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Memory & Cognition

Jason L Hicks, Samantha N Spitler, Megan H Papesh
Prospective memory (PM) is typically measured using keypresses in laboratory paradigms, which therefore assess only discrete, stage-like processes. In the present study we manipulated focal and nonfocal PM cue conditions, as well as participants' focus on different aspects of the PM/ongoing task set, using the methodology to capture dynamic computer mouse movements. The software captured mouse trajectories during lexical decisions and PM responses. We replicated many findings typical in the PM literature, including the accuracy advantage for focal over nonfocal conditions and longer ongoing-task response times for nonfocal conditions...
February 19, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Peri Gunalp, Tara Moossaian, Mary Hegarty
Including an avatar in the array in a spatial perspective-taking test improves performance, but it is not clear why. Different aspects of an avatar, including its directional nature, its agency (perceived ability for action), and its interactivity, may all influence perspective-taking performance. Experiment 1 examined how performance was influenced by a social directional cue (an avatar) and an abstract directional cue (an arrow). Participants performed best in the avatar condition and no better in the arrow condition than in a control condition...
February 19, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Dennis Norris, Jane Hall, Susan E Gathercole
Following Conrad (1965, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 161-169) it is often assumed that backward verbal serial recall is performed by repeated forward scans through the list and then recalling the last remaining item. Direct evidence for this peel-off strategy is relatively weak, and there has to date been no examination of its potential role in the recall of spatial sequences. To examine the role of this strategy in both verbal and spatial domains, two experiments examined response output times for forward and backward recall...
February 15, 2019: Memory & Cognition
William J Hopper, David E Huber
The primary and convergent retrieval (PCR) model assumes that the act of successful recall not only boosts associations between the item and retrieval cues but additionally strengthens associations within the item (i.e., between the features of an item), speeding the rate of information retrieval from memory. The latter effect is termed intra-item learning and is a unique benefit of recall practice (i.e., the "testing effect"). Prior work confirmed the prediction that recall practice produces faster subsequent recall than restudy practice even if accuracy is higher following restudy...
February 8, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Yoonhee Jang, Heungchul Lee
The SAM (search of associative memory) model provides a unified account of accuracy effects, assuming that retrieval is a cue-dependent two-stage process of sampling and recovery, which depends on the strength of items relative to all others and on that item associated with the sampling trace, respectively. On the other hand, the relative strength model uniquely provides latency predictions, assuming that recall latency is determined solely by relative strength (similar to the sampling rule in SAM): Latency should remain unchanged for strong and weak items in pure lists, but will be shorter for strong items than for weak items in mixed lists...
February 8, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Søren Risløv Staugaard, Dorthe Berntsen
Forgetting, understood as a measurable reduction in memory accessibility over time, has been studied extensively in episodic memory for more than 130 years. However, this research has typically focused on voluntary memory-that is, information retrieved intentionally. Few studies have examined forgetting in relation to involuntary memories-that is, memories coming to mind spontaneously with no preceding attempt at retrieval. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the effects of cue distinctiveness and the passage of time on the accessibility of involuntary and voluntary memories for pictures of scenes...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Manuel S Seet, Sally Andrews, Irina M Harris
Repetition blindness (RB) is the inability to detect both instances of a repeated stimulus during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Prior work has demonstrated RB for semantically related critical items presented as pictures, but not for word stimuli. It is not known whether the type of semantic relationship between critical items (i.e., conceptual similarity or lexical association) determines the manifestation of semantically mediated RB, or how this is affected by the format of the stimuli. These questions provided the motivation for the present study...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Christopher N Wahlheim, Timothy R Alexander, Michael J Kane
We examined the effects of interpolated retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) on list isolation in dual-list free recall and whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) moderated those effects. Ninety-seven subjects completed study-test trials that included two study lists separated by either an exemplar generation task (LTM retrieval) or a two-back task (STM retrieval). Subjects then completed an externalized free recall task that allowed for the examination of response accessibility and monitoring...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Trisha N Patel, Mark Steyvers, Aaron S Benjamin
Central to the operation of the Atkinson and Shiffrin's (Psychology of learning and motivation, 2, 89-195, 1968) model of human memory are a variety of control processes that manage information flow. Research on metacognition reveals that provision of control in laboratory learning tasks is generally beneficial to memory. In this paper, we investigate the novel domain of attentional fluctuations during study. If learners are able to monitor attention, then control over the onset of stimuli should also improve performance...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Geoffrey L McKinley, Brian H Ross, Aaron S Benjamin
The reminding effect (Tullis, Benjamin, & Ross, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143[4], 1526-1540, 2014) describes the increase in recall of a studied word when a related word is presented later in the study list. However, because the process of reminding is thought to occur during study, measures of test performance are indirect indicators of the process of reminding and are subject to influences that arise during testing. The present research seeks evidence of reminding during encoding. In two experiments, self-paced study times were used to index the online process of reminding...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
M Karl Healey, Mitchell G Uitvlugt
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) argued that performance on any memory task reflects the combined influence of both the fixed structure of the memory system and control processes tailored to the specific task. We investigated the role of control processes in governing the temporal contiguity and semantic contiguity effects in free recall-tendencies to organize recall based on proximity in the study list and pre-existing semantic associations. Subjects studied lists that contained four "clusters", each composed of four semantically associated words but presented in random order such that associates were not in adjacent serial positions...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Ryan M McAdoo, Kylie N Key, Scott D Gronlund
How recognition memory is mediated has been of interest to researchers for decades. But the apparent consensus implicating continuous mediation has been challenged. McAdoo, Key, and Gronlund (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,2018. Advanced online publication) demonstrated that recognition memory can be mediated by either discrete or continuous evidence, depending on target-filler similarity. The present paper expands on this research by showing that different recognition tasks also can be mediated by different evidence...
