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Advances in Parasitology

Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Paul J Brindley
Infection with the food-borne liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Whereas the cause of CCA in the West remains obscure, the principal risk factor in Thailand is opisthorchiasis. Here, we review recent findings on the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and CCA focusing on helminth molecules/toxic metabolites, host-parasite interaction, endocytosis, immunopathology/inflammatory responses, free radical production, molecular genetic alterations, and multifactorial including coinfections driving to CCA development...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Banchob Sripa, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Melissa R Haswell
Human liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Mekong countries such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar with over 10 million infected through consumption of fish containing infective metacercariae. With no tissue migration phase and living entirely within the larger secondary (intrahepatic) bile ducts, liver flukes are only exposed to a biliary mucosal immune response, while their excretory and secretory products also stimulate chronic inflammation of biliary epithelium...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Sutas Suttiprapa, Javier Sotillo, Michael Smout, Watcharapol Suyapoh, Sujittra Chaiyadet, Timir Tripathi, Thewarach Laha, Alex Loukas
The omics technologies have improved our understanding of the molecular events that underpin host-parasite interactions and the pathogenesis of parasitic diseases. In the last decade, proteomics and genomics in particular have been used to characterize the surface and secreted products of the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and revealed important roles for proteins at the host-parasite interface to ensure that the flukes can migrate, feed and reproduce in a hostile environment. This review summarizes the advances made in this area, primarily focusing on discoveries enabled by the publication of the fluke secreted proteomes over the last decade...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Thewarach Laha, Paul J Brindley, Watcharapol Suyapoh, Sutas Suttiprapa
The availability of genome and transcriptome data of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini provides the foundation for exploration of gene function and its effect on host-parasite interactions and pathogenesis of O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. Functional genomics approaches address the function of DNA at levels of the gene, RNA transcript and protein product using informative manipulations of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, microbiome and metabolome. Advances in functional genomics for O...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Narong Khuntikeo, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Kanitta Bundhamcharoen, Ross H Andrews, Carl Grundy-Warr, Puangrat Yongvanit, Watcharin Loilome, Nittaya Chamadol, Weerachai Kosuwan, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Trevor N Petney
The northeast of Thailand, which is the poorest region of the country, has the highest incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) worldwide. This is associated with infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Although an estimated 20,000 people die every year of this disease, the socioeconomic impact of this mortality on the victims' family and the community in which he or she lived remains unknown. Here, we provide background information on the socioeconomic groups most effected by CCA and provide a qualitative estimate of the likely financial burden on the family and community...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Banchob Sripa
The Lawa model is a successful integrative and sustainable means of controlling opisthorchiasis in Thailand. The model integrates the EcoHealth and One Health holistic approaches with systems thinking to target the interruption of Opisthorchis viverrini transmission. Using the six principles of EcoHealth and emphasizing the three domains of One Health (human-animal-ecosystem), the program targets each step of the parasite life cycle, thus maximizing the chances of interrupting the life cycle of the parasite...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Irina V Saltykova, Vyacheslav A Petrov, Paul J Brindley
The liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis are closely related fish-borne trematodes endemic in East Asia, Eurasia, and Siberia. Following ingestion, the parasites locate to the biliary tree, where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Infection with O. felineus may also be carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which infection with these liver flukes culminates in CCA remain elusive, although they are likely to be multi-factorial...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Waraphon Phimpraphai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Suwicha Kasemsuwan, Banchob Sripa
In northeastern Thai (Isaan) culture traditional raw fish dishes and raw fish-eating habits are common. Eating and sharing meals together among the community's members, especially relatives and neighbours, are a common practice in both daily life and social gathering events. Fish are a significant protein source and are associated with variety of traditional recipes. Cyprinid fish are one of the most preferred fish by Isaan villagers for daily consumption because they are accessible and affordable. Consumption of these fish probably causes the persistence of high endemicity of human liver fluke infection, particularly with Opisthorchis viverrini, in northeast Thailand...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Prasarn Tangkawattana
Although any fish-eating mammals could be potential definitive hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini, only a few, especially cats and dogs, are actually known reservoir hosts for this parasite. Both animals usually get infected via consuming raw or undercooked contaminated fish, fish dishes or food remains from households. The infected animals sustain parasite egg spread via open environment defecation. Cats are the most important reservoir with higher prevalence rates of O. viverrini infection than dogs in endemic areas...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Apiporn Suwannatrai, Prasert Saichua, Melissa Haswell
