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American Journal of Psychiatry

Lucy Riglin, Olga Eyre, Ajay K Thapar, Argyris Stringaris, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Kate Tilling, George Davey Smith, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
OBJECTIVE: Irritability, which is strongly associated with impairment and negative outcomes, is a common reason for referral to mental health services but is a nosological and treatment challenge. A major issue is how irritability should be conceptualized. The authors used a developmental approach to test the hypothesis that there are several forms of irritability, including a "neurodevelopmental/ADHD-like" type, with onset in childhood, and a "depression/mood" type, with onset in adolescence...
July 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Cameron S Carter
OBJECTIVE: The early course of illness in psychotic disorders is highly variable, and predictive biomarkers of treatment response have been lacking. Trial and error remains the basis for care in early psychosis, and poor outcomes are common. Early prediction of nonimprovement in response to treatment could help identify those who would benefit from alternative and/or supplemental interventions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of functional MRI (fMRI) measures of cognitive control-related brain circuitry collected at baseline to predict symptomatic response in patients after 1 year...
July 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jolanta Zanelli, Josephine Mollon, Sven Sandin, Craig Morgan, Paola Dazzan, Izabela Pilecka, Tiago Reis Marques, Anthony S David, Kevin Morgan, Paul Fearon, Gillian A Doody, Peter B Jones, Robin M Murray, Abraham Reichenberg
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked cognitive impairment that is widely believed to remain stable after illness onset. Yet, to date, 10-year prospective studies of cognitive functioning following the first episode with good methodology are rare. The authors examined whether schizophrenia patients experience cognitive decline after the first episode, whether this decline is generalized or confined to individual neuropsychological functions, and whether decline is specific to schizophrenia...
July 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Katherine E Lawrence, Janelle Liu, Tawny Tsang, Jillian Yeargin, Kaitlin Cummings, Elizabeth Laugeson, Mirella Dapretto, Susan Y Bookheimer
OBJECTIVE: Sensory overresponsivity (SOR), an atypical negative reaction to sensory stimuli, is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous work has related SOR to increased brain response in sensory-limbic regions. This study investigated where these atypical responses fall in three fundamental stages of sensory processing: arousal (i.e., initial response), habituation (i.e., change in response over time), and generalization of response to novel stimuli. Different areas of atypical response would require distinct intervention approaches...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Elias Dakwar, Edward V Nunes, Carl L Hart, Richard W Foltin, Sanjay J Mathew, Kenneth M Carpenter, C J Jean Choi, Cale N Basaraba, Martina Pavlicova, Frances R Levin
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that subanesthetic doses of ketamine may work to improve cocaine-related vulnerabilities and facilitate efforts at behavioral modification. The purpose of this trial was to test whether a single ketamine infusion improved treatment outcomes in cocaine-dependent adults engaged in mindfulness-based relapse prevention. METHODS: Fifty-five cocaine-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive a 40-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Sophia Seonyeong Park, Aristeidis Sotiras, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Matthew Cieslak, Adon F G Rosen, Rastko Ciric, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Zaixu Cui, Anup Sharma, Daniel H Wolf, Kosha Ruparel, Daniel S Pine, Russell T Shinohara, David R Roalf, Ruben C Gur, Christos Davatzikos, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
OBJECTIVE: High comorbidity among psychiatric disorders suggests that they may share underlying neurobiological deficits. Abnormalities in cortical thickness and volume have been demonstrated in clinical samples of adults, but less is known when these structural differences emerge in youths. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dimensions of psychopathology and brain structure. METHODS: The authors studied 1,394 youths who underwent brain imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Noah S Philip, Jennifer Barredo, Emily Aiken, Victoria Larson, Richard N Jones, M Tracie Shea, Benjamin D Greenberg, Mascha van 't Wout-Frank
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with disruption in social and occupational function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a novel approach to PTSD, and intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a new, more rapid administration protocol with data supporting efficacy in depression. The authors conducted a sham-controlled study of iTBS for PTSD. METHODS: Fifty veterans with PTSD received 10 days of sham-controlled iTBS (1,800 pulses/day), followed by 10 unblinded sessions...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yingying Tang, Ofer Pasternak, Marek Kubicki, Yogesh Rathi, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Huijun Li, Kristen A Woodberry, Lihua Xu, Zhenying Qian, Anni Zhu, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Matcheri S Keshavan, Margaret Niznikiewicz, William S Stone, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Jijun Wang, Larry J Seidman
OBJECTIVE: Detecting brain abnormalities in clinical high-risk populations before the onset of psychosis is important for tracking pathological pathways and for identifying possible intervention strategies that may impede or prevent the onset of psychotic disorders. Co-occurring cellular and extracellular white matter alterations have previously been implicated after a first psychotic episode. The authors investigated whether or not cellular and extracellular alterations are already present in a predominantly medication-naive cohort of clinical high-risk individuals experiencing attenuated psychotic symptoms...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Niamh Mullins, Tim B Bigdeli, Anders D Børglum, Jonathan R I Coleman, Ditte Demontis, Divya Mehta, Robert A Power, Stephan Ripke, Eli A Stahl, Anna Starnawska, Adebayo Anjorin, Aiden Corvin, Alan R Sanders, Andreas J Forstner, Andreas Reif, Anna C Koller, Beata Świątkowska, Bernhard T Baune, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Brenda W J H Penninx, Carlos Pato, Clement Zai, Dan Rujescu, David M Hougaard, Digby Quested, Douglas F Levinson, Elisabeth B Binder, Enda M Byrne, Esben Agerbo, Fabian Streit, Fermin Mayoral, Frank Bellivier, Franziska Degenhardt, Gerome Breen, Gunnar Morken, Gustavo Turecki, Guy A Rouleau, Hans J Grabe, Henry Völzke, Ian Jones, Ina Giegling, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle, Jacob Lawrence, James T R Walters, Jana Strohmaier, Jianxin Shi, Joanna Hauser, Joanna M Biernacka, John B Vincent, John Kelsoe, John S Strauss, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonathan Pimm, Jordan W Smoller, José Guzman-Parra, Klaus Berger, Laura J Scott, Lisa A Jones, M Helena Azevedo, Maciej Trzaskowski, Manolis Kogevinas, Marcella Rietschel, Marco Boks, Marcus Ising, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Marian L Hamshere, Marion Leboyer, Mark Frye, Markus M Nöthen, Martin Alda, Martin Preisig, Merete Nordentoft, Michael Boehnke, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Michele T Pato, Miguel E Renteria, Monika Budde, Myrna M Weissman, Naomi R Wray, Nicholas Bass, Nicholas Craddock, Olav B Smeland, Ole A Andreassen, Ole Mors, Pablo V Gejman, Pamela Sklar, Patrick McGrath, Per Hoffmann, Peter McGuffin, Phil H Lee, Preben Bo Mortensen, René S Kahn, Roel A Ophoff, Rolf Adolfsson, Sandra Van der Auwera, Srdjan Djurovic, Stefan Kloiber, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Stéphane Jamain, Steven P Hamilton, Susan L McElroy, Susanne Lucae, Sven Cichon, Thomas G Schulze, Thomas Hansen, Thomas Werge, Tracy M Air, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Vivek Appadurai, Wiepke Cahn, Yuri Milaneschi, Ayman H Fanous, Kenneth S Kendler, Andrew McQuillin, Cathryn M Lewis
OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia...
June 5, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Paulo Lizano, Olivia Lutz, George Ling, Adam M Lee, Seenae Eum, Jeffrey R Bishop, Sinead Kelly, Ofer Pasternak, Brett Clementz, Godfrey Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Elliot Gershon, Carol Tamminga, Matcheri Keshavan
OBJECTIVE: The choroid plexus is an important physiological barrier and produces CSF and neurotrophic, angiogenic, and inflammatory factors involved in brain development. Choroid plexus abnormalities have been implicated in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A previous choroid plexus transcriptomic analysis of schizophrenia identified an upregulation of immune and inflammatory genes that correlated with peripheral inflammatory markers. The purpose of this study was to examine choroid plexus volume in probands across the psychosis spectrum and in their first-degree and axis II cluster A relatives, as well as choroid plexus familiality and choroid plexus covariance with clinical, cognitive, brain, and peripheral marker measures...
June 5, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Cassandra M J Wannan, Vanessa L Cropley, M Mallar Chakravarty, Chad Bousman, Eleni P Ganella, Jason M Bruggemann, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Ian Everall, Patrick McGorry, Dennis Velakoulis, Stephen J Wood, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thickness reductions in schizophrenia are irregularly distributed across multiple loci. The authors hypothesized that cortical connectivity networks would explain the distribution of cortical thickness reductions across the cortex, and, specifically, that cortico-cortical connectivity between loci with these reductions would be exceptionally strong and form an interconnected network. This hypothesis was tested in three cross-sectional schizophrenia cohorts: first-episode psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, and treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
June 5, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Vanina Popova, Ella J Daly, Madhukar Trivedi, Kimberly Cooper, Rosanne Lane, Pilar Lim, Christine Mazzucco, David Hough, Michael E Thase, Richard C Shelton, Patricio Molero, Eduard Vieta, Malek Bajbouj, Husseini Manji, Wayne C Drevets, Jaskaran B Singh
OBJECTIVE: About one-third of patients with depression fail to achieve remission despite treatment with multiple antidepressants. This study compared the efficacy and safety of switching patients with treatment-resistant depression from an ineffective antidepressant to flexibly dosed esketamine nasal spray plus a newly initiated antidepressant or to a newly initiated antidepressant (active comparator) plus placebo nasal spray. METHODS: This was a phase 3, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter study conducted at 39 outpatient referral centers...
