John C Markowitz, Barbara Milrod, Timothy G Heckman, Maja Bergman, Doron Amsalem, Hemrie Zalman, Thomas Ballas, Yuval Neria
The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has abruptly overwhelmed normal life. Beyond the fear and fatality of the virus itself comes a likely wave of psychiatric disorders. Simultaneously, social distancing has changed overnight how psychiatrists and other mental health professionals must treat patients. Telepsychotherapy, until now a promising but niche treatment, has suddenly become treatment as usual. This article briefly reviews the limited clinical evidence supporting different modes of telepsychotherapy, then focuses on how remote therapy affects clinicians and their patients...
September 25, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lauren A M Lebois, Meiling Li, Justin T Baker, Jonathan D Wolff, Danhong Wang, Ashley M Lambros, Elizabeth Grinspoon, Sherry Winternitz, Jianxun Ren, Atilla Gönenç, Staci A Gruber, Kerry J Ressler, Hesheng Liu, Milissa L Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: Dissociative experiences commonly occur in response to trauma, and while their presence strongly affects treatment approaches in posttraumatic spectrum disorders, their etiology remains poorly understood and their phenomenology incompletely characterized. Methods to reliably assess the severity of dissociation symptoms, without relying solely on self-report, would have tremendous clinical utility. Brain-based measures have the potential to augment symptom reports, although it remains unclear whether brain-based measures of dissociation are sufficiently sensitive and robust to enable individual-level estimation of dissociation severity based on brain function...
September 25, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Briana Lees, Louise Mewton, Joanna Jacobus, Emilio A Valadez, Lexine A Stapinski, Maree Teesson, Susan F Tapert, Lindsay M Squeglia
OBJECTIVE: Data on the neurodevelopmental and associated behavioral effects of light to moderate in utero alcohol exposure are limited. This retrospective investigation tested for associations between reported maternal prenatal alcohol use and psychological, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in substance-naive youths. METHODS: Participants were 9,719 youths (ages 9.0 to 10.9 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Based on parental reports, 2,518 (25...
September 25, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Elise Douard, Abderrahim Zeribi, Catherine Schramm, Petra Tamer, Mor Absa Loum, Sabrina Nowak, Zohra Saci, Marie-Pier Lord, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Martineau Jean-Louis, Clara Moreau, Eva Loth, Gunter Schumann, Zdenka Pausova, Mayada Elsabbagh, Laura Almasy, David C Glahn, Thomas Bourgeron, Aurélie Labbe, Tomas Paus, Laurent Mottron, Celia M T Greenwood, Guillaume Huguet, Sébastien Jacquemont
OBJECTIVE: Deleterious copy number variants (CNVs) are identified in up to 20% of individuals with autism. However, levels of autism risk conferred by most rare CNVs remain unknown. The authors recently developed statistical models to estimate the effect size on IQ of all CNVs, including undocumented ones. In this study, the authors extended this model to autism susceptibility. METHODS: The authors identified CNVs in two autism populations (Simons Simplex Collection and MSSNG) and two unselected populations (IMAGEN and Saguenay Youth Study)...
September 11, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Rebecca J Evans-Polce, Luisa Kcomt, Philip T Veliz, Carol J Boyd, Sean Esteban McCabe
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined psychiatric comorbidities associated with alcohol use disorders and tobacco use disorders among heterosexual, bisexual, and gay and lesbian men and women in the United States and whether stress-related factors were predictive of comorbidities. METHODS: The authors used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-2013, N=36,309) to examine the co-occurrence of past-year alcohol or tobacco use disorder with past-year anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder by sexual identity (heterosexual, bisexual, gay or lesbian) and sex...
September 11, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Glenn Verner, Elissa Epel, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Eero Kajantie, Claudia Buss, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Katri Räikkönen, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer
OBJECTIVE: In the context of the importance of elucidating the determinants of the initial, newborn setting of telomere length (TL), it is increasingly evident that maternal stress and stress-related processes during pregnancy play a major role. Although psychological resilience may function as a buffer, research in this area has not yet examined its potential role vis-à-vis that of stress. The authors examined the relationship between maternal psychological resilience during pregnancy and newborn TL...
September 11, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anna S Huang, Baxter P Rogers, Julia M Sheffield, Maria E Jalbrzikowski, Alan Anticevic, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward
OBJECTIVE: Thalamus models of psychosis implicate association nuclei in the pathogenesis of psychosis and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Studies to date have provided conflicting findings for structural deficits specific to these nuclei. The authors sought to characterize thalamic structural abnormalities in psychosis and a neurodevelopmental cohort, and to determine whether nuclear volumes were associated with cognitive function. METHODS: Thalamic nuclei volumes were tested in a cross-sectional sample of 472 adults (293 with psychosis) and the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), consisting of 1,393 youths (398 with psychosis spectrum symptoms and 609 with other psychopathologies), using a recently developed, validated method for segmenting thalamic nuclei and complementary voxel-based morphometry...
September 11, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sara K Blaine, Stephanie Wemm, Nia Fogelman, Cheryl Lacadie, Dongju Seo, Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with neuroadaptations in brain stress and reward circuits. It is not known whether such neuroadaptations are affected by number of days of alcohol abstinence and whether they influence heavy drinking during the early treatment phase. The authors used a novel functional MRI (fMRI) approach to assess brain responses during sustained exposure to standardized visual stimuli of stressful, alcohol cue, and neutral control images combined with prospective assessment of drinking outcomes during early outpatient treatment, in two related studies...
