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Dennis D Murphy, Paul S Weiland
The directive from Congress in the Endangered Species Act obliging the US Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service along with other federal agencies to use the best available scientific information in their determinations-and calls from stakeholder communities to show that they have done so-have led the federal wildlife agencies to seek external, expert review of their determinations with increasing frequency over time. In the present article, we survey the agency determinations that may be subject to independent science review and the technical tasks embedded in those determinations that can benefit from such review...
March 1, 2019: Bioscience
Paolo D'Odorico, Joel A Carr, Kyle F Davis, Jampel Dell'Angelo, David A Seekell
As humanity continues to grow in size, questions related to human rights and the existing unequal distribution of food resources have taken on greater urgency. Is inequality in food access unjust or a regrettable consequence of the geographic distribution of biophysical resources? To what extent are there obligations to redress inequalities in access to food? We draw from a human rights perspective to identify obligations associated with access to food and develop a quantitative framework to evaluate the fulfillment of the human right to food...
March 1, 2019: Bioscience
Jérémy Bouyer, Neil H Carter, Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson
Wildlife species harmful to humans are often targets of control and elimination programs. A contemporary example is the tsetse fly, a vector of sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis. Tsetse flies have recently been targeted by a pan-African eradication campaign. If it is successful, the campaign could push the entire tsetse family to extinction. With the emergence of effective and efficient elimination technologies, ethical assessment of proposed elimination campaigns is urgently needed. We examine the ethics of tsetse fly elimination by considering arguments predicated on both the instrumental and the intrinsic values of the species at local and global scales...
February 1, 2019: Bioscience
Kristy L Kenyon, Bradley J Cosentino, Alan J Gottesman, Morgan E Onorato, Jamila Hoque, Sally G Hoskins
The faculty workshop model has long been used for disseminating innovative methods in STEM education. Despite significant investments by researchers and funding agencies, there is a dearth of evidence regarding downstream impacts of faculty development. CREATE is an evidence-based strategy for teaching science using primary literature. In this study, we examined whether workshop-trained faculty applied CREATE methods effectively and whether their students achieved either cognitive or affective gains. We followed 10 workshop alumni at different 4-year institutions throughout the United States...
January 1, 2019: Bioscience
J Ryan Bellmore, George R Pess, Jeffrey J Duda, Jim E O'Connor, Amy E East, Melissa M Foley, Andrew C Wilcox, Jon J Major, Patrick B Shafroth, Sarah A Morley, Christopher S Magirl, Chauncey W Anderson, James E Evans, Christian E Torgersen, Laura S Craig
One of the desired outcomes of dam decommissioning and removal is the recovery of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. To investigate this common objective, we synthesized information from empirical studies and ecological theory into conceptual models that depict key physical and biological links driving ecological responses to removing dams. We define models for three distinct spatial domains: upstream of the former reservoir, within the reservoir, and downstream of the removed dam. Emerging from these models are response trajectories that clarify potential pathways of ecological transitions in each domain...
January 1, 2019: Bioscience
Lorenzo Rojas-Bracho, Richard C Brusca, Saúl Álvarez-Borrego, Robert L Brownell, Víctor Camacho-Ibar, Gerardo Ceballos, Horacio de la Cueva, Jaqueline García-Hernández, Philip A Hastings, Gustavo Cárdenas-Hinojosa, Armando M Jaramillo-Legorreta, Rodrigo Medellín, Sarah L Mesnick, Edwyna Nieto-García, Jorge Urbán, Enriqueta Velarde, Omar Vidal, Lloyd T Findley, Barbara L Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Bioscience
Sainath Suryanarayanan, Daniel Lee Kleinman, Claudio Gratton, Amy Toth, Christelle Guedot, Russell Groves, John Piechowski, Brad Moore, Deborah Hagedorn, Dayton Kauth, Heather Swan, Mary Celley
We develop a transdisciplinary deliberative model that moves beyond traditional scientific collaborations to include nonscientists in designing complexity-oriented research. We use the case of declining honey bee health as an exemplar of complex real-world problems requiring cross-disciplinary intervention. Honey bees are important pollinators of the fruits and vegetables we eat. In recent years, these insects have been dying at alarming rates. To prompt the reorientation of research toward the complex reality in which bees face multiple challenges, we came together as a group, including beekeepers, farmers, and scientists...
December 1, 2018: Bioscience
Scott Lidgard, Alan C Love
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biy084.].
