journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39007232/whole-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-lytic-bacteriophage-infecting-clavibacter-michiganensis-subsp-michiganensis-from-turkey
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Duygu Bekircan Eski, Donus Gencer, Cihan Darcan
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis ( Cmm ) is an important plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes canker and wilt diseases. Biological control of the disease with bacteriophages is an alternative to conventional methods. In this study, Phage33 infecting Cmm was characterized based on morphological and genomic properties. Morphological characteristics such as shape and size were investigated using electron microscopy. The whole genome was sequenced using the Illumina Novaseq 6000 platform and the sequence was assembled and annotated...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38995681/sars-cov-2-infects-neurons-astrocytes-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-and-pericytes-of-the-human-central-nervous-system-in-vitro
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ruth Haverty, Janet McCormack, Christopher Evans, Kevin Purves, Sophie O'Reilly, Virginie Gautier, Keith Rochfort, Aurelie Fabre, Nicola F Fletcher
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with neurological sequelae including haemorrhage, thrombosis and ischaemic necrosis and encephalitis. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Neurological disease associated with COVID-19 has been proposed to occur following direct infection of the central nervous system and/or indirectly by local or systemic immune activation. We evaluated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in brain tissue from five healthy human donors and observed low-level expression of these proteins in cells morphologically consistent with astrocytes, neurons and choroidal ependymal cells within the frontal cortex and medulla oblongata...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38995674/comparative-pathogenesis-of-three-mayaro-virus-genotypes-in-the-cynomolgus-macaque
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Melissa M Hamilton, Emily M Webb, Max C Peterson, Grishma Patel, Maciel Porto, Tatyana Orekov, Jesse H Erasmus, Brad Finneyfrock, Anthony Cook, Albert J Auguste, Swagata Kar
Mayaro virus (MAYV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is considered an emerging threat to public health with epidemic potential. Phylogenetic studies show the existence of three MAYV genotypes. In this study, we provide a preliminary analysis of the pathogenesis of all three MAYV genotypes in cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca facicularis , Mauritian origin). Significant MAYV-specific RNAemia and viremia were detected during acute infection in animals challenged intravenously with the three MAYV genotypes, and strong neutralizing antibody responses were observed...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38980150/evaluating-the-epizootic-and-zoonotic-threat-of-an-h7n9-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-lpaiv-variant-associated-with-enhanced-pathogenicity-in-turkeys
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joe James, Saumya S Thomas, Amanda H Seekings, Sahar Mahmood, Michael Kelly, Ashley C Banyard, Alejandro Núñez, Sharon M Brookes, Marek J Slomka
Between 2013 and 2017, the A/Anhui/1/13-lineage (H7N9) low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) was epizootic in chickens in China, causing mild disease, with 616 fatal human cases. Despite poultry vaccination, H7N9 has not been eradicated. Previously, we demonstrated increased pathogenesis in turkeys infected with H7N9, correlating with the emergence of the L217Q (L226Q H3 numbering) polymorphism in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein. A Q217-containing virus also arose and is now dominant in China following vaccination...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38975739/red-knots-in-europe-a-dead-end-host-species-or-a-new-niche-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jacqueline King, Anne Pohlmann, Andreas Bange, Elisabeth Horn, Bernd Hälterlein, Angele Breithaupt, Anja Globig, Anne Günther, Angie Kelm, Christian Wiedemann, Christian Grund, Karena Haecker, Stefan Garthe, Timm Harder, Martin Beer, Philipp Schwemmer
The 2020/2021 epidemic in Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5 surpassed all previously recorded European outbreaks in size, genotype constellations and reassortment frequency and continued into 2022 and 2023. The causative 2.3.4.4b viral lineage proved to be highly proficient with respect to reassortment with cocirculating low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and seems to establish an endemic status in northern Europe. A specific HPAIV reassortant of the subtype H5N3 was detected almost exclusively in red knots ( Calidris canutus islandica ) in December 2020...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38959058/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-turriviridae-2024
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sydnie K Chase, Jamie C Snyder
The family Turriviridae includes viruses with a dsDNA genome of 16-17 kbp. Virions are spherical with a diameter of approximately 75 nm and comprise a host-derived internal lipid membrane surrounded by a proteinaceous capsid shell. Members of the family Turriviridae infect extremophilic archaea of the genera Sulfolobus and Saccharolobus . Viral infection results in cell lysis for Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus 1 infection but other members of the family can be temperate. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Turriviridae , which is available at ictv...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38959049/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-phasmaviridae-2024
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jens H Kuhn, Holly R Hughes
Phasmaviridae is a family for negative-sense RNA viruses with genomes of about 9.7-15.8 kb. These viruses are maintained in and/or transmitted by insects. Phasmavirids produce enveloped virions containing three single-stranded RNA segments that encode a nucleoprotein (N), a glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and a large (L) protein containing an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) domain. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Phasmaviridae, which is available at ictv...
