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Neuroendocrinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759445/comparison-of-temozolomide-capecitabine-to-5-fluorouracile-dacarbazine-in-247-patients-with-advanced-digestive-neuroendocrine-tumors-using-propensity-score-analyses
#1
Louis de Mestier, Thomas Walter, Hedia Brixi, Camille Evrard, Jean-Louis Legoux, Paul de Boissieu, Olivia Hentic, Jérôme Cros, Pascal Hammel, David Tougeron, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Vinciane Rebours, Philippe Ruszniewski, Guillaume Cadiot
<br>Introduction. Although chemotherapy combining 5fluorouracil (5FU)-dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TEM)-capecitabine (CAP) are extensively used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET), they were never compared. We compared their tolerance and efficacy in advanced NET. METHODS: We evaluated the records of consecutive patients with pancreatic or small-intestine advanced NET who received 5FU-DTIC or TEM-CAP between July 2004 and December 2017 in five French centers. Tolerance, tumor response and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared...
February 13, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759443/hair-glucocorticoids-as-biomarker-for-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome-validation-in-two-independent-cohorts
#2
Mesut Savas, Vincent Wester, Yolanda B de Rijke, German Rubinstein, Stephanie Zopp, Kristien Dorst, Sjoerd van den Berg, Felix Beuschlein, Richard A Feelders, Martin Reincke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum
The current diagnostic workup of Cushing's syndrome (CS) requires various tests which only capture short-term cortisol exposure, whereas patients with endogenous CS generally have elevated long-term cortisol levels. Scalp hair assessment has emerged as a convenient test in capturing glucocorticoid concentrations over long periods of time. The aim of this multicenter, multinational, prospective, case-control study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of scalp hair glucocorticoids in screening of endogenous CS...
February 13, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739114/differential-cre-expression-in-lhrh-cre-and-gnrh-cre-alleles-and-the-impact-on-fertility-in-otx2-flox-mice
#3
Hanne M Hoffmann, Rachel Larder, Jessica Lee, Rachael Hu, Crystal Trang, Brooke Devries, Daniel Clark, Pamela L Mellon
<br>Increasingly, studies utilize cell-specific deletion of genes through conditional gene deletion by CRE recombination. Despite numerous advantages, this strategy also has limits such as ectopic CRE-expression and germline recombination. Two commonly used gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh)-driven CRE-expressing mice both target GnRH neurons. However, a direct comparison of the cells targeted, and their phenotypic outcome has not yet been presented. To compare where recombination takes place, we crossed the Gnrh-cre and Lhrh-cre lines with the Rosa26-LacZ reporter mouse...
February 10, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731464/epidemiology-and-management-challenges-in-prolactinomas
#4
REVIEW
Laurent Vroonen, Adrian Daly, Albert Beckers
<br>Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are present in about 1 per 1000 of the general population and prolactinomas are by far the most common clinical subtype of pituitary adenomas. Usually prolactinomas affect pre-menopausal women and present with typical symptoms of menstrual disturbance and/or galactorrhea. They are generally managed with dopamine agonists to restore fertility and to control symptoms and tumour size. In a subset of prolactinomas, however, management remains challenging. Studies in recent years have identified the factors related to dopamine agonist resistance, such as, male sex, genetic features, and aggressive tumor behaviour...
February 7, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731454/the-emerging-role-of-chromatin-remodeling-factors-in-female-pubertal-development
#5
REVIEW
Alejandro Lomniczi, Carlos Aylwin, Katinka Vigh-Conrad
<br>To attain sexual competence, all mammalian species go through puberty, a maturational period during which body growth and development of secondary sexual characteristics occurs. Puberty begins when the diurnal pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the hypothalamus increases for a prolonged period of time, driving the adenohypophysis to increase the pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone (LH) with diurnal periodicity. Increased pubertal GnRH secretion does not appear to be driven by inherent changes in GnRH neuronal activity; rather, it is induced by changes in transsynaptic and glial inputs to GnRH neurons...
February 7, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703770/carboplatin-in-combination-with-oral-or-intravenous-etoposide-for-extra-pulmonary-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinomas
#6
Melissa Frizziero, Francesca Spada, Angela Lamarca, Zoe Kordatou, Jorge Barriuso, Christina Nuttall, Mairéad G McNamara, Richard A Hubner, Wasat Mansoor, Prakash Manoharan, Nicola Fazio, Juan W Valle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699437/the-tumor-microenvironment-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-biology-and-therapeutic-implications
#7
REVIEW
Mauro Cives, Eleonora Pelle', Davide Quaresmini, Francesca Maria Rizzo, Marco Tucci, Franco Silvestris
<br>Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising in the diffuse neuroendocrine system and characterized by indolent growth. Complex interactions take place among the cellular components of the microenvironment of these tumors, and the recognition of the molecular mediators of their interplay and cross-talk is crucial to discover novel therapeutic targets. NET cells overexpress a plethora of proangiogenic molecules including VEGF, PDGF, FGF, semaphorins and angiopoietins, that promote both recruitment and proliferation of endothelial cell precursors, thus resulting among the most vascularized cancers with a microvessel density 10-fold higher then epithelial tumors...
