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Journal of Community Health

Carolina Fano, Giulia Lorenzoni, Danila Azzolina, Anna Giuliani, Megan French, Sara Campagna, Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori
Choking injuries in children represent a severe public health burden. Although most choking injuries are due to food, parents have often been found to be unaware of the choking hazards presented by food. In this context, healthcare professionals may play an important role in choking prevention by educating families. We investigate the perception of choking injury risk among healthcare profession students by comparing their awareness and knowledge of choking hazards with those of people without a specific health education...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Carlos D Peinado, Mark J Sedler
Accidental falls are a leading cause of disability and death in older adults living in urban centers. However, little is known about the consequences of falls in rural communities. We aimed to assess characteristics and risk of falls in community-dwellers aged ≥ 60 years living in rural Ecuador. Of 463 older adults enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, 327 (71%) were included. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess factors associated with history of falls and risk of future falls. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine which component of the Downton fall risk index (DFRI) better predicts risk of future falls...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Dede Kossiwa Teteh, Lenna Dawkins-Moultin, Chartay Robinson, Victor LaGroon, Stanley Hooker, Kenneth Alexander, Rick A Kittles
Cervical cancer adversely impacts African American communities. While disparities in incidence remain unclear, communities continue to use forums to increase cervical cancer education. The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of using community forums to increase human papillomavirus vaccine (HPVV) and cervical cancer knowledge in African American communities. This study is a one-group pretest-posttest study design using a 17-item questionnaire to collect data from 412 participants in diverse communities...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Towhid Babazadeh, Kamiar Kouzekanani, Sadegh Ghasemzadeh, Hossein Matlabi, Hamid Allahverdipour
Although the use of helmets is known to prevent the majority of mortalities by head injuries, it is ignored by a large number of motorcyclists. The present study was conducted to promote helmet use in an attempt to reduce injuries among motorcyclists in a rural area by adopting a community-based participation approach. The one-group pretest-posttest pre-experimental design was conducted in northwest Iran. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) baseline measurement, (2) implementation of the intervention, and (3) assessment of the outcomes...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Indira Debchoudhury, Pamela Ling, Rachel Sacks, Shannon M Farley
More than half of young adult (YA) (ages 18-26) smokers are non-daily smokers. While standard cessation methods are generally successful with adults and daily smokers, there is evidence that they are not as successful among non-daily smokers or young adults. Additionally, YA smokers are also in a transition period to regular smoking, making research on understanding how interpersonal and environmental factors affect this group of smokers critical. Randomized time location sampling was used to create a sample of New York City YA bar patrons between June and November 2013, who completed a self-administered survey (1,916 surveys)...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Jessica Reimann, Jennifer E McWhirter, Andrew Papadopoulos, Kim Bergeron, Susan Flynn, Loraine Marrett, Thomas Tenkate, Cheryl F Rosen, Cate Dewey
Evidence of the dangers of indoor tanning and its popularity, including among youth, led the Government of Ontario to pass the Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds) (SCPA) in 2014. This legislation includes prohibiting the sale of indoor tanning services to individuals under 18, requiring warning signs be posted, and other safety regulations. We collected information from Ontario Public Health Units to conduct a process evaluation of the SCPA to: understand legislation implementation; assess available evidence about compliance, inspection, and enforcement; and, note barriers and facilitators related to inspection and enforcement...
April 11, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Janet J Wiersema, Anthony J Santella, Press Canady, Alison O Jordan
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM), especially African American and Latinx YMSM, accounted for the highest proportion of new HIV diagnoses in 2016. Minorities and persons living with HIV are over-represented in correctional settings. To influence risk behaviors of incarcerated YMSM who are living with HIV, New York City Health + Hospitals adapted, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based intervention (EBI)-Personalized Cognitive Counseling-as a pilot program for YMSM, aged 20-29 in New York City jails from May 2015 to July 2016...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Rebecca A Vidourek, Keith A King
This study examined whether past month marijuana use among African American adolescents differed based on school experiences and individual feelings toward school. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted to answer research questions. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that female students at highest risk for recent use included those who held negative feelings toward school (OR 2.723, CI 1.683, 4.406, p < .001), felt courses were not interesting (OR 2...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Whitney Powell, Julie A Jacobs, Wayne Noble, Matthew L Bush, Claire Snell-Rood
Adult hearing loss has a significant impact on communication and quality of life. In spite of effective methods of diagnosis and treatment, many rural adults face significant barriers and delays in accessing care. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of hearing loss and the barriers for hearing healthcare in rural adults. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with adults in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2016 and 2017 to describe perceived susceptibility to hearing loss; knowledge of hearing loss; cues leading to help-seeking; barriers limited access to care; benefits of seeking help; and self-rated confidence in seeking treatment...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Amy L Krueger, Michelle Van Handel, Patricia M Dietz, Weston O Williams, Anna Satcher Johnson, Pamela W Klein, Stacy Cohen, Paul Mandsager, Laura W Cheever, Philip Rhodes, David W Purcell
In the United States, the all-cause mortality rate among persons living with diagnosed HIV infection (PLWH) is almost twice as high as among the general population. We aimed to identify amendable factors that state public health programs can influence to reduce mortality among PLWH. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we estimated age-group-specific models (24-34, 35-54, ≥ 55 years) to assess the association between state-level mortality rates among PLWH during 2010-2014 (National HIV Surveillance System) and amendable factors (percentage of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) clients with viral suppression, percentage of residents with healthcare coverage, state-enacted anti-discrimination laws index) while controlling for sociodemographic nonamendable factors...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Hugo Cesar Bellas, Alessandro Jatobá, Bárbara Bulhões, Isabella Koster, Rodrigo Arcuri, Catherine Burns, Kelly Grindrod, Paulo Victor R de Carvalho
Community health workers in developing countries usually perform house calls in degraded and violent territories. Thus, in this paper we study the effects of urban violence in the performance of CHWs in poorly developed territories, in order to understand the challenges of delivering care to dangerous communities in developing countries. We conducted telephone surveys for 5 months in 2017, within a systematic sample of 2.000 CHWs based on clinics distributed along the health regions of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Carolyn Y Fang, Minsun Lee, Ziding Feng, Yin Tan, Fayola Levine, Cuc Nguyen, Grace X Ma
Low cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese American women have been attributed, in part, to inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer and health beliefs that hinder screening. A community-based educational program was developed to improve knowledge and attitudes toward cervical cancer screening in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that the program would result in increases in knowledge, as well as enhanced health beliefs and self-efficacy toward obtaining cervical cancer screening...
