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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845820/no-support-for-historical-candidate-gene-or-candidate-gene-by-interaction-hypotheses-for-major-depression-across-multiple-large-samples
#1
Richard Border, Emma C Johnson, Luke M Evans, Andrew Smolen, Noah Berley, Patrick F Sullivan, Matthew C Keller
OBJECTIVE: Interest in candidate gene and candidate gene-by-environment interaction hypotheses regarding major depressive disorder remains strong despite controversy surrounding the validity of previous findings. In response to this controversy, the present investigation empirically identified 18 candidate genes for depression that have been studied 10 or more times and examined evidence for their relevance to depression phenotypes. METHODS: Utilizing data from large population-based and case-control samples (Ns ranging from 62,138 to 443,264 across subsamples), the authors conducted a series of preregistered analyses examining candidate gene polymorphism main effects, polymorphism-by-environment interactions, and gene-level effects across a number of operational definitions of depression (e...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845819/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-executive-functioning-training-compared-with-perceptual-training-for-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-effects-on-neurophysiology-neurocognition-and-functioning
#2
Michael W Best, Melissa Milanovic, Felicia Iftene, Christopher R Bowie
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation is an efficacious treatment for schizophrenia. However, different theoretical approaches have developed without any studies to directly compare them. This is the first study to compare the two dominant approaches to cognitive remediation (training of executive skills and training of perceptual skills) and employed the broadest assessment battery in the literature to date. METHODS: Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were randomly assigned to receive either executive training or perceptual training...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845818/mitigation-of-olanzapine-induced-weight-gain-with-samidorphan-an-opioid-antagonist-a-randomized-double-blind-phase-2-study-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
William F Martin, Christoph U Correll, Peter J Weiden, Ying Jiang, Sanjeev Pathak, Lauren DiPetrillo, Bernard L Silverman, Elliot W Ehrich
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical evidence and data from a proof-of-concept study in healthy volunteers suggest that samidorphan, an opioid antagonist, mitigates weight gain associated with olanzapine. This study prospectively compared combination therapy of olanzapine plus either samidorphan or placebo for the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: This was an international, multicenter, randomized phase 2 study of olanzapine plus samidorphan in patients with schizophrenia...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845817/cariprazine-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#4
Willie Earley, Maria Victoria Burgess, Ludmyla Rekeda, Regan Dickinson, Balázs Szatmári, György Németh, Roger S McIntyre, Gary S Sachs, Lakshmi N Yatham
OBJECTIVE: Cariprazine, a dopamine D3 /D2 and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, was found to be effective in treating bipolar I depression in a previous phase 2 study. This phase 3 study further assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cariprazine in bipolar I depression. METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, adult participants (18-65 years old) who met DSM-5 criteria for bipolar I disorder and a current depressive episode were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N=158) or cariprazine at 1...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764650/a-third-linear-association-between-olduvai-duf1220-copy-number-and-severity-of-the-classic-symptoms-of-inherited-autism
#5
Jonathan M Davis, Ilea Heft, Stephen W Scherer, James M Sikela
OBJECTIVE: The authors previously reported that the copy number of sequences encoding an Olduvai protein domain subtype (CON1) shows a linear association with the severity of social deficits and communication impairment in individuals with autism. In this study, using an improved measurement method, the authors replicated this association in an independent population. METHOD: The authors obtained whole genome sequence (WGS) data and phenotype data on 215 individuals from the Autism Speaks MSSNG project...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764649/trajectories-of-response-to-dorsolateral-prefrontal-rtms-in-major-depression-a-three-d-study
#6
Tyler S Kaster, Jonathan Downar, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Kevin E Thorpe, Kfir Feffer, Yoshihiro Noda, Peter Giacobbe, Yuliya Knyahnytska, Sidney H Kennedy, Raymond W Lam, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for refractory major depressive disorder, yet no studies have characterized trajectories of rTMS response. The aim of this study was to characterize response trajectories for patients with major depression undergoing left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex rTMS and to determine associated baseline clinical characteristics. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized noninferiority trial (N=388) comparing conventional 10-Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) rTMS...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764648/benefits-of-sequentially-adding-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-or-antidepressant-medication-for-adults-with-nonremitting-depression
