journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33820425/mood-disorders-and-outcomes-of-covid-19-hospitalizations
#1
Victor M Castro, Faith M Gunning, Thomas H McCoy, Roy H Perlis
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to characterize the association between prior mood disorder diagnosis and hospital outcomes among individuals admitted with COVID-19 to six Eastern Massachusetts hospitals. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was drawn from the electronic health records of two academic medical centers and four community hospitals between February 15 and May 24, 2020. Associations between history of mood disorder and in-hospital mortality and hospital discharge home were examined using regression models among any hospitalized patients with positive tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)...
April 6, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33726525/whole-brain-white-matter-tract-deviation-and-idiosyncrasy-from-normative-development-in-autism-and-adhd-and-unaffected-siblings-link-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-and-cognition
#2
Yu-Hung Tung, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Chang-Le Chen, Chi-Yung Shang, Li-Ying Yang, Yung-Chin Hsu, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) preclude definitive identification of neurobiomarkers and biological risks. High clinical overlap suggests multifaceted circuit-level alterations across diagnoses, which remains elusive. This study investigated whether individuals with ADHD or ASD and their unaffected siblings constitute a spectrum of neurodevelopmental conditions in terms of white matter etiology. METHODS: Sex-specific white matter tract normative development was modeled from diffusion MRI of 626 typically developing control subjects (ages 5-40 years; 376 of them male)...
March 17, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33726524/sleep-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-state-of-the-art-and-next-steps
#3
Fabio Ferrarelli
Sleep disturbances are commonly observed in schizophrenia, including in chronic, early-course, and first-episode patients. This has generated considerable interest, both in clinical and research endeavors, in characterizing the relationship between disturbed sleep and schizophrenia. Sleep features can be objectively assessed with EEG recordings. Traditionally, EEG studies have focused on sleep architecture, which includes non-REM and REM sleep stages. More recently, numerous studies have investigated alterations in sleep-specific rhythms, including EEG oscillations, such as sleep spindles and slow waves, in individuals with schizophrenia compared with control subjects...
March 17, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33726523/effect-of-experimental-manipulation-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-on-short-term-markers-of-compulsive-behavior-a-theta-burst-stimulation-study
#4
Rebecca B Price, Claire M Gillan, Colleen Hanlon, Fabio Ferrarelli, Tae Kim, Helmet T Karim, Marlee Renard, Rachel Kaskie, Michelle Degutis, Anna Wears, Emelina P Vienneau, Angel V Peterchev, Vanessa Brown, Greg J Siegle, Meredith L Wallace, Susanne E Ahmari
OBJECTIVE: Compulsive behaviors are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders but appear across a broad spectrum of psychological conditions. It is thought that compulsions reflect a failure to override habitual behaviors "stamped in" through repeated practice and short-term distress reduction. Animal models suggest a possible causal role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in compulsive behaviors, but human studies have largely been limited by correlational designs...
March 17, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33726522/synthesizing-the-evidence-for-ketamine-and-esketamine-in-treatment-resistant-depression-an-international-expert-opinion-on-the-available-evidence-and-implementation
#5
Roger S McIntyre, Joshua D Rosenblat, Charles B Nemeroff, Gerard Sanacora, James W Murrough, Michael Berk, Elisa Brietzke, Seetal Dodd, Philip Gorwood, Roger Ho, Dan V Iosifescu, Carlos Lopez Jaramillo, Siegfried Kasper, Kevin Kratiuk, Jung Goo Lee, Yena Lee, Leanna M W Lui, Rodrigo B Mansur, George I Papakostas, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Michael Thase, Eduard Vieta, Allan H Young, Carlos A Zarate, Stephen Stahl
Replicated international studies have underscored the human and societal costs associated with major depressive disorder. Despite the proven efficacy of monoamine-based antidepressants in major depression, the majority of treated individuals fail to achieve full syndromal and functional recovery with the index and subsequent pharmacological treatments. Ketamine and esketamine represent pharmacologically novel treatment avenues for adults with treatment-resistant depression. In addition to providing hope to affected persons, these agents represent the first non-monoaminergic agents with proven rapid-onset efficacy in major depressive disorder...
March 17, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33653121/efficacy-of-intravenous-ketamine-in-adolescent-treatment-resistant-depression-a-randomized-midazolam-controlled-trial
#6
Jennifer B Dwyer, Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger, Jessica A Johnson, Amalia Londono Tobon, José M Flores, Madeeha Nasir, Kevin Couloures, Gerard Sanacora, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent depression is prevalent and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although intravenous ketamine has shown efficacy in adult treatment-resistant depression, its efficacy in pediatric populations is unknown. The authors conducted an active-placebo-controlled study of ketamine's safety and efficacy in adolescents. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, single-dose crossover clinical trial, 17 adolescents (ages 13-17) with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder received a single intravenous infusion of either ketamine (0...
