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Journal of General Virology

José Vargas-Asencio, Harris Liou, Keith L Perry, Jeremy R Thompson
Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is type member of the newly identified genus Grablovirus. It possesses a single-stranded circular DNA genome of around 3200 nucleotides encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) in both the virion sense, the V1 (CP), V2 and V3, and complementary sense, C1 (RepA), C2 and C3. As shown for members of the genus Mastrevirus, the C1 and C2 ORFs are predicted to fuse through splicing to form a replication-associated protein (Rep). Data obtained using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of three RNA-enriched populations, extracted from GRBV-infected grapevine (Vitis vinifera), confirmed the presence of the predicted C1-C2 intron (nts 2288-2450), but in addition identified a larger virion-sense intron (nts 251-589) spanning the V2 ORF...
February 18, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Hussein Al-Shehabi, Uwe Fiebig, Juliane Kutzner, Joachim Denner, Torsten Schaller, Norbert Bannert, Henning Hofmann
The release of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) particles from pig cells is a potential risk factor during xenotransplantation by way of productively infecting the human transplant recipient. Potential countermeasures against PERV replication are restriction factors that block retroviral replication. SAMHD1 is a triphosphohydrolase that depletes the cellular pool of dNTPs in non-cycling cells starving retroviral reverse transcription. We investigated the antiviral activity of human SAMHD1 against PERV and found that SAMHD1 potently restricts its reverse transcription in human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), or macrophages (MDM) and in monocytic THP-1 cells...
February 15, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Pieter Vrijens, Sam Noppen, Talitha Boogaerts, Els Vanstreels, Roberto Ronca, Paola Chiodelli, Manon Laporte, Evelien Vanderlinden, Sandra Liekens, Annelies Stevaert, Lieve Naesens
The possible resistance of influenza virus against existing antiviral drugs calls for new therapeutic concepts. One appealing strategy is to inhibit virus entry, in particular at the stage of internalization. This requires a better understanding of virus-host interactions during the entry process, including the role of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). To search for cellular targets, we evaluated a panel of 276 protein kinase inhibitors in a multicycle antiviral assay in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The RTK inhibitor Ki8751 displayed robust anti-influenza A and B virus activity and was selected for mechanistic investigations...
February 14, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Adi Kliot, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Galina Lebedev, Henryk Czosnek, Murad Ghanim
We have recently shown that Rickettsia, a secondary facultative bacterial symbiont that infects the whitefly B. tabaci is implicated in the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Infection with Rickettsia improved the acquisition and transmission of the virus by B. tabaci adults. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis with Rickettsia-infected and uninfected B. tabaci adults before and after TYLCV acquisition. The results show a dramatic and specific activation of the immune system in the presence of Rickettsia before TYLCV acquisition...
February 14, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Helen E Farrell, Philip G Stevenson
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are large, complex pathogens that persistently and systemically colonize most mammals. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes congenital harm, and has proved hard to control. One problem is that key vaccine targets - virus entry and spread in naive hosts - remain ill-defined. As CMVs predate human speciation, those of other mammals can provide new insight. Murine CMV (MCMV) enters new hosts via olfactory neurons. Like HCMV it binds to heparan, which is lacking from most differentiated apical epithelia but is displayed on olfactory neuronal cilia...
February 7, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Wei Zhao, Xiao Li Tao, Nian Liu, Heng Zhang Lu, Chun Hong Zheng, Xiang Yu Li, Man Yu, Yong Gang Li
Human astrovirus non-structural protein nsP1a/4, located at the C-terminal end of nsP1a, is thought to be involved in regulating RNA replication. Here, we show that host protein CD63 interacts with the nsP1a protein. Further research showed that the large loop (LEL) domain of CD63 also interacts with nsP1a/4. Confocal microscopy showed that nsP1a/4 protein and CD63 co-localized in the cytoplasm of co-transfected cells. Co-localization of nsP1a/4 and CD63 was also observed in HAstV-1-infected cells. Overexpression of CD63 promoted replication of HAstV-1, whereas knockdown of CD63 reduced production of HAstV-1 viral progeny...