#7
Boadie W Dunlop, Devon LoParo, Becky Kinkead, Tanja Mletzko-Crowe, Steven P Cole, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg, W Edward Craighead
OBJECTIVE: Adults with major depressive disorder frequently do not achieve remission with an initial treatment. Addition of psychotherapy for patients who do not achieve remission with antidepressant medication alone can target residual symptoms and protect against recurrence, but the utility of adding antidepressant medication after nonremission with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has received little study. The authors aimed to evaluate the acute and long-term outcomes resulting from both sequences of combination treatments...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696271/cerebellar-prefrontal-network-connectivity-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
Roscoe O Brady, Irene Gonsalvez, Ivy Lee, Dost Öngür, Larry J Seidman, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Shaun M Eack, Matcheri S Keshavan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mark A Halko
OBJECTIVE: The interpretability of results in psychiatric neuroimaging is significantly limited by an overreliance on correlational relationships. Purely correlational studies cannot alone determine whether behavior-imaging relationships are causal to illness, functionally compensatory processes, or purely epiphenomena. Negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia, amotivation, and expressive deficits) are refractory to current medications and are among the foremost causes of disability in schizophrenia...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696270/proof-of-concept-for-an-adaptive-treatment-strategy-to-prevent-failures-in-internet-delivered-cbt-a-single-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-with-insomnia-patients
#9
Erik Forsell, Susanna Jernelöv, Kerstin Blom, Martin Kraepelien, Cecilia Svanborg, Gerhard Andersson, Nils Lindefors, Viktor Kaldo
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to demonstrate proof of concept for an adaptive treatment strategy in Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), where risk of treatment failure is assessed early in treatment and treatment for at-risk patients is adapted to prevent treatment failure. METHODS: A semiautomated algorithm assessed risk of treatment failure early in treatment in 251 patients undergoing ICBT for insomnia with therapist guidance. At-risk patients were randomly assigned to continue standard ICBT or to receive adapted ICBT...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654645/altered-uncinate-fasciculus-microstructure-in-childhood-anxiety-disorders-in-boys-but-not-girls
#10
Do P M Tromp, Lisa E Williams, Andrew S Fox, Jonathan A Oler, Patrick H Roseboom, Gregory M Rogers, Brenda E Benson, Andrew L Alexander, Daniel S Pine, Ned H Kalin
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are common, can result in lifelong suffering, and frequently begin before adolescence. Evidence from adults suggests that altered prefrontal-limbic connectivity is a pathophysiological feature of anxiety disorders. More specifically, in adults with anxiety disorders, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, has been observed in the uncinate fasciculus, the major tract that connects limbic and prefrontal regions. Because of the early onset of anxiety disorders and the increased incidence in anxiety disorders in females during their reproductive years, it is important to understand whether the reduction in uncinate fasciculus FA exists in children with anxiety disorders and the extent to which this alteration is sex related...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654644/guanfacine-augmentation-of-a-combined-intervention-of-computerized-cognitive-remediation-therapy-and-social-skills-training-for-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#11
Margaret M McClure, Fiona Graff, Joseph Triebwasser, Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Daniel R Rosell, Harold Koenigsberg, Erin A Hazlett, Larry J Siever, Philip D Harvey, Antonia S New
OBJECTIVE: Impaired cognition is a hallmark of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality disorder, and it is the best predictor of functional outcome. Cognitive remediation therapy has demonstrated efficacy for improving cognition, augmenting other rehabilitation efforts in schizophrenia, and effecting gains in real-world functioning. Pharmacological augmentation of cognitive remediation has been attempted, but the effects of augmentation on combined therapies, such as cognitive remediation and social skills training, have not been studied...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654643/olanzapine-versus-placebo-in-adult-outpatients-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Evelyn Attia, Joanna E Steinglass, B Timothy Walsh, Yuanjia Wang, Peng Wu, Colleen Schreyer, Jennifer Wildes, Zeynep Yilmaz, Angela S Guarda, Allan S Kaplan, Marsha D Marcus
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the benefits of olanzapine compared with placebo for adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa (N=152, 96% of whom were women; the sample's mean body mass index [BMI] was 16.7) was conducted at five sites in North America. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive olanzapine or placebo and were seen weekly for 16 weeks...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654642/age-associated-deviations-of-amygdala-functional-connectivity-in-youths-with-psychosis-spectrum-disorders-relevance-to-psychotic-symptoms