July 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922678/h5n1-clade-2-3-4-4b-avian-influenza-viruses-replicate-in-differentiated-bovine-airway-epithelial-cells-cultured-at-air-liquid-interface
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Luca Bordes, Nora M Gerhards, Stan Peters, Sophie van Oort, Marit Roose, Romy Dresken, Sandra Venema, Manouk Vrieling, Marc Engelsma, Wim H M van der Poel, Rik L de Swart
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are responsible for disease outbreaks in wild birds and poultry, resulting in devastating losses to the poultry sector. Since 2020, an increasing number of outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 was seen in wild birds. Infections in mammals have become more common, in most cases in carnivores after direct contact with infected birds. Although ruminants were previously not considered a host species for HPAI viruses, in March 2024 multiple outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 were detected in goats and cattle in the United States...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38921821/characterization-of-a-natural-dead-end-variant-of-schmallenberg-virus
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Franziska Sick, Sophie Zeiske, Martin Beer, Kerstin Wernike
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) belongs to the Simbu serogroup within the family Peribunyaviridae , genus Orthobunyavirus and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Infection of naïve ruminants in a critical phase of gestation may lead to severe congenital malformations. Sequence analysis from viremic animals revealed a very high genome stability. In contrast, sequence variations are frequently described for SBV from malformed fetuses. In addition to S segment mutations, especially within the M segment encoding the major immunogen Gc, point mutations or genomic deletions are also observed...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38888587/limited-potexvirus-diversity-in-eastern-gulf-of-mexico-seagrass-meadows
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shen Jean Lim, Karyna Rosario, Meredith E Kernbach, Anthony J Gross, Bradley T Furman, Mya Breitbart
Turtlegrass virus X, which infects the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , is the only potexvirus known to infect marine flowering plants. We investigated potexvirus distribution in seagrasses using a degenerate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay originally designed to capture potexvirus diversity in terrestrial plants. The assay, which implements Potex-5 and Potex-2RC primers, successfully amplified a 584 nt RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) fragment from TVX-infected seagrasses. Following validation, we screened 74 opportunistically collected, apparently healthy seagrass samples for potexviruses using this RT-PCR assay...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38861287/smallpox-vaccination-campaigns-resulted-in-age-associated-population-cross-immunity-against-monkeypox-virus
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kieran Dee, Maria Manali, Laura A Bissett, Jordan Bone, Callum Magill, Chris Davis, Brian J Willett, Pablo R Murcia
Increased human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus (MPXV) is cause for concern, and antibodies directed against vaccinia virus (VACV) are known to confer cross-protection against Mpox. We used 430 serum samples derived from the Scottish patient population to investigate antibody-mediated cross-neutralization against MPXV. By combining electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with live-virus neutralization assays, we show that people born when smallpox vaccination was routinely offered in the United Kingdom have increased levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize MPXV...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38836747/whole-genome-analysis-of-human-group-a-rotaviruses-in-1980s-japan-and-evolutionary-assessment-of-global-wa-like-strains-across-half-a-century
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yuya Fukuda, Kenji Kondo, Shuji Nakata, Yasuyuki Morita, Noriaki Adachi, Keiko Kogawa, Susumu Ukae, Yoshimasa Kudou, Shuhei Adachi, Masaki Yamamoto, Shinobu Fukumura, Takeshi Tsugawa
Historically, the Wa-like strains of human group A rotavirus (RVA) have been major causes of gastroenteritis. However, since the 2010s, the circulation of non-Wa-like strains has been increasingly reported, indicating a shift in the molecular epidemiology of RVA. Although understanding RVA evolution requires the analysis of both current and historical strains, comprehensive pre-1980's sequencing data are scarce globally. We determined the whole-genome sequences of representative strains from six RVA gastroenteritis outbreaks observed at an infant home in Sapporo, Japan, between 1981 and 1989...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38833289/novel-phages-of-pseudomonas-syringae-unveil-numerous-potential-auxiliary-metabolic-genes
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chloé Feltin, Julian R Garneau, Cindy E Morris, Annette Bérard, Clara Torres-Barceló
Relatively few phages that infect plant pathogens have been isolated and investigated. The Pseudomonas syringae species complex is present in various environments, including plants. It can cause major crop diseases, such as bacterial canker on apricot trees. This study presents a collection of 25 unique phage genomes that infect P. syringae . These phages were isolated from apricot orchards with bacterial canker symptoms after enrichment with 21 strains of P. syringae . This collection comprises mostly virulent phages, with only three being temperate...