February 6, 2019: Journal of General Virology
J Fuller, R A Surtees, A B Shaw, B Álvarez-Rodríguez, G S Slack, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, J Mankouri, T A Edwards, R Hewson, J N Barr
The Nairoviridae family within the Bunyavirales order comprise tick-borne segmented negative-sense RNA viruses that cause serious disease in a broad range of mammals, yet cause a latent and lifelong infection in tick hosts. An important member of this family is Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is responsible for serious human disease that results in case fatality rates of up to 30 %, and which exhibits the most geographically broad distribution of any tick-borne virus. Here, we explored differences in the cellular response of both mammalian and tick cells to nairovirus infection using Hazara virus (HAZV), which is a close relative of CCHFV within the CCHFV serogroup...
February 5, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Timothy J Powell, Pramila Rijal, Rosanna M McEwen-Smith, Haewon Byun, Marc Hardwick, Lisa M Schimanski, Kuan-Ying A Huang, Rodney S Daniels, Alain R M Townsend
A non-replicating form of pseudotyped influenza virus, inactivated by suppression of the haemagglutinin signal sequence (S-FLU), can act as a broadly protective vaccine. S-FLU can infect for a single round only, and induces heterotypic protection predominantly through activation of cross-reactive T cells in the lung. Unlike the licensed live attenuated virus, it cannot reassort a pandemic haemagglutinin (HA) into seasonal influenza. Here we present data on four new forms of S-FLU coated with H7 HAs from either A/Anhui/1/2013, A/Shanghai/1/2013, A/Netherlands/219/2003 or A/New York/107/2003 strains of H7 virus...
February 4, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Jia Ni Tian, Ren Huang Wu, Shen Liang Chen, Chiung Tong Chen, Andrew Yueh
The NS4A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has a cytosolic N terminus and four transmembrane domains. NS4A participates in RNA replication and the host antiviral response. However, the roles of amino acid residues within the N-terminus of NS4A during the life cycle of DENV are not clear. Here we explore the function of DENV NS4A by introducing a series of alanine substitutions into the N-terminus of NS4A in the context of a DENV infectious clone or subgenomic replicon. Nine of 17 NS4A mutants displayed a lethal phenotype due to the impairment of RNA replication...
February 1, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Kunal D Pingale, Gayatri D Kanade, Yogesh A Karpe
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) induces interferons and regulates the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the host cell. HEV infection has been shown to promote the expression of different ISGs, such as ISG15, IFIT1, MX1, RSAD2/Viperin and CxCL10, in cell culture and animal models. Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (IFIT1) is an ISG-encoded protein that inhibits the translation of viral RNA, having 5'-triphosphate or the mRNA lacking 2'-O-methylation on the 5'cap. In this study, we found that IFIT1 binds to HEV RNA to inhibit its translation...
January 31, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Erica Martel, Emily Forzono, Richard Kurker, Benjamin A Clark, John G Neilan, Michael Puckette
The production of experimental molecular vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes the viral encoded 3C protease for processing of the P1 polyprotein. Expression of wild type 3C protease is detrimental to host cells. The molecular vaccine constructs containing the 3C protease L127P mutant significantly reduce adverse effects associated with protease expression while retaining the ability to process and assemble virus-like particles. In published 3C protease crystal structures, the L127 residue is contained within the B2 β-strand as part of the A2-B2 β-sheet...
January 31, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Jennifer L Welch, Jack T Stapleton, Chioma M Okeoma
The terms extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes, or exosomes are often used interchangeably as descriptors of particles that are released from cells and comprise a lipid membrane that encapsulates nucleic acids and proteins. Although these entities are defined based on a specific size range and/or mechanism of release, the terminology is often ambiguous. Nevertheless, these vesicles are increasingly recognized as important modulators of intercellular communication. The generic characterization of extracellular vesicles could also be used as a descriptor of enveloped viruses, highlighting the fact that extracellular vesicles and enveloped viruses are similar in both composition and function...
January 31, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Qing Yu, Mingzhu Liu, Shina Wei, Siting Wu, Hehe Xiao, Xianling Qin, Hongfei Su, Pengfei Li
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is one of the most fatal viruses in marine fish aquaculture, and is capable of infecting over 50 different fish species. Trachinotus ovatus NNV (GTONNV) was isolated from diseased golden pompano. This T. ovatus strain was isolated from Guangxi, China. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers with high specificity for GTONNV-infected T. ovatus cerebellum cells (TOCC) were produced by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). The characterization of these aptamers was performed using flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy...
