Audrey Renson, Michael G Hudgens, Alexander P Keil, Paul N Zivich, Allison E Aiello
Many research questions in public health and medicine concern sustained interventions in populations defined by substantive priorities. Existing methods to answer such questions typically require a measured covariate set sufficient to control confounding, which can be questionable in observational studies. Differences-in-differences relies instead on the parallel trends assumption, allowing for some types of time-invariant unmeasured confounding. However, most existing difference-in-differences implementations are limited to point treatments in restricted subpopulations...
March 29, 2023: Biometrics
Helene C W Rytgaard, Frank Eriksson, Mark J van der Laan
This work considers targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) of treatment effects on absolute risk and survival probabilities in classical time-to-event settings characterized by right-censoring and competing risks. TMLE is a general methodology combining flexible ensemble learning and semiparametric efficiency theory in a two-step procedure for substitution estimation of causal parameters. We specialize and extend the continuous-time TMLE methods for competing risks settings, proposing a targeting algorithm that iteratively updates cause-specific hazards to solve the efficient influence curve equation for the target parameter...
March 29, 2023: Biometrics
Wei Wang, Sheng Li, Tao Zhang, Fei Yin, Yue Ma
Detecting the spatial clustering of the exposure-response relationship (ERR) between environmental risk factors and health-related outcomes plays important roles in disease control and prevention, such as identifying highly sensitive regions, exploring the causes of heterogeneous ERRs, and designing region-specific health intervention measures. However, few studies have focused on this issue. A possible reason is that the commonly used cluster-detecting tool, spatial scan statistics, cannot be used for multivariate spatial datasets with estimation error, such as the ERR, which is often defined by a vector with its covariance estimated by a regression model...
March 25, 2023: Biometrics
Chixiang Chen, Ming Wang, Shuo Chen
Many observational studies and clinical trials collect various secondary outcomes that may be highly correlated with the primary endpoint. These secondary outcomes are often analyzed in secondary analyses separately from the main data analysis. However, these secondary outcomes can be used to improve the estimation precision in the main analysis. We propose a method called Multiple Information Borrowing (MinBo) that borrows information from secondary data (containing secondary outcomes and covariates) to improve the efficiency of the main analysis...
March 24, 2023: Biometrics
Minjie Wang, Tianyi Yao, Genevera I Allen
Clustering has long been a popular unsupervised learning approach to identify groups of similar objects and discover patterns from unlabeled data in many applications. Yet, coming up with meaningful interpretations of the estimated clusters has often been challenging precisely due to its unsupervised nature. Meanwhile, in many real-world scenarios, there are some noisy supervising auxiliary variables, for instance, subjective diagnostic opinions, that are related to the observed heterogeneity of the unlabeled data...
March 23, 2023: Biometrics
Aaron L Sarvet, Kerollos N Wanis, Jessica G Young, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Mats J Stensrud
Many real-life treatments are of limited supply and cannot be provided to all individuals in the population. For example, patients on the liver transplant waiting list usually cannot be assigned a liver transplant immediately at the time they reach highest priority because a suitable organ is not immediately available. In settings with limited supply, investigators are often interested in the effects of treatment strategies in which a limited proportion of patients receive an organ at a given time, that is, treatment regimes satisfying resource constraints...
March 21, 2023: Biometrics
R A Sparapani, B R Logan, M J Maiers, P W Laud, R E McCulloch
Many popular survival models rely on restrictive parametric, or semi-parametric, assumptions that could provide erroneous predictions when the effects of covariates are complex. Modern advances in computational hardware have led to an increasing interest in flexible Bayesian nonparametric methods for time-to-event data such as Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). We propose a novel approach that we call nonparametric failure time (NFT) BART in order to increase the flexibility beyond accelerated failure time (AFT) and proportional hazard models...
March 18, 2023: Biometrics
Ryoto Ozaki, Yoshiyuki Ninomiya
The Cox proportional hazards model, commonly used in clinical trials, assumes proportional hazards. However, it does not hold when, for example, there is a delayed onset of the treatment effect. In such a situation, an acute change in the hazard ratio function is expected to exist. This paper considers the Cox model with change-points and derives AIC-type information criteria for detecting those change-points. The change-point model does not allow for conventional statistical asymptotics due to its irregularity, thus a formal AIC that penalizes twice the number of parameters would not be analytically derived, and using it would clearly give overfitting analysis results...
March 13, 2023: Biometrics
Kara E Rudolph, Nicholas Williams, Iván Díaz
Natural direct and indirect effects are mediational estimands that decompose the average treatment effect and describe how outcomes would be affected by contrasting levels of a treatment through changes induced in mediator values (in the case of the indirect effect) or not through induced changes in the mediator values (in the case of the direct effect). Natural direct and indirect effects are not generally point-identified in the presence of a treatment-induced confounder; however, they may be identified if one is willing to assume monotonicity between the treatment and the treatment-induced confounder...
March 10, 2023: Biometrics
Cole Manschot, Eric Laber, Marie Davidian
The sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is the gold standard trial design to generate data for the evaluation of multi-stage treatment regimes. As with conventional (single-stage) randomized clinical trials, interim monitoring allows early stopping; however, there are few methods for principled interim analysis in SMARTs. Because SMARTs involve multiple stages of treatment, a key challenge is that not all enrolled participants will have progressed through all treatment stages at the time of an interim analysis...