Opisthorchiasis in the Lower Mekong Subregion is a parasitic disease caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite has a well-documented distribution in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Southern Vietnam. In this chapter, we describe the current knowledge of the epidemiology of O. viverrini infection, highlighting advances in control efforts made in the last four decades in Thailand and identifying ongoing gaps in our epidemiological knowledge which need to be filled to support efforts to permanently overcome the heavy morbidity and mortality burden caused by these parasites within their endemic regions...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Weerachai Saijuntha, Kanyarat Duenngai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Trevor N Petney, Ross H Andrews, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by infection with the fish-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato that afflicts more than 10million people in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The disease is characterized by a chronic infection that induces hepatobiliary inflammation, especially periductal fibrosis, which can be detected by ultrasonography. This chronic inflammation eventually leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a usually fatal bile duct cancer that develops in approximately 1% of O...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Steven W Edwards, Edward M Spofford, Charlotte Price, Helen L Wright, Kanin Salao, Sutas Suttiprapa, Banchob Sripa
Innate, inflammatory responses towards persistent Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection are likely to contribute to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a liver cancer that is rare in the West but prevalent in Greater Mekong Subregion countries in Southeast Asia. Infection results in the infiltration of innate immune cells into the bile ducts and subsequent activation of inflammatory immune responses that fail to clear OV but instead may damage local tissues within the bile ducts. Not all patients infected with OV develop CCA, and so tumourigenesis may be dependent on multiple factors including the magnitude of the inflammatory response that is activated in infected individuals...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Neil D Young, Robin B Gasser
Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease of major proportion, caused by the carcinogenic, Asian liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. This hepatobiliary disease is known to be associated with malignant cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) and affects millions of people in Southeast Asia. No vaccine is available, and only one drug (praziquantel) is routinely employed against the parasite. Despite technological advances, little is known about the molecular biology of the fluke itself and the disease complex that it causes in humans...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Trevor N Petney, Ross H Andrews, Weerachai Saijuntha, Smarn Tesana, Sattrachai Prasopdee, Nadda Kiatsopit, Paiboon Sithithaworn
There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the systematics and ecology of Opisthorchis viverrini; however, this new knowledge has not only clarified but also complicated the situation. We now know that what was once considered to be a single species is, in fact, a species complex, with the individual species being confined to specific wetland areas. There is also a strong genetic association between the members of the O. viverrini species complex and their Bithynia snail intermediate hosts...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Mark Booth
Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Peter J Hotez
By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Alejandro Trujillo-González, Joy A Becker, Kate S Hutson
Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive populations globally and summarises evidence for the cointroduction and coinvasion of goldfish parasites...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Renata R F Candido, Alessandra L Morassutti, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Timothy G St Pierre, Malcolm K Jones
In this era of increasing demand for sensitive techniques to diagnose schistosomiasis, there is a need for an increased focus on the properties of the parasite eggs. The eggs are not only directly linked to the morbidity of chronic infection but are also potential key targets for accurate diagnostics. Eggs were the primary target of diagnostic tools in the past and we argue they could be the target of highly sensitive tools in the future if we focus on characteristics of their structure and shell surface that could be exploited for enhanced detection...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Daxi Wang, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Robin B Gasser
Parasitic trematodes (flukes) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in humans. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the most destructive parasitic worms in humans in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. Although C. sinensis infection can be controlled relatively well using anthelmintics, the worm is carcinogenic, inducing cholangiocarcinoma and causing major suffering in ~15 million people in Asia. This chapter provides an account of C. sinensis and clonorchiasis research-covering aspects of biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunity, diagnosis, treatment and control, genetics and genomics...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Donald A P Bundy, Laura J Appleby, Mark Bradley, Kevin Croke, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Rachel Pullan, Hugo C Turner, Nilanthi de Silva
For more than 100 years, countries have used mass drug administration as a public health response to soil-transmitted helminth infection. The series of analyses published as Disease Control Priorities is the World Bank's vehicle for exploring the cost-effectiveness and value for money of public health interventions. The first edition was published in 1993 as a technical supplement to the World Bank's World Development Report Investing in Health where deworming was used as an illustrative example of value for money in treating diseases with relatively low morbidity but high prevalence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
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