January 30, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Bob Boogaard, Felix Evers, Jan W M van Lent, Monique M van Oers
Baculoviruses orally infect insect larvae when they consume viral occlusion bodies (OBs). OBs consist of a crystalline protein matrix in which the infectious virus particles, the occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs), are embedded. The protein matrix dissolves in the alkaline environment of the insect's midgut lumen. The liberated ODVs can then infect midgut endothelial cells through the action of at least nine different ODV-envelope proteins, called per os infectivity factors (PIFs). These PIF proteins mediate ODV oral infectivity, but are not involved in the systemic spread of the infection by budded viruses (BVs)...
January 29, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Małgorzata Graul, Edyta Kisielnicka, Michał Rychłowski, Marieke C Verweij, Kurt Tobler, Mathias Ackermann, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk, Andrea D Lipińska
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1)-encoded UL49.5 (a homologue of herpesvirus glycoprotein N) can combine different functions, regulated by complex formation with viral glycoprotein M (gM). We aimed to identify the mechanisms governing the immunomodulatory activity of BoHV-1 UL49.5. In this study, we addressed the impact of gM/UL49.5-specific regions on heterodimer formation, folding and trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) - events previously found to be responsible for abrogation of the UL49...
January 29, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Fei Yu, Longlong Wang, Wanjuan Li, Liqun Lu
Aquareovirus is a genus of viruses in family Reoviridae, subfamily Spinareovirinae, members of which infect fish, shellfish and crustaceans. Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a genotype 1 reovirus isolated from grass carp, has served as a model strain for investigating aquareovirus-host interactions. Herein, we report a neglected open reading frame (ORF), tentatively named NS12, residing between NS16 and NS31 in segment 7 (S7) of the virus genome. With an additional reading frame, the nucleotide sequence of NS12 partially overlaps with the 3' expressible nucleotide sequence of NS16...
January 28, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Rebecca I Johnson, Mary Tachedjian, Bronwyn A Clayton, Rachel Layton, Jemma Bergfeld, Lin-Fa Wang, Glenn A Marsh
Bats are the reservoir hosts for multiple viruses with zoonotic potential, including coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and filoviruses. Urine collected from Australian pteropid bats was assessed for the presence of paramyxoviruses. One of the viruses isolated was Teviot virus (TevPV), a novel rubulavirus previously isolated from pteropid bat urine throughout the east coast of Australia. Here, we further characterize TevPV through analysis of whole-genome sequencing, growth kinetics, antigenic relatedness and the experimental infection of ferrets and mice...
January 28, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Amanda Baizan-Edge, Peter Cock, Stuart MacFarlane, Wendy McGavin, Lesley Torrance, Susan Jones
RNA-sequencing of plant material allows for hypothesis-free detection of multiple viruses simultaneously. This methodology relies on bioinformatics workflows for virus identification. Most workflows are designed for human clinical data, and few go beyond sequence mapping for virus identification. We present a new workflow (Kodoja) for the detection of plant virus sequences in RNA-sequence data. Kodoja uses k-mer profiling at the nucleotide level and sequence mapping at the protein level by integrating two existing tools Kraken and Kaiju...
January 24, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Tsz On Lai, Siaw Shi Boon, Priscilla Ty Law, Zigui Chen, Miranda Thomas, Lawrence Banks, Paul Ks Chan
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection contributes to virtually all cases of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. The oncogenicity of HPV is mainly attributable to the E6 and E7 oncoproteins. HPV-52 is the seventh most common HPV type globally, but it has a remarkably high prevalence in East Asia. In previous studies it has been speculated that the oncogenicity might vary among different HPV-52 variants. In the present study, we compared the oncogenicity of E6 derived from the HPV-52 prototype and three commonly found variants, V1 (K93R), V2 (E14D/V92L) and V3 (K93R/N122K), through molecular and phenotypic approaches...
January 24, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Yue Chen, Bhavna Hora, Todd DeMarco, Regina Berba, Heidi Register, Sylvia Hood, Meredith Carter, Mars Stone, Andrea Pappas, Ana M Sanchez, Michael Busch, Thomas N Denny, Feng Gao
The growth rate of new HIV infections in the Philippines was the fastest of any countries in the Asia-Pacific region between 2010 and 2016. To date, HIV-1 subtyping results in the Philippines have been determined by characterizing only partial viral genome sequences. It is not known whether recombination occurs in the majority of unsequenced genome regions. Near-full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes from plasma samples collected between 2015 and 2017 from 23 newly diagnosed infected individuals in the Philippines...
January 24, 2019: Journal of General Virology
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