January 30, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699424/surgery-for-prolactinomas-to-date
#8
REVIEW
Michael Buchfelder, Yining Zhao, Sven-Martin Schlaffer
While in the past, surgery for prolactinomas was a competitive option to medical treatment with dopamine agonists, to date the indications for operations are restricted to only a few specific situations. However, if a patient is intolerant to medical treatment or if the drugs are not sufficiently effective in terms of lowering prolactin-levels or tumor shrinkage, surgery should always be considered. In microprolactinomas, operations can achieve excellent prolactin normalization rates. In difficult to treat tumors, the combination of surgical tumor resection and long term medical treatment supports better control of the disease...
January 30, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699423/observational-study-to-assess-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-receiving-treatment-with-everolimus-the-oblique-study-uk-phase-iv-trial
#9
John K Ramage, Pankaj Punia, Olusola Faluyi, Andrea Frilling, Tim Meyer, Ruby Saharan, Juan W Valle
<br>Background/Aims. To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL), treatment patterns and clinical outcomes of adult (≥18 years) patients with advanced (unresectable or metastatic) pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) treated with everolimus in routine clinical practice. METHODS: In a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study patients administered at least one 10 mg dose of everolimus were evaluated for change in HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 Global Health Status scale) from baseline after 6 months treatment (primary endpoint)...
January 30, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685760/growth-hormone-response-to-oral-glucose-load-from-normal-to-pathological-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Mirella Hage, Peter Kamenicky, Philippe Chanson
<br>The exact physiological basis of acute GH suppression by oral glucose is not fully understood. Glucose-mediated increase in hypothalamic somatostatin seems to be the most plausible explanation. Attempts to better understand its underlying mechanisms are compromised by species disparities in the response of GH to glucose load. While in humans, glucose inhibits GH release, acute elevation of circulating glucose levels in rats has either no effect on GH secretion or may be stimulatory. Likewise, chronic hyperglycemia alters growth hormone release in both humans and rats nonetheless in opposite directions...
January 25, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677777/aggressive-and-malignant-prolactinomas
#11
REVIEW
Nicoleta Olarescu, Luis Perez-Rivas, Federico Gatto, Thomas Cuny, Maria Tichomirowa, Gianluca Tamagno, Manuel Gahete
<br>Prolactin-secreting tumours (prolactinomas) represent the most common pituitary tumour type, accounting for 47-66% of functional pituitary tumours. Prolactinomas are usually benign and controllable tumours as they express abundant levels of dopamine type 2 receptor (D2), and can be treated with dopaminergic drugs, effectively reducing prolactin levels and tumour volume. However, a proportion of prolactinomas exhibits aggressive features (including invasiveness, relevant growth despite adequate dopamine agonist treatment and recurrent potential) and few may exhibit metastasizing potential (carcinomas)...
January 24, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673674/lung-metastases-in-patients-with-well-differentiated-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-an-appraisal-of-the-validity-of-thoracic-imaging-surveillance
#12
Kosmas Daskalakis, Marina Tsoli, Raj Srirajaskanthan, Eleftherios Chatzellis, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Anna Angelousi, Michail Pizanias, Harpal Randeva, Gregory Kaltsas, Martin Weickert
<br>Background/Aims: To evaluate the impact of Lung Metastases (LM) on overall survival (OS) in WD Stage IV GEP-NEN patients along with developing surveillance strategies for thoracic imaging. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with LM, from three Centres, were identified (22 small intestinal/12 pancreatic; 17 Grade1/15 Grade2/2 unknown). For comparison, we used 106 Stage IV WD, Grade 1 and 2(G1-2) GEP-NEN patients with metastatic disease confined in the abdomen. RESULTS: LM prevalence was 4...
January 23, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673659/correlation-between-intrinsic-brain-activity-and-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-level-in-unmedicated-bipolar-ii-depression
#13
Shuming Zhong, Guanmao Chen, Lianping Zhao, Yanbin Jia, Feng Chen, Zhangzhang Qi, Li Huang, Ying Wang
<br>Background/aims: Although abnormalities of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and hormone levels of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the associations between abnormal ALFF and serum thyroid hormone levels remain unknown. METHOD: Ninety patients with unmedicated BD II depression and 100 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and then routine band (0...
January 23, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654372/netest-liquid-biopsy-is-diagnostic-of-lung-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-identifies-progressive-disease
#14
Anna Malczewska, Kjell Öberg, Lisa Bodei, Harry Aslanian, Anna Lewczuk, Pier Luigi Filosso, Monika Wójcik-Giertuga, Mateusz Rydel, Iza Zielińska-Leś, Agata Walter, Alejandro Suarez, Agnieska Kolasinska-Cwikla, Matteo Roffinella, Priya Jamidar, Dariusz Ziora, Damian Czyżewski, Beata Kos-Kudla, Jaroslaw Cwikla
<br>Background: There are no effective biomarkers for the management of bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC). We examined the utility of a neuroendocrine multigene transcript "liquid biopsy" (NETest) in bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) for diagnosis and monitoring of disease status. AIM: To independently validate the utility of the NETest in diagnosis and management of BPC in a multicenter, multinational blinded study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study cohorts assessed were bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) (n=99), healthy controls (n=102), other lung neoplasia (n=101) including adenocarcinomas (ACC) (n=41), squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n=37), SCLC (n=16) and LCNEC (n=7) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=50)...
