AAs, adding relevance to their requirements across different age groups. The methods for measuring AA requirements have progressed from the classical nitrogen balance to the current stable isotope-based AA balance methods. Requirements of most of the indispensable AA (IAA) have been estimated in healthy Indian population by the best available balance method and has shown to be higher than earlier 1985 WHO/FAO/UNU (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University) recommendations...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666982/prevalence-of-hypovitaminosis-d-in-india-way-forward
#10
REVIEW
Preeti Kamboj, Supriya Dwivedi, G S Toteja
Deficiency of vitamin D or hypovitaminosis D is widespread irrespective of age, gender, race and geography and has emerged as an important area of research. Vitamin D deficiency may lead to osteoporosis (osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children) along with calcium deficiency. Its deficiency is linked with low bone mass, weakness of muscles and increased risk of fracture. However, further research is needed to link deficiency of vitamin D with extra-skeletal consequences such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, infections and autoimmune disorders...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666981/prevention-control-of-fluorosis-linked-disorders-developments-in-the-21-st-century-reaching-out-to-patients-in-the-community-hospital-settings-for-recovery
#11
REVIEW
Andezhath Kumaran Susheela, G S Toteja
The review on fluorosis addresses the genesis of the disease, diagnostic protocols developed, mitigation and recovery through nutritional interventions. It reveals the structural and functional damages caused to skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, leading to clinical manifestations in fluorosis. Hormonal derangements resulting in serious abnormalities in the health of children and adults are discussed. Fluoride toxicity destroys the probiotics in the gut, resulting in vitamin B12 depletion, an essential ingredient in haemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666980/are-excess-carbohydrates-the-main-link-to-diabetes-its-complications-in-asians
#12
REVIEW
Viswanathan Mohan, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, S Shobana, M Malavika, R M Anjana, V Sudha
Dietary carbohydrates form the major source of energy in Asian diets. The carbohydrate quantity and quality play a vital function in the prevention and management of diabetes. High glycaemic index foods elicit higher glycaemic and insulinaemic responses and promote insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) through beta-cell exhaustion. This article reviews the evidence associating dietary carbohydrates to the prevalence and incidence of T2D and metabolic syndrome (MS) in control of diabetes and their role in the complications of diabetes...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666979/country-specific-nutrient-requirements-recommended-dietary-allowances-for-indians-current-status-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Krishna Pillay Madhavan Nair, Little Flower Augustine
Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are set and revised periodically by the Indian Council of Medical Research. These are meant to guide the population and provide policy directions regarding nutrient requirements corresponding to a healthy population. This review article provides an overview of the current recommendations (RDA, 2010) and the challenges faced by the committee to contextualize RDA to the Indian scenario which has a background of double burden of malnutrition, diverse dietary habits but predominantly home-based cereal-pulse vegetarian diet with low bioavailability of several nutrients and lower consumption of packaged fortified foods...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666978/micronutrient-status-of-indian-population
#14
REVIEW
Zaozianlungliu Gonmei, G S Toteja
Micronutrients play an important role in the proper growth and development of the human body and its deficiency affects the health contributing to low productivity and vicious cycle of malnutrition, underdevelopment as well as poverty. Micronutrient deficiency is a public health problem affecting more than one-fourth of the global population. Several programmes have been launched over the years in India to improve nutrition and health status of the population; however, a large portion of the population is still affected by micronutrient deficiency...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666977/national-iodine-deficiency-disorders-control-programme-current-status-future-strategy
#15
REVIEW
Kapil Yadav, Chandrakant S Pandav
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) constitute a significant public health problem globally. In India, the entire population is prone to IDDs due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the sub-continent and thus both animal and plant source food grown on the iodine-deficient soil. IDDs encompass the spectrum of disability and disease and include goitre, cretinism, hypothyroidism, abortion, stillbirth, brain damage, learning disabilities, mental retardation, psychomotor defects, hearing and speech impairment...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666976/national-control-programme-against-nutritional-blindness-due-to-vitamin-a-deficiency-current-status-future-strategy
#16
REVIEW
K Vijayaraghavan
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among 1-5 yr old children is reported to be widely prevalent in Southeast Asia and some parts of Africa. It is the leading cause of preventable blindness in young children in the low-income countries in the world. Children even with milder signs of VAD have higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamin A with poor bioavailability associated with frequent infections are the primary contributory factors. Currently available approaches to control VAD are ensuring adequate intakes of vitamin A in daily diets, fortification of foods consumed regularly particularly among the low-income communities and periodic administration of massive dose of vitamin A supported by public health interventions and reinforced by behaviour change communication...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666975/journey-from-food-toxins-to-food-safety-transition-over-a-century-in-service-of-nation
#17
REVIEW
Vasanthi Siruguri
Since the first report of lathyrism in 1926, the ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) at Hyderabad, India, has made tremendous contributions in the field of food toxins/food safety for the benefit of the people. The present article highlights the Institute's work on various food toxins/foodborne diseases since its inception and discusses the important contributions made in the context of public health protection that formed the basis for several national policies on their prevention and control. The investigations on food toxins, in the initial decades, were limited to the description of lathyrism and its endemicity...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666974/national-institute-of-nutrition-100-years-of-empowering-the-nation-through-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
SubbaRao M Gavaravarapu, R Hemalatha
The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) has reached a remarkable milestone of completing 100 years of exemplary service to the nation. The long journey that started in a humble one-room laboratory at Coonoor (now in Tamil Nadu) in 1918 to a colossus of the nutrition research in the country today is dotted with several interesting vignettes. The NIN has always been at the forefront of need-based, pragmatic research. Its large-scale community-based interventions have been of great practical value in the nation's fight against malnutrition...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666973/precision-diabetes-where-do-we-stand-today
#19
EDITORIAL
Viswanathan Mohan, Ranjit Unnikrishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666972/it-s-time-we-turn-our-attention-to-quality-of-food-as-well
#20
EDITORIAL
R Hemalatha, G S Toteja, Balram Bhargava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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