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Human Factors

Märt Reinvee, Sander Aia, Mati Pääsuke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ergonomic benefits of an angle grinder with a rotatable main handle in a cutting task. BACKGROUND: Angle grinder manufacturers rarely address ergonomic features in their advertisements, and if they do, the benefits are expressed in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, quantitative information about the effects of the device on the worker is required to make informed decisions during tool selection and cumulative trauma prevention...
February 20, 2019: Human Factors
Justin G Hollands, Tzvi Spivak, Eric W Kramkowski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of message presentation rate (MPR) and sensory modality on soldier cognitive load. BACKGROUND: Soldiers commonly communicate tactical information by radio. The Canadian Army is equipping soldiers with a battle management system (BMS), which also allows them to communicate by text. METHOD: We varied presentation modality (auditory vs. visual) and MPR (fast or slow) in an experiment involving a tactical scenario...
February 15, 2019: Human Factors
Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Steven M McPhail, Shaun O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: In this study, the reliability of measures of upper body postural behavior (head, thorax, neck, and arm) during sustained office work was evaluated. BACKGROUND: Although there has been a substantial body of research examining the technical aspects of posture measurement in office workers using motion sensors, there is a paucity of literature examining whether posture-related behaviors are actually consistent among office workers in the field on different days and times...
February 7, 2019: Human Factors
Michael J Kalsher, William G Obenauer, Christopher F Weiss
OBJECTIVE: This research investigated whether safety labeling design guidelines, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535 series, contribute to better warnings. BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of safety label formatting on warning effectiveness have produced mixed findings. Additionally, research has failed to find a consistent relationship between measures of predicted and actual compliance. One commonality is that all of these studies have investigated the ANSI Z535 guidelines as a binary variable rather than as an integrative system of separable features...
February 7, 2019: Human Factors
Wim van Winsum
OBJECTIVE: In a driving simulator, a backwards counting task, a simple steering task, and a fully autonomous driving task were applied to study the independent effects of cognitive load, visual-cognitive-manual load, and optic flow on visual detection response task (vDRT) performance. The study was designed to increase the understanding of the processes underlying vDRT effects. BACKGROUND: The tunnel vision effect induced by a "steering while driving" task found in a previous study was investigated further in this experiment...
February 1, 2019: Human Factors
Lisa Graichen, Matthias Graichen, Josef F Krems
OBJECTIVE: We observe the effects of in-vehicle system gesture-based interaction versus touch-based interaction on driver distraction and user experience. BACKGROUND: Driver distraction is a major problem for traffic safety, as it is a contributing factor to a number of accidents. Visual distraction in particular has a highly negative impact on the driver. One possibility for reducing visual driver distraction is to use new forms of interaction in the vehicle, such as gesture-based interaction...
January 29, 2019: Human Factors
Adam M Braly, Benjamin Nuernberger, So Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether an augmented reality instruction method would result in faster task completion times, lower mental workload, and fewer errors for simple tasks in an operational setting. BACKGROUND: Prior research on procedural work that directly compared augmented reality instructions to traditional instruction methods (e.g., paper) showed that augmented reality instructions can enhance procedural work, but this was not true for simple tasks in an operational setting...
January 29, 2019: Human Factors
Kim-Phuong L Vu, Yuting Sun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to replicate and extend population stereotypes from a broad range of users for display-control relations of common interfaces using pictures/images of the objects. BACKGROUND: Population stereotypes for display-control configurations refer to people's tendencies to associate certain control actions with display properties. An interface will benefit by being designed in a manner that is consistent with the stereotypes. The stimuli used in the present study include conceptual replications of objects that have been examined previously and new ones...
January 28, 2019: Human Factors
Frederik Naujoks, Christian Purucker, Katharina Wiedemann, Claus Marberger
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the driver's takeover performance when switching from working on different non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) while driving with a conditionally automated driving function (SAE L3), which was simulated by a Wizard of Oz vehicle, to manual vehicle control under naturalistic driving conditions. BACKGROUND: Conditionally automated driving systems, which are currently close to market introduction, require the user to stay fallback ready...
January 28, 2019: Human Factors
Curtis M Craig, Martina I Klein
OBJECTIVE: To measure contributing attentional processes, particularly that of executive attention, to two iterations of the abbreviated vigilance task. BACKGROUND: Joel Warm was at the forefront of vigilance research for decades, and resource theory is currently the dominant explanation for the vigilance decrement. The underlying mechanisms contributing to both overall performance and the decrement are only partly understood. METHOD: Seventy-eight participants answered questionnaires about their attentional skills and stress state, performed the Attention Network Test and two blocks of the 12-min abbreviated vigilance task, with a brief break between the two vigils during which they viewed images intended to affect performance...