March 3, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33653120/examining-and-modulating-neural-circuits-in-psychiatric-disorders-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography-present-practices-and-future-developments
#7
Fabio Ferrarelli, Mary L Phillips
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique uniquely equipped to both examine and modulate neural systems and related cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. As an examination tool, TMS can be used in combination with EEG (TMS-EEG) to elucidate directly, objectively, and noninvasively the intrinsic properties of a specific cortical region, including excitation, inhibition, reactivity, and oscillatory activity, irrespective of the individual's conscious effort. Additionally, when applied in repetitive patterns, TMS has been shown to modulate brain networks in healthy individuals, as well as ameliorate symptoms in individuals with psychiatric disorders...
March 3, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33653119/association-between-benzodiazepine-or-z-drug-prescriptions-and-drug-related-poisonings-among-patients-receiving-buprenorphine-maintenance-a-case-crossover-analysis
#8
Kevin Y Xu, Jacob T Borodovsky, Ned Presnall, Carrie M Mintz, Sarah M Hartz, Laura J Bierut, Richard A Grucza
OBJECTIVE: Persons with opioid use disorder who take benzodiazepines are at high risk for overdose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of benzodiazepine and Z-drug use with drug-related poisonings among patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance treatment. METHODS: A case-crossover study design was used to analyze prescription claims among persons ages 12-64 with opioid use disorder who had buprenorphine prescriptions and had claims data in the IBM MarketScan databases (2006-2016), encompassing 14,213,075 person-days of observation time for 23,036 individuals who experienced drug-related poisoning...
March 3, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33653118/impact-of-the-kcnq2-3-channel-opener-ezogabine-on-reward-circuit-activity-and-clinical-symptoms-in-depression-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Sara Costi, Laurel S Morris, Katherine A Kirkwood, Megan Hoch, Morgan Corniquel, Brittany Vo-Le, Tabish Iqbal, Nisha Chadha, Diego A Pizzagalli, Alexis Whitton, Laura Bevilacqua, Manish K Jha, Stefan Ursu, Alan C Swann, Katherine A Collins, Ramiro Salas, Emilia Bagiella, Michael K Parides, Emily R Stern, Dan V Iosifescu, Ming-Hu Han, Sanjay J Mathew, James W Murrough
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical studies point to the KCNQ2/3 potassium channel as a novel target for the treatment of depression and anhedonia, a reduced ability to experience pleasure. The authors conducted the first randomized placebo-controlled trial testing the effect of the KCNQ2/3 positive modulator ezogabine on reward circuit activity and clinical outcomes in patients with depression. METHODS: Depressed individuals (N=45) with elevated levels of anhedonia were assigned to a 5-week treatment period with ezogabine (900 mg/day; N=21) or placebo (N=24)...
March 3, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33596680/improving-suicide-prevention-through-evidence-based-strategies-a-systematic-review
#10
J John Mann, Christina A Michel, Randy P Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify scalable evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar identified 20,234 articles published between September 2005 and December 2019, of which 97 were randomized controlled trials with suicidal behavior or ideation as primary outcomes or epidemiological studies of limiting access to lethal means, using educational approaches, and the impact of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: Training primary care physicians in depression recognition and treatment prevents suicide...
February 18, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33596679/maintenance-treatment-with-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-for-people-with-nonaffective-psychoses-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Federico Bertolini, Cinzia Del Giovane, Federico Tedeschi, Chiara Bovo, Chiara Gastaldon, Michela Nosé, Filippo Ogheri, Davide Papola, Marianna Purgato, Giulia Turrini, Christoph U Correll, Corrado Barbui
OBJECTIVE: This study compared relapse prevention and acceptability of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in the maintenance treatment of adults with nonaffective psychoses. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and online registers for randomized controlled trials published until June 2020. Relative risks and standardized mean differences were pooled using random-effects pairwise and network meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were relapse rate and all-cause discontinuation ("acceptability")...
February 18, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33472390/association-of-neural-reward-circuitry-function-with-response-to-psychotherapy-in-youths-with-anxiety-disorders
#12
Stefanie L Sequeira, Jennifer S Silk, Cecile D Ladouceur, Jamie L Hanson, Neal D Ryan, Judith K Morgan, Dana L McMakin, Philip C Kendall, Ronald E Dahl, Erika E Forbes
OBJECTIVE: Identifying neural correlates of response to psychological treatment may inform targets for interventions designed to treat psychiatric disorders. This study examined the extent to which baseline functioning in reward circuