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American Journal of Psychiatry

Jules R Dugré, Nathalie Bitar, Alexandre Dumais, Stéphane Potvin
OBJECTIVE: It has long been assumed that paranoid ideation may stem from an aberrant limbic response to threatening stimuli. However, results from functional neuroimaging studies using negative emotional stimuli have failed to confirm this assumption. One of the potential reasons for the lack of effect is that study participants with psychosis may display aberrant brain responses to neutral material rather than to threatening stimuli. The authors conducted a functional neuroimaging meta-analysis to test this hypothesis...
September 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Dana M Allswede, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Barbara A Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to characterize differences in outcomes among help-seeking individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis by identifying covariant longitudinal patterns of symptoms and functioning. METHODS: Group-based multitrajectory modeling was applied to longitudinal ratings of four symptom domains (positive, negative, disorganized, general) and general functioning among clinical high-risk individuals in an initial discovery sample (N=422). An independent sample (N=133) was used to test replicability...
September 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kyle C Esteves, Christopher W Jones, Mark Wade, Keegan Callerame, Alicia K Smith, Katherine P Theall, Stacy S Drury
OBJECTIVE: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with mental and physical health risks that, through biological and psychosocial pathways, likely span generations. Within an individual, telomere length (TL), an established marker of cellular stress and aging, is associated with both ACE exposure and psychopathology, providing the basis for an emerging literature suggesting that TL is a biomarker of the health risks linked to early-life adversity both within and across generations...
September 6, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ayline Maier, Caroline Gieling, Luca Heinen-Ludwig, Vlad Stefan, Johannes Schultz, Onur Güntürkün, Benjamin Becker, René Hurlemann, Dirk Scheele
OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology associated with interpersonal problems in adulthood, but the etiological pathways involved are still unclear. The authors propose that childhood maltreatment confers risk for dysfunctional behavior in social interactions by altering interpersonal distance preference and the processing of social touch. METHODS: Ninety-two medication-free adults (64 of them female) with low, medium, and high levels of childhood maltreatment were tested with an interpersonal distance paradigm and subsequently underwent a social touch functional MRI task during which they rated the perceived comfort of slow touch (C-tactile [CT] optimal speed; 5 cm/s) and fast touch (non-CT-optimal speed; 20 cm/s)...
August 16, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Amanda B Zheutlin, Jessica Dennis, Richard Karlsson Linnér, Arden Moscati, Nicole Restrepo, Peter Straub, Douglas Ruderfer, Victor M Castro, Chia-Yen Chen, Tian Ge, Laura M Huckins, Alexander Charney, H Lester Kirchner, Eli A Stahl, Christopher F Chabris, Lea K Davis, Jordan W Smoller
OBJECTIVE: Individuals at high risk for schizophrenia may benefit from early intervention, but few validated risk predictors are available. Genetic profiling is one approach to risk stratification that has been extensively validated in research cohorts. The authors sought to test the utility of this approach in clinical settings and to evaluate the broader health consequences of high genetic risk for schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used electronic health records for 106,160 patients from four health care systems to evaluate the penetrance and pleiotropy of genetic risk for schizophrenia...
August 16, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Carolien G F de Kovel, Lyubomir Aftanas, André Aleman, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Bernhard T Baune, Ivan Brack, Robin Bülow, Geraldo Busatto Filho, Angela Carballedo, Colm G Connolly, Kathryn R Cullen, Udo Dannlowski, Christopher G Davey, Danai Dima, Katharina Dohm, Tracy Erwin-Grabner, Thomas Frodl, Cynthia H Y Fu, Geoffrey B Hall, David C Glahn, Beata Godlewska, Ian H Gotlib, Roberto Goya-Maldonado, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Nynke A Groenewold, Dominik Grotegerd, Oliver Gruber, Mathew A Harris, Ben J Harrison, Sean N Hatton, Ian B Hickie, Tiffany C Ho, Neda Jahanshad, Tilo Kircher, Bernd Krämer, Axel Krug, Jim Lagopoulos, Elisabeth J Leehr, Meng Li, Frank P MacMaster, Glenda MacQueen, Andrew M McIntosh, Quinn McLellan, Sarah E Medland, Bryon A Mueller, Igor Nenadic, Evgeny Osipov, Martina Papmeyer, Maria J Portella, Liesbeth Reneman, Pedro G P Rosa, Matthew D Sacchet, Knut Schnell, Anouk Schrantee, Kang Sim, Egle Simulionyte, Lisa Sindermann, Aditya Singh, Dan J Stein, Benjamin N Ubani, Nic J A Van der Wee, Steven J A Van der Werff, Ilya M Veer, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Henry Völzke, Henrik Walter, Martin Walter, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Heather Whalley, Nils Winter, Katharina Wittfeld, Tony T Yang, Dilara Yüksel, Dario Zaremba, Paul M Thompson, Dick J Veltman, Lianne Schmaal, Clyde Francks
OBJECTIVE: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected...
July 29, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Peter Kochunov, Junchao Huang, Song Chen, Yanli Li, Shuping Tan, Fengmei Fan, Wei Feng, Yunhui Wang, Laura M Rowland, Anya Savransky, Xiaoming Du, Joshua Chiappelli, Shuo Chen, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Meghann C Ryan, Bhim Adhikari, Hemalatha Sampath, Yimin Cui, Zhiren Wang, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan, L Elliot Hong
OBJECTIVE: Failure of antipsychotic medications to resolve symptoms in patients with schizophrenia creates a clinical challenge that is known as treatment resistance. The causes of treatment resistance are unknown, but it is associated with earlier age at onset and more severe cognitive deficits. The authors tested the hypothesis that white matter deficits that are involved in both neurodevelopment and severity of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with a higher risk of treatment resistance...
July 29, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Eleonore Beurel, Felicia Gould, Firdaus S Dhabhar, Katharina Schultebraucks, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Barbara O Rothbaum, Kerry J Ressler, Charles B Nemeroff
OBJECTIVE: Although several reports have documented heightened systemic inflammation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have assessed whether inflammatory markers serve as prospective biomarkers for PTSD risk. The present study aimed to characterize whether peripheral immune factors measured in blood samples collected in an emergency department immediately after trauma exposure would predict later chronic development of PTSD. METHODS: Participants (N=505) were recruited from a hospital emergency department and underwent a 1...
July 29, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Cameron S Carter
OBJECTIVE: The early course of illness in psychotic disorders is highly variable, and predictive biomarkers of treatment response have been lacking. Trial and error remains the basis for care in early psychosis, and poor outcomes are common. Early prediction of nonimprovement in response to treatment could help identify those who would benefit from alternative and/or supplemental interventions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of functional MRI (fMRI) measures of cognitive control-related brain circuitry collected at baseline to predict symptomatic response in patients after 1 year...
July 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jolanta Zanelli, Josephine Mollon, Sven Sandin, Craig Morgan, Paola Dazzan, Izabela Pilecka, Tiago Reis Marques, Anthony S David, Kevin Morgan, Paul Fearon, Gillian A Doody, Peter B Jones, Robin M Murray, Abraham Reichenberg
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked cognitive impairment that is widely believed to remain stable after illness onset. Yet, to date, 10-year prospective studies of cognitive functioning following the first episode with good methodology are rare. The authors examined whether schizophrenia patients experience cognitive decline after the first episode, whether this decline is generalized or confined to individual neuropsychological functions, and whether decline is specific to schizophrenia...
July 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Katherine E Lawrence, Janelle Liu, Tawny Tsang, Jillian Yeargin, Kaitlin Cummings, Elizabeth Laugeson, Mirella Dapretto, Susan Y Bookheimer
OBJECTIVE: Sensory overresponsivity (SOR), an atypical negative reaction to sensory stimuli, is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous work has related SOR to increased brain response in sensory-limbic regions. This study investigated where these atypical responses fall in three fundamental stages of sensory processing: arousal (i.e., initial response), habituation (i.e., change in response over time), and generalization of response to novel stimuli. Different areas of atypical response would require distinct intervention approaches...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Elias Dakwar, Edward V Nunes, Carl L Hart, Richard W Foltin, Sanjay J Mathew, Kenneth M Carpenter, C J Jean Choi, Cale N Basaraba, Martina Pavlicova, Frances R Levin
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that subanesthetic doses of ketamine may work to improve cocaine-related vulnerabilities and facilitate efforts at behavioral modification. The purpose of this trial was to test whether a single ketamine infusion improved treatment outcomes in cocaine-dependent adults engaged in mindfulness-based relapse prevention. METHODS: Fifty-five cocaine-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive a 40-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Sophia Seonyeong Park, Aristeidis Sotiras, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Matthew Cieslak, Adon F G Rosen, Rastko Ciric, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Zaixu Cui, Anup Sharma, Daniel H Wolf, Kosha Ruparel, Daniel S Pine, Russell T Shinohara, David R Roalf, Ruben C Gur, Christos Davatzikos, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
OBJECTIVE: High comorbidity among psychiatric disorders suggests that they may share underlying neurobiological deficits. Abnormalities in cortical thickness and volume have been demonstrated in clinical samples of adults, but less is known when these structural differences emerge in youths. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dimensions of psychopathology and brain structure. METHODS: The authors studied 1,394 youths who underwent brain imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Noah S Philip, Jennifer Barredo, Emily Aiken, Victoria Larson, Richard N Jones, M Tracie Shea, Benjamin D Greenberg, Mascha van 't Wout-Frank
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with disruption in social and occupational function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a novel approach to PTSD, and intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a new, more rapid administration protocol with data supporting efficacy in depression. The authors conducted a sham-controlled study of iTBS for PTSD. METHODS: Fifty veterans with PTSD received 10 days of sham-controlled iTBS (1,800 pulses/day), followed by 10 unblinded sessions...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yingying Tang, Ofer Pasternak, Marek Kubicki, Yogesh Rathi, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Huijun Li, Kristen A Woodberry, Lihua Xu, Zhenying Qian, Anni Zhu, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Matcheri S Keshavan, Margaret Niznikiewicz, William S Stone, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Jijun Wang, Larry J Seidman
OBJECTIVE: Detecting brain abnormalities in clinical high-risk populations before the onset of psychosis is important for tracking pathological pathways and for identifying possible intervention strategies that may impede or prevent the onset of psychotic disorders. Co-occurring cellular and extracellular white matter alterations have previously been implicated after a first psychotic episode. The authors investigated whether or not cellular and extracellular alterations are already present in a predominantly medication-naive cohort of clinical high-risk individuals experiencing attenuated psychotic symptoms...
June 24, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Esther K Choo, Christina Girgis, Christina S Han, Julia F Simard, Taiwo Adesoye, Eleni Linos, Christina Mangurian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Steven R Pliszka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Madeleine A Becker, Ann Chandy, Jessica L W Mayer, Jyoti Sachdeva, Elizabeth S Albertini, Catherine Sham, Linda L M Worley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jessica A Gold, Carol A Bernstein, Kali D Cyrus, Elizabeth Fitelson, Alicia Lieberman, Christina Mangurian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Benjamin R Braus, Teresa A Rummans, Maria I Lapid, Robert J Morgan, Shirlene M Sampson, Elliot M Handler, Joel E Dimsdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
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