#13
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
OBJECTIVE: The authors created normative growth charts of amygdala functional connectivity in typically developing youths, assessed age-associated deviations of these trajectories in youths with psychosis spectrum disorders, and explored how these disruptions are related to clinical symptomatology. METHODS: Resting-state functional neuroimaging data from four samples (three cross-sectional, one longitudinal) were collected for 1,062 participants 10-25 years of age (622 typically developing control youths, 194 youths with psychosis spectrum disorders, and 246 youths with other psychopathology)...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606050/the-relationship-between-common-variant-schizophrenia-liability-and-number-of-offspring-in-the-uk-biobank
#14
Valentina Escott-Price, Antonio F Pardiñas, Enrique Santiago, James Walters, George Kirov, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked reduction in reproductive success, yet alleles that are common contribute substantially to the liability of the disorder. Among several possible explanations for this, it has been postulated that individuals who carry risk alleles but are unaffected are at some reproductive advantage, offsetting the effects of negative selection among those who are affected. The authors sought to test this hypothesis, isolating the effects of risk alleles on fecundity from the effects that are contingent on expressing schizophrenia...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606049/connectome-based-prediction-of-cocaine-abstinence
#15
Sarah W Yip, Dustin Scheinost, Marc N Potenza, Kathleen M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify a brain-based predictor of cocaine abstinence by using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM), a recently developed machine learning approach. CPM is a predictive tool and a method of identifying networks that underlie specific behaviors ("neural fingerprints"). METHODS: Fifty-three individuals participated in neuroimaging protocols at the start of treatment for cocaine use disorder, and again at the end of 12 weeks of treatment...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606047/neurofunctional-domains-derived-from-deep-behavioral-phenotyping-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Laura E Kwako, Melanie L Schwandt, Vijay A Ramchandani, Nancy Diazgranados, George F Koob, Nora D Volkow, Carlos Blanco, David Goldman
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated whether three neurofunctional domains proposed to be critical in the addiction cycle, namely, incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function, could be identified through factor analysis of a deeply phenotyped clinical sample. METHODS: Clinical, behavioral, and self-report measures of addiction, personality, cognition, behavior, and exposure to early-life stress were collected as part of a screening and natural history study of alcohol use disorders in 454 individuals representing the spectrum of alcohol use and use disorders...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606046/role-of-neuronal-vegf-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-rapid-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine
#17
Satoshi Deyama, Eunyoung Bang, Eric S Wohleb, Xiao-Yuan Li, Taro Kato, Danielle M Gerhard, Sophie Dutheil, Jason M Dwyer, Seth R Taylor, Marina R Picciotto, Ronald S Duman
OBJECTIVE: The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions even in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the effects of conventional monoamine-based antidepressants, but the role of VEGF in the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine remains unclear. The authors examined whether neuronal VEGF signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606045/separable-and-replicable-neural-strategies-during-social-brain-function-in-people-with-and-without-severe-mental-illness
#18
Colin Hawco, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, Benoit H Mulsant, Joseph D Viviano, Erin W Dickie, Miklos Argyelan, James M Gold, Marco Iacoboni, Pamela DeRosse, George Foussias, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
OBJECTIVE: Case-control study design and disease heterogeneity may impede biomarker discovery in brain disorders, including serious mental illnesses. To identify biologically and/or behaviorally driven as opposed to diagnostically driven subgroups of individuals, the authors used hierarchical clustering to identify individuals with similar patterns of brain activity during a facial imitate/observe functional MRI task. METHODS: Participants in the Social Processes Initiative in Neurobiology of the Schizophrenia(s) study (N=179; 109 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 70 healthy control participants) underwent MRI scanning at three sites...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30818993/correction
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30818992/caution-against-overinterpreting-opiate-receptor-stimulation-as-mediating-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine
#20
Gerard Sanacora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
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