May 21, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anne-Flore M Matthijssen, Andrea Dietrich, Margreet Bierens, Renee Kleine Deters, Gigi H H van de Loo-Neus, Barbara J van den Hoofdakker, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
OBJECTIVE: The benefits of long-term use of methylphenidate treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as frequently prescribed in clinical practice, are unclear. The authors investigated whether methylphenidate remains beneficial after 2 years of use. METHODS: Ninety-four children and adolescents (ages 8-18 years) who had been treated in regular care with methylphenidate for more than 2 years were randomly assigned to double-blind continuation of treatment for 7 weeks (36 or 54 mg/day of extended-release methylphenidate) or gradual withdrawal over 3 weeks, to 4 weeks of placebo...
May 21, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lior Carmi, Aron Tendler, Alexander Bystritsky, Eric Hollander, Daniel M Blumberger, Jeff Daskalakis, Herbert Ward, Kyle Lapidus, Wayne Goodman, Leah Casuto, David Feifel, Noam Barnea-Ygael, Yiftach Roth, Abraham Zangen, Joseph Zohar
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling condition that often responds unsatisfactorily to pharmacological and psychological treatments. Converging evidence suggests a dysfunction of the cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit in OCD, and a previous feasibility study indicated beneficial effects of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) targeting the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. The authors examined the therapeutic effect of dTMS in a multicenter double-blind sham-controlled study...
May 21, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yasmin L Hurd, Sharron Spriggs, Julia Alishayev, Gary Winkel, Kristina Gurgov, Chris Kudrich, Anna M Oprescu, Edwin Salsitz
OBJECTIVE: Despite the staggering consequences of the opioid epidemic, limited nonopioid medication options have been developed to treat this medical and public health crisis. This study investigated the potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating phytocannabinoid, to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety, two critical features of addiction that often contribute to relapse and continued drug use, in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder. METHODS: This exploratory double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the acute (1 hour, 2 hours, and 24 hours), short-term (3 consecutive days), and protracted (7 days after the last of three consecutive daily administrations) effects of CBD administration (400 or 800 mg, once daily for 3 consecutive days) on drug cue-induced craving and anxiety in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder...
May 21, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alan F Schatzberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Leslie G Nucifora, Matthew L MacDonald, Brian J Lee, Matthew E Peters, Alexis L Norris, Benjamin C Orsburn, Kun Yang, Kelly Gleason, Russell L Margolis, Jonathan Pevsner, Carol A Tamminga, Robert A Sweet, Christopher A Ross, Akira Sawa, Frederick C Nucifora
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms leading to schizophrenia are likely to be diverse. However, there may be common pathophysiological pathways for subtypes of the disease. The authors tested the hypothesis that increased protein insolubility and ubiquitination underlie the pathophysiology for a subtype of schizophrenia. METHODS: Prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus from postmortem brains of individuals with and without schizophrenia were subjected to cold sarkosyl fractionation, separating proteins into soluble and insoluble fractions...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Rajesh Narendran, Savannah Tollefson, Michael L Himes, Jennifer Paris, Brian Lopresti, Roberto Ciccocioppo, N Scott Mason
OBJECTIVE: Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an antistress neuropeptide transmitter in the brain that counteracts corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated stress and anxiety symptoms during drug and alcohol withdrawal. It also inhibits the release of a wide array of neurotransmitters, including dopamine and glutamate, which allows for it to block the rewarding properties of cocaine. Chronic cocaine administration in rodents has been shown to decrease N/OFQ and increase nociceptive opioid peptide (NOP) receptors in the nucleus accumbens...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Runyu Zou, Henning Tiemeier, Jan van der Ende, Frank C Verhulst, Ryan L Muetzel, Tonya White, Manon Hillegers, Hanan El Marroun
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined associations of exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at different developmental stages from fetal life to preadolescence with child brain development, including volumetrics and white matter microstructure. METHODS: This study was embedded in a longitudinal birth cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were 3,469 mother-child pairs with data on maternal depressive symptoms and child neuroimaging at age 10. The authors also measured child emotional and behavioral problems at the time of neuroimaging...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to clarify the etiology of substance-induced psychotic disorder and its progression to schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample. METHODS: Individuals with a registration of substance-induced psychotic disorder between 1997 and 2015 in national medical registries (N=7,606) were followed up for a mean of 84 months. Data from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries on first-degree through third-degree relatives were used to calculate familial risk scores for nonaffective psychosis, drug abuse, and alcohol use disorder...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
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