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Luke J Norman, Kristin A Mannella, Huan Yang, Mike Angstadt, James L Abelson, Joseph A Himle, Kate D Fitzgerald, Stephan F Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to examine whether brain activity is associated with treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in adolescents and adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and whether any associations are treatment specific relative to an active control psychotherapy (stress management therapy; SMT). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with OCD (age range 12-45 years; 57 female, 39 medicated) were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of CBT or SMT...
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Alexis C Edwards
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to clarify the sources of parent-child transmission for suicide attempt and death by suicide. METHODS: Three sources of parent-child resemblance (genes plus rearing, genes only, and rearing only) were examined in parents and offspring from four family types from Swedish national samples: intact nuclear families, families with a not-lived-with biological father, families with a stepfather, and adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents...
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Clifford M Cassidy, Kenneth M Carpenter, Anna B Konova, Victoria Cheung, Alexander Grassetti, Luigi Zecca, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Diana Martinez, Guillermo Horga
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence supports the use of neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI) as a novel tool to investigate dopamine function in the human brain. The authors investigated the NM-MRI signal in individuals with cocaine use disorder, compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects, based on previous imaging studies showing that this disorder is associated with blunted presynaptic striatal dopamine. METHODS: NM-MRI and T1 -weighted images were acquired from 20 participants with cocaine use disorder and 35 control subjects...
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
John N Constantino, Mustafa Sahin, Joseph Piven, Rylin Rodgers, John Tschida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bridget F Grant, Dvora Shmulewitz, Wilson M Compton
OBJECTIVE: Nationally representative data on changes in 12-month prevalences of nicotine use, DSM-IV nicotine dependence, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence among users were analyzed to test the "hardening hypothesis," which proposes that declines in nicotine use resulting from population-level control measures leave a growing proportion of highly dependent users. METHODS: Data were derived from two nationally representative surveys of U.S. adults: the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, N=43,093) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III (N=36,309)...
August 14, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Christoph U Correll, John W Newcomer, Bernard Silverman, Lauren DiPetrillo, Christine Graham, Ying Jiang, Yangchun Du, Adam Simmons, Craig Hopkinson, David McDonnell, René S Kahn
OBJECTIVE: A combination of olanzapine and the opioid receptor antagonist samidorphan is under development for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. The single-tablet combination treatment is intended to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain. In this phase 3 double-blind trial, the authors evaluated the weight profile of combined olanzapine/samidorphan compared with olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Adults (ages 18‒55 years) with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive either combination treatment with olanzapine and samidorphan or olanzapine treatment for 24 weeks...
August 14, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Karmel W Choi, Murray B Stein, Kristen M Nishimi, Tian Ge, Jonathan R I Coleman, Chia-Yen Chen, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Amanda B Zheutlin, Erin C Dunn, Gerome Breen, Karestan C Koenen, Jordan W Smoller
OBJECTIVE: Efforts to prevent depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, have focused on a limited number of candidate factors. Using phenotypic and genomic data from over 100,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors sought to systematically screen and validate a wide range of potential modifiable factors for depression. METHODS: Baseline data were extracted for 106 modifiable factors, including lifestyle (e.g., exercise, sleep, media, diet), social (e...
August 14, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alexander W Charney, Craig Katz, Steven M Southwick, Dennis S Charney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Eva M Medina-Rodriguez, Derik Madorma, Gregory O'Connor, Brittany L Mason, Dongmei Han, Sapna K Deo, Mark Oppenheimer, Charles B Nemeroff, Madhukar H Trivedi, Sylvia Daunert, Eléonore Beurel
OBJECTIVE: Microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to major depressive disorder, but the mechanisms whereby the microbiota modulates mood remain poorly understood. The authors tested whether specific changes in the microbiome modulate depressive-like behaviors. METHODS: Stools from learned helpless, non-learned helpless, and non-shocked mice were analyzed by V4 16S RNA sequencing to identify gut bacteria associated with learned helplessness and to quantify the level of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2)...
July 31, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Emilio A Valadez, Nim Tottenham, Alexandra R Tabachnick, Mary Dozier
OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22)...
July 31, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Samuel W Hawes, Rebecca Waller, Amy L Byrd, James M Bjork, Anthony S Dick, Matthew T Sutherland, Michael C Riedel, Michael J Tobia, Nicholas Thomson, Angela R Laird, Raul Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE: Disrupted reward processing is implicated in the etiology of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and callous-unemotional traits. However, neuroimaging investigations of reward processing underlying these phenotypes remain sparse. The authors examined neural sensitivity in response to reward anticipation and receipt among youths with DBDs, with and without callous-unemotional traits. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study (mean age=9...
July 31, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Richard F Summers, Tristan Gorrindo, Seungyoung Hwang, Rashi Aggarwal, Constance Guille
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms among North American psychiatrists, determined demographic and practice characteristics that increase the risk for these symptoms, and assessed the correlation between burnout and depression. METHODS: A total of 2,084 North American psychiatrists participated in an online survey, completed the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and provided demographic data and practice information...
July 14, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
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