November 1, 2018: Bioscience
Stephanie R Januchowski-Hartley, Natalie Sopinka, Bethann G Merkle, Christina Lux, Anna Zivian, Patrick Goff, Samantha Oester
Creativity is crucial to the capacity to do science well, to communicate it in compelling ways, and to enhance learning. Creativity can be both practiced and enhanced to strengthen conservation science professionals' efforts to address global environmental challenges. We explore how poetry is one creative approach that can further conservation scientists' engagement and learning. We draw on evidence from peer-reviewed literature to illustrate benefits of integrating science and poetry, and to ground our argument for the growth of a science-poetry community to help conservation scientists develop skills in creative practices as a component of professional development...
November 1, 2018: Bioscience
Conor Waldock, Maria Dornelas, Amanda E Bates
Temperature regimes have multiple spatial and temporal dimensions that have different impacts on biodiversity. Signatures of warming across these dimensions may contribute uniquely to the large-scale species redistributions and abundance changes that underpin community dynamics. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals that 86% of studies were focused on community responses to temperature aggregated over spatial or temporal dimensions (e.g., mean, median, or extremes). Therefore, the effects of temperature variation in space and time on biodiversity remain generally unquantified...
November 1, 2018: Bioscience
Jeffrey R Powell, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Panayiota Kotsakiozi
Aedes aegypti bears the common name "the yellow fever mosquito," although, today, it is of more concern as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya, and, most recently, Zika viruses. In the present article, we review recent work on the population genetics of this mosquito in efforts to reconstruct its recent (approximately 600 years) history and relate these findings to epidemiological records of occurrences of diseases transmitted by this species. The two sources of information are remarkably congruent...
November 1, 2018: Bioscience
Scott Lidgard, Alan C Love
Biologists would be mistaken if they relegated living fossils to paleontological inquiry or assumed that the concept is dead. It is now used to describe entities ranging from viruses to higher taxa, despite recent warnings of misleading inferences. Current work on character evolution illustrates how analyzing living fossils and stasis in terms of parts (characters) and wholes (e.g., organisms and lineages) advances our understanding of prolonged stasis at many hierarchical levels. Instead of viewing the concept's task as categorizing living fossils, we show how its primary role is to mark out what is in need of explanation, accounting for the persistence of both molecular and morphological traits...
October 1, 2018: Bioscience
Courtney L Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth A Hobson, Tamra C Mendelson, Rafael L Rodríguez, Rebecca J Safran, Elizabeth S C Scordato, Maria R Servedio, Caitlin A Stern, Laurel B Symes, Michael Kopp
According to a recent survey, ecologists and evolutionary biologists feel that theoretical and empirical research should coexist in a tight feedback loop but believe that the two domains actually interact very little. We evaluate this perception using a citation network analysis for two data sets, representing the literature on sexual selection and speciation. Overall, 54%-60% of citations come from a paper's own category, whereas 17%-23% are citations across categories. These cross-citations tend to focus on highly cited papers, and we observe a positive correlation between the numbers of citations a study receives within and across categories...
October 1, 2018: Bioscience
Robert J Hawley
Despite large advances in the state of the science of stream ecology and river mechanics, the practitioner-driven field of stream restoration remains plagued by narrowly focused projects that sometimes even fail to improve aquatic habitat or geomorphic stability-two nearly universal project goals. The intent of this article is to provide an accessible framework that bridges that gap between the current state of practice and a more geomorphically robust and ecologically holistic foundation that also provides better accounting of socioeconomic factors in support of more sustainable stream restoration outcomes...
July 1, 2018: Bioscience
Andrea Wiggins, Rick Bonney, Gretchen LeBuhn, Julia K Parrish, Jake F Weltzin
Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
Andrea Wiggins, Rick Bonney, Gretchen LeBuhn, Julia K Parrish, Jake F Weltzin
Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
Eric W Sanderson, Joseph Walston, John G Robinson
For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
Bethan C O'Leary, Natalie C Ban, Miriam Fernandez, Alan M Friedlander, Pablo García-Borboroglu, Yimnang Golbuu, Paolo Guidetti, Jean M Harris, Julie P Hawkins, Tim Langlois, Douglas J McCauley, Ellen K Pikitch, Robert H Richmond, Callum M Roberts
Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social-ecological value and cost...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
William N S Arlidge, Joseph W Bull, Prue F E Addison, Michael J Burgass, Dimas Gianuca, Taylor M Gorham, Céline Jacob, Nicole Shumway, Samuel P Sinclair, James E M Watson, Chris Wilcox, E J Milner-Gulland
Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
Nancy M Trautmann, Michael P Gilmore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
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