January 25, 2019: Human Factors
Arthur Stewart, Alan Nevill, Christopher Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To determine minimum egress apertures in healthy adults of different body size. BACKGROUND: Body space requirements have traditionally been considered from an industrial perspective, facilitating safe confined-space working. However, increased typical body size resulting from global obesity renders traditional assumptions of body size inappropriate. This has potentially far-reaching consequences for evacuation planning, due to diminished clearance space, slower movement, and increased chance of physical entrapment...
January 18, 2019: Human Factors
Oliver Jarosch, Hanna Bellem, Klaus Bengler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of task-induced fatigue in prolonged conditional automated driving on takeover performance. BACKGROUND: In conditional automated driving, the driver can engage in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) and does not have to monitor the system and the driving environment. In the event that the system hits its limits, the human driver must regain control of the car. To ensure safety, adequate driver fallback performance is necessary...
January 18, 2019: Human Factors
Sam Chesebrough, Babak Hejrati, John Hollerbach
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between walking on an advanced robotic locomotion interface called the Treadport and walking overground with healthy subjects. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have compared treadmill-based and overground walking in terms of gait parameters. The Treadport's unique features including self-selected speed capability, large belt, kinesthetic force feedback, and virtual reality environment distinguish it from other locomotion interfaces and could provide a natural walking experience for the users...
January 17, 2019: Human Factors
José Ignacio López-Sánchez, P A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: Modeling and evaluating a series of power law descriptions for boundary conditions of undiminished cognitive capacities under thermal stress. BACKGROUND: Thermal stress degrades cognition, but precisely which components are affected, and to what degree, has yet to be fully determined. With increasing global temperatures, this need is becoming urgent. Power-law distributions have proven their utility in describing differing natural mechanisms, including certain orders of human performance, but never as a rationalization of stress-altered states of attention...
January 17, 2019: Human Factors
Michael T Pascale, Penelope Sanderson, David Liu, Ismail Mohamed, Birgit Brecknell, Robert G Loeb
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether head-worn displays (HWDs) help mobile participants make better alarm management decisions and achieve better situation awareness than alarms alone. BACKGROUND: Patient alarms occur frequently in hospitals but often do not require clinical intervention. Clinicians may become desensitized to alarms and fail to respond to clinically relevant alarms. HWDs could make patient information continuously accessible, support situation awareness, and help clinicians prioritize alarms...
January 4, 2019: Human Factors
Federico Quinzi, Martina Scalia, Arrigo Giombini, Alessandra Di Cagno, Fabio Pigozzi, Maurizio Casasco, Andrea Macaluso
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating the acute effect of the combined and single use of two orthotic devices (neck balance system [NBS] and lumbar support [LS]) on muscle activity of neck and back muscles during typical computer working tasks. BACKGROUND: An excessive activation of neck muscles could threaten the balance between agonist and antagonist muscles, resulting in a lower stability of the head and possibly leading to neck pain. At present, no study evaluated the effect of a specific orthotic device in reducing neck muscles activation...
January 4, 2019: Human Factors
Tracy Sanders, Alexandra Kaplan, Ryan Koch, Michael Schwartz, P A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of trust on use choice in human-robot interaction via experimental investigation. BACKGROUND: The general assumption that trusting a robot leads to using that robot has been previously identified, often by asking participants to choose between manually completing a task or using an automated aid. Our work further evaluates the relationship between trust and use choice and examines factors impacting choice. METHOD: An experiment was conducted wherein participants rated a robot on a trust scale, then made decisions about whether to use that robotic agent or a human agent to complete a task...
January 2, 2019: Human Factors
Mark W Wiggins, Barbara Griffin, Sue Brouwers
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether differences in water safety-related cue utilization might be associated with differences in exposure to water-related recreational contexts. BACKGROUND: A disproportionate number of incidents of drowning were attributable to recent visitors to New South Wales in the 2016-2017 summer swimming season. This was due to their assumed lack of exposure to the water-related recreational settings in which Australians engage and therefore, the absence of cues that are associated with danger...
January 2, 2019: Human Factors
Sara Lu Riggs, Nadine Sarter
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether tactile change blindness and crossmodal visual-tactile change blindness occur in the presence of two transient types and whether their incidence is affected by the addition of a concurrent task. BACKGROUND: Multimodal and tactile displays have been proposed as a promising means to overcome data overload and support attention management. To ensure the effectiveness of these displays, researchers must examine possible limitations of human information processing, such as tactile and crossmodal change blindness...
December 19, 2018: Human Factors
Eric T Greenlee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2018: Human Factors
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