March 26, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Clara B Barajas, Shawn C T Jones, Adam J Milam, Roland J Thorpe, Darrell J Gaskin, Thomas A LaVeist, C Debra M Furr-Holden
African Americans and ethnic minorities experience racial discrimination in a variety of settings. Racial discrimination is a potent stressor that has been linked to psychosocial stress and poor physical health. To cope with discriminatory experiences and daily life event stressors, African Americans frequently use the concept of John Henryism (a high effort coping strategy with prolonged exposure to stress). This cross-sectional analysis explored the relationship between racism/discrimination, John Henryism, and health problems in a predominately African American sample...
March 26, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Jesse Shechter, Angkana Roy, Sara Naureckas, Christopher Estabrook, Nivedita Mohanty
To study variables associated with Emergency Department (ED) utilization among pediatric patients with asthma in a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). We analyzed Electronic Health Record (EHR) data in a retrospective cohort study of patients with asthma between ages 2 and 18 who received primary care at a FQHC. The primary outcome studied was a visit to the ED at Ann and Robert Lurie's Children's Hospital (LCH) for an acute visit related to asthma. Univariate analyses and a multiple logistic regression were performed to study the effect of demographic and clinical variables on ED utilization...
March 23, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Sarah Beehler, James Boulger, Samantha C Friedrichsen, Emily C Onello
Community health education is especially important for physicians who will practice in rural communities. However, the majority of efforts to teach community and population health in medical school appear in later years and focus on non-rural contexts. This article presents data from a formative evaluation of a newly developed curricular component on population health and community health assessment for first year medical students in a rural longitudinal clinical preceptorship. Curricular elements included: a classroom lecture and review of online community health databases, an individual homework assignment and a classroom debriefing session...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Jeremy R Van't Hof, Sue Duval, Jeffrey R Misialek, Niki C Oldenburg, Clarence Jones, Milton Eder, Russell V Luepker
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, disproportionately affecting African Americans. Aspirin is an effective, low cost option to reduce cardiovascular events. This study sought to describe the use of aspirin for CVD prevention in African Americans and evaluate associations with demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors and beliefs. A total of 684 African Americans adults ages 45-79 years completed surveys and were included in this analysis...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Alexandra Gamber, Joseph Nowatzke, Chin-I Cheng, Allison Hazy, Jacob Kurdys, Emmanuel-Luis Avelino, Neli Ragina
Among rural and underserved areas, existing disparities are very well studied, but current perceptions of HPV vaccination among parents are unknown. This study was designed using a survey administered to parents of children eligible for the HPV vaccine at community events throughout Central and Northern Michigan. These data suggest that the most important factor leading to successful vaccination is a conversation with a PCP. However, when the geographic location of these parents is considered, non-metropolitan parents were more concerned with the underlying safety and efficacy with the vaccine...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Michelle Anne Parsons, Steven D Barger
Midlife non-Hispanic white mortality in the United States is rising, particularly in small metro and rural counties. This article responds to calls for county-level studies. We examine social determinants of morbidity and mortality among adult non-Hispanic whites in Yavapai County, Arizona, as part of an integrative study. We report overall mortality trends in Yavapai County using CDC Wonder data and then examine social determinants of reported physical health and mental distress in Yavapai County data using 6 years (2011-2016) of the Arizona Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Dina Romo, Gowri Nagendra, Sarah Schechter, April Pavlish, Alwyn Cohall, Natalie Neu
Rates of syphilis are increasing in the United States especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). The purpose of this project was to implement an educational intervention based on the 2015 CDC Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines for urgent care providers with an emphasis on identifying MSM sexual behavior and appropriate screening for syphilis. An urgent care center was identified as a location where men seek care and where STD testing was occurring. After a baseline provider focus group to identify barriers to STD testing, a patient survey was created and given to clients to increase identification of MSM behaviors and to prompt providers to order syphilis testing...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Community Health
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