June 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38814706/decoding-huge-phage-diversity-a-taxonomic-classification-of-lak-megaphages
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ryan Cook, Marco A Crisci, Hannah V Pye, Andrea Telatin, Evelien M Adriaenssens, Joanne M Santini
High-throughput sequencing for uncultivated viruses has accelerated the understanding of global viral diversity and uncovered viral genomes substantially larger than any that have so far been cultured. Notably, the Lak phages are an enigmatic group of viruses that present some of the largest known phage genomes identified in human and animal microbiomes, and are dissimilar to any cultivated viruses. Despite the wealth of viral diversity that exists within sequencing datasets, uncultivated viruses have rarely been used for taxonomic classification...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38814698/phloretin-inhibits-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-proliferation-via-multiple-mechanisms
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yuting Duan, Haichuan Li, Shuai Huang, Yaoming Li, Shuyi Chen, Lilan Xie
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has caused huge economic losses to the pig industry, with 100% mortality in piglets aged 2 weeks and intestinal injury in pigs of other ages. However, there is still a shortage of safe and effective anti-TGEV drugs in clinics. In this study, phloretin, a naturally occurring dihydrochalcone glycoside, was identified as a potent antagonist of TGEV. Specifically, we found phloretin effectively inhibited TGEV proliferation in PK-15 cells, dose-dependently reducing the expression of TGEV N protein, mRNA, and virus titer...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38809251/xinyang-flavivirus-from-haemaphysalis-flava-ticks-in-henan-province-china-defines-a-basal-likely-tick-only-orthoflavivirus-clade
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lan-Lan Wang, Qia Cheng, Natalee D Newton, Michael T Wolfinger, Mahali S Morgan, Andrii Slonchak, Alexander A Khromykh, Tian-Yin Cheng, Rhys H Parry
Tick-borne orthoflaviviruses (TBFs) are classified into three conventional groups based on genetics and ecology: mammalian, seabird and probable-TBF group. Recently, a fourth basal group has been identified in Rhipicephalus ticks from Africa: Mpulungu flavivirus (MPFV) in Zambia and Ngoye virus (NGOV) in Senegal. Despite attempts, isolating these viruses in vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines or intracerebral injection of newborn mice with virus-containing homogenates has remained unsuccessful. In this study, we report the discovery of Xinyang flavivirus (XiFV) in Haemaphysalis flava ticks from Xìnyáng, Henan Province, China...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787366/japanese-encephalitis-virus-hijacks-er-associated-degradation-regulators-for-its-replication
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Riya Sarkar, Simran Chhabra, Mukesh Tanwar, Nisheeth Agarwal, Manjula Kalia
Flaviviruses target their replication on membranous structures derived from the ER, where both viral and host proteins play crucial structural and functional roles. Here, we have characterized the involvement of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway core E3 ligase complex (SEL1L-HRD1) regulator proteins in the replication of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Through high-resolution immunofluorescence imaging of JEV-infected HeLa cells, we observe that the virus replication complexes marked by NS1 strongly colocalize with the ERAD adapter SEL1L, lectin OS9, ER-membrane shuttle factor HERPUD1, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 and rhomboid superfamily member DERLIN1...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38776134/role-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Raymond R R Rowland, Alberto Brandariz-Nuñez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and one of the main pathogens that causes the most significant economical losses in the swine-producing countries. PRRSV is currently divided into two distinct species, PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2. The PRRSV virion envelope is composed of four glycosylated membrane proteins and three non-glycosylated envelope proteins. Previous work has suggested that PRRSV-linked glycans are critical structural components for virus assembly...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38767624/haplotype-determination-of-the-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-by-nanopore-sequencing-and-linkage-of-single-nucleotide-variants
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jörg T Wennmann, Fang-Shiang Lim, Sergei Senger, Mudasir Gani, Johannes A Jehle, Jens Keilwagen
Naturally occurring isolates of baculoviruses, such as the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), usually consist of numerous genetically different haplotypes. Deciphering the different haplotypes of such isolates is hampered by the large size of the dsDNA genome, as well as the short read length of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques that are widely applied for baculovirus isolate characterization. In this study, we addressed this challenge by combining the accuracy of NGS to determine single nucleotide variants (SNVs) as genetic markers with the long read length of Nanopore sequencing technique...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38767609/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-rodent-hepevirus-in-long-tailed-dwarf-hamsters-cricetulus-longicaudatus-in-china
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lin Xu, Mengyu Bie, Juan Li, Hong Zhou, Tao Hu, Michael J Carr, Liang Lu, Weifeng Shi
Hepeviruses have been identified in a broad range of animal hosts, including mammals, birds, and fish. In this study, rodents ( n =91) from seven different species and ten pikas ( Ochotona curzoniae ) were collected in Qinghai Province, China. Using transcriptomic sequencing and confirmatory molecular testing, hepeviruses were detected in 27 of 45 (60 %) long-tailed dwarf hamsters ( Cricetulus longicaudatus ) and were undetected in other rodents and pika. The complete genome sequences from 14 representative strains were subsequently obtained, and phylogenetic analyses suggested that they represent a novel species within the genus Rocahepevirus , which we tentatively designated as Cl-2018QH...
May 2024: Journal of General Virology
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