January 17, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636247/different-responses-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-il-6-conditional-knock-out-mice-driven-by-constitutive-gfap-cre-and-synapsin-1-cre-expression
#15
Olaya Fernández-Gayol, Paula Sanchis, Kevin Aguilar, Alicia Navarro, Gemma Comes, Amalia Molinero, Mercedes Giralt, Juan Hidalgo
<br>Background/Aims Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling body weight and metabolism, at least in part through actions in the central nervous system (CNS) from local sources. Methods We herewith report results obtained in conditional IL-6 KO mice for brain cells (Il6ΔGfap and Il6ΔSyn). Results The reporter RiboTag mouse line demonstrated specific astrocytic expression of GFAP-dependent Cre in the hypothalamus but not in other brain areas, whereas that of Synapsin 1 dependent Cre was specific for neurons...
January 13, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636245/recovery-of-the-adrenal-function-after-pituitary-surgery-in-patients-with-cushing-disease-persistent-remission-or-recurrence
#16
Andreea Serban, Elisa Sala, Giulia Carosi, Giulia Del Sindaco, Claudia Giavoli, Marco Locatelli, Maura Arosio, Giovanna Mantovani, Emanuele Ferrante
<br>Background Cushing's disease (CD) represents the principal cause of endogenous hypercortisolism. The first-line therapy of CD is surgical removal of the ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma, which is generally followed by adrenal insufficiency (AI). Objective To analyse the recovery of the AI in patients with CD after pituitary surgery in relation with recurrence and persistent remission of CD. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis on patients with CD who met the following inclusion criteria: adult age, presence of AI at 2 months after the surgical intervention, a minimum follow-up of 3 years after the surgical intervention...
January 13, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630181/prediction-of-recurrence-after-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-cushing-s-disease-the-use-of-machine-learning-algorithms
#17
Yifan Liu, Xiaohai Liu, Xinyu Hong, Penghao Liu, Xinjie Bao, Yong Yao, Bing Xing, Yansheng Li, Yi Huang, Huijuan Zhu, Lin Lu, Renzhi Wang, Ming Feng
<br>Background: There were no reliable predictive models for recurrence after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease (CD). OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to develop machine learning (ML)-based predictive models for CD recurrence after initial TSS and to evaluate their performance. METHOD: A total of 354 CD patients were included in this retrospective, supervised learning, data mining study. Predictive models for recurrence were developed according to 17 variables using 7 algorithms...
January 10, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630179/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-represses-gnrh-gene-expression-via-cfos-during-inflammation-in-male-mice
#18
Nancy Lainez, Djurdjica Coss
<br>Background: The mechanisms whereby neuroinflammation negatively affects neuronal function in the hypothalamus are not clear. Our previous study determined that obesity-mediated chronic inflammation elicits sex-specific impairment in reproductive function via reduction in spine density in GnRH neurons. Neuroinflammation and subsequent decrease in GnRH neuron spine density was specific for male mice, while protection in females was independent of ovarian estrogens. METHODS: To examine if neuroinflammation-induced cytokines can directly regulate GnRH gene expression, herein we examined signaling pathways and mechanisms in males in vivo and in GnRH-expressing cell line, GT1-7...
January 10, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30625474/nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-the-human-hypothalamus-is-reduced-in-obese-subjects-and-colocalizes-with-oxytocin-vasopressin-melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript
#19
Aristea Psilopanagioti, Sofia Nikou, Helen Papadaki
<br>Background/Aims: Nesfatin-1, processed from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), is a potent anorexigenic peptide being expressed in rodent hypothalamic nuclei and involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight in animals. The present study aimed to investigate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein expression in the human hypothalamus as well as its correlation with body weight. METHODS: Sections of hypothalamus and adjacent cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei, including nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and diagonal band of Broca (DBB), from 25 autopsy cases (17 males, 8 females; 8 lean, 9 overweight, 8 obese) were examined using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence labeling...
January 9, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612127/new-perspectives-for-anatomical-and-molecular-studies-of-kisspeptin-neurons-in-the-aging-human-brain
#20
REVIEW
Erik Hrabovszky, Szabolcs Takács, Balázs Göcz, Katalin Skrapits
<br>The human infundibular nucleus (corresponding to the rodent arcuate nucleus) serves as an important integration center for neuronal signals and hormones released by peripheral endocrine organs. Kisspeptin (KP) producing neurons of this anatomical site many of which also synthesize neurokinin B (NKB) are critically involved in sex hormone signaling to gonadotropin-releasing homone (GnRH) neurons. In recent years, the basic topography, morphology, neuropeptide content and connectivity of human KP neurons have been investigated with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on post mortem tissues...
January 6, 2019: Neuroendocrinology
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