January 28, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Kenneth J Malmberg, Jeroen G W Raaijmakers, Richard M Shiffrin
In this article we review the framework proposed in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin. We discuss the prior context that led to its production, including the advent of cognitive and mathematical modeling, its principal concepts, the subsequent refinements and elaborations that followed, and the way that the framework influenced other researchers to test the ideas and, in some cases, propose alternatives. The article illustrates the large amount of research and the large number of memory models that were directly influenced by this chapter over the past 50 years...
January 28, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Adam P Young, Alice F Healy, Matt Jones, Lyle E Bourne
Theories of memory must account for memory performance during both the acquisition (i.e., ongoing learning) and retention (i.e., following disuse) stages of training. One factor affecting both stages is whether repeated encounters with a set of material occur with no delay between blocks (massed) or alternating with another intervening task (spaced). Whereas the retention advantage for spaced over massed practice is well accounted for by some current theories of memory, theories of decay or general interference predict massed, rather than spaced, advantages during acquisition...
January 24, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Benjamin Kowialiewski, Steve Majerus
Numerous studies have shown that verbal working memory (vWM) performance is strongly influenced by linguistic knowledge, with items more familiar at sublexical, lexical, and/or semantic levels leading to higher vWM recall performance. Among the many different psycholinguistic variables whose impact on vWM has been studied, the lexical cohort effect is one of the few effects that has not yet been explored. The lexical cohort effect reflects the fact that words sharing their first phonemes with many other words (e...
January 18, 2019: Memory & Cognition
J David Smith, Brooke N Jackson, Barbara A Church
Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in humans' and animals' ability to respond to abstract relations, as this ability may underlie important capacities like analogical reasoning. Cross-species research has used relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which participants try to find stimulus pairs that "match" because they both express the same abstract relation (same or different). Researchers seek to understand the cognitive processes that underlie successful matching performance...
January 10, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Geoff Ward, Lydia Tan
According to the Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) model, control processes in the short-term memory store determine the selection of different storage, search, and retrieval strategies. Although rehearsal is the most studied short-term control process, it is necessary to specify the different retrieval strategies available for participants to use in searching for and outputting from short-term or immediate memory, as well as the degree to which participants can flexibly select different retrieval strategies for recalling rehearsed and unrehearsed materials...
January 7, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Nicole L Varga, Trent Gaugler, Jennifer Talarico
Theories of reconstructive memory have long been influenced by investigations of false recognition errors, in which old/new judgements are compromised by spontaneous activation of associated but nonpresented concepts. Recent evidence similarly suggests that reconstructive memory processes (so-called memory integration) also support positive learning behaviors, such as inferential reasoning. Despite prevailing hypotheses, the question of whether a common integration process underlies these seemingly disparate mnemonic outcomes is not well understood...
January 7, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Christin Schulze, Greta James, Derek J Koehler, Ben R Newell
Does taxing cognitive resources improve people's choices in repeated binary prediction? Wolford, Newman, Miller, and Wig (2004, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 221-228) found that a secondary verbal working memory task, which competed for cognitive resources with a repeated binary choice task, steered participants toward adopting the optimal strategy, namely, probability maximizing. By contrast, under single-task conditions, an inferior strategy prevailed, namely, probability matching. We conducted a preregistered direct replication of Experiment 1 in Wolford et al...
January 7, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Lili Sahakyan
The present investigation provides a novel extension of the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model to examine free-recall and recognition memory in older adults to inform our understanding of age-related cognitive decline. When some items on a list are strengthened through distributed repetitions, memory for the nonstrengthened items on that list may become impaired depending on how memory is tested-a phenomenon known as the list-strength effect (LSE; e.g., Tulving & Hastie, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 92, 297-304, 1972)...
January 3, 2019: Memory & Cognition
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