March 10, 2023: Biometrics
Matthew D Koslovsky
The Dirichlet-multinomial (DM) distribution plays a fundamental role in modern statistical methodology development and application. Recently, the DM distribution and its variants have been used extensively to model multivariate count data generated by high-throughput sequencing technology in omics research due to its ability to accommodate the compositional structure of the data as well as overdispersion. A major limitation of the DM distribution is that it is unable to handle excess zeros typically found in practice which may bias inference...
March 10, 2023: Biometrics
Cody Carroll, Hans-Georg Müller
Multivariate functional data present theoretical and practical complications which are not found in univariate functional data. One of these is a situation where the component functions of multivariate functional data are positive and are subject to mutual time warping. That is, the component processes exhibit a common shape but are subject to systematic phase variation across their domains in addition to subject-specific time warping, where each subject has its own internal clock. This motivates a novel model for multivariate functional data that connects such mutual time warping to a latent deformation-based framework by exploiting a novel time warping separability assumption...
March 6, 2023: Biometrics
Tian Gu, Jeremy M G Taylor, Bhramar Mukherjee
There is a growing need for flexible general frameworks that integrate individual-level data with external summary information for improved statistical inference. External information relevant for a risk prediction model may come in multiple forms, through regression coefficient estimates or predicted values of the outcome variable. Different external models may use different sets of predictors and the algorithm they used to predict the outcome Y given these predictors may or may not be known. The underlying populations corresponding to each external model may be different from each other and from the internal study population...
March 6, 2023: Biometrics
Hai Zhu, Hongjian Zhu
We consider theoretical and practical issues for innovatively using a large number of covariates in clinical trials to achieve various design objectives without model misspecification. Specifically, we propose a new family of semiparametric covariate-adjusted response-adaptive randomization (CARA) designs and we use the target maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) to analyze the correlated data from CARA designs. Our approach can flexibly achieve multiple objectives and correctly incorporate the effect of a large number of covariates on the responses without model misspecification...
March 4, 2023: Biometrics
Ran Dai, Cheng Zheng
False discovery rate (FDR) controlling procedures provide important statistical guarantees for replicability in signal identification based on multiple hypotheses testing. In many fields of study, FDR controlling procedures are used in high-dimensional (HD) analyses to discover features that are truly associated with the outcome. In some recent applications, data on the same set of candidate features are independently collected in multiple different studies. For example, gene expression data are collected at different facilities and with different cohorts, to identify the genetic biomarkers of multiple types of cancers...
February 28, 2023: Biometrics
Shu Jiang, Graham A Colditz
Mammography is the primary breast cancer screening strategy. Recent methods have been developed using the mammogram image to improve breast cancer risk prediction. However, it is unclear on the extent to which the effect of risk factors on breast cancer risk is mediated through tissue features summarized in mammogram images and the extent to which it is through other pathways. While mediation analysis has been conducted using mammographic density (a summary measure within the image), the mammogram image is not necessarily well described by a single summary measure and, in addition, such a measure provides no spatial information about the relationship between the exposure risk factor and the risk of breast cancer...
February 28, 2023: Biometrics
Eleonora Arnone, Luca Negri, Ferruccio Panzica, Laura M Sangalli
In this work we introduce a family of methods for the analysis of data observed at locations scattered in three-dimensional (3D) domains, with possibly complicated shapes. The proposed family of methods includes smoothing, regression and functional principal component analysis for functional signals defined over (possibly non-convex) 3D domains, appropriately complying with the non-trivial shape of the domain. This constitutes an important advance with respect to the literature, since the available methods to analyse data observed in 3D domains rely on Euclidean distances, that are inappropriate when the shape of the domain influences the phenomenon under study...
February 21, 2023: Biometrics
Ping-Shou Zhong
We consider inference problems for high-dimensional (HD) functional data with a dense number of T repeated measurements taken for a large number of p variables from a small number of n experimental units. The spatial and temporal dependence, high dimensionality, and dense number of repeated measurements pose theoretical and computational challenges. This paper has two aims; our first aim is to solve the theoretical and computational challenges in testing equivalence among covariance matrices from HD functional data...
February 20, 2023: Biometrics
Beibei Guo, Ying Yuan
In the era of targeted therapy, there has been increasing concern about the development of oncology drugs based on the "more is better" paradigm, developed decades ago for chemotherapy. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated Project Optimus to reform the dose optimization and dose selection paradigm in oncology drug development. To accommodate this paradigm shifting, we propose a dose-ranging approach to optimizing dose (DROID) for oncology trials with targeted drugs. DROID leverages the well-established dose-ranging study framework, which has been routinely used to develop non-oncology drugs for decades, and bridges it with established oncology dose-finding designs to optimize the dose of oncology drugs...
February 20, 2023: Biometrics
Alexander S Long, Brian J Reich, Ana-Maria Staicu, John Meitzen
Biological sex and gender are critical variables in biomedical research, but are complicated by the presence of sex-specific natural hormone cycles, such as the estrous cycle in female rodents, typically divided into phases. A common feature of these cycles are fluctuating hormone levels which induce sex differences in many behaviors controlled by the electrophysiology of neurons, such as neuronal membrane potential in response to electrical stimulus, typically summarized using a priori defined metrics. In this paper, we propose a method to test for differences in the electrophysiological properties across estrous cycle phase without first defining a metric of interest...
February 20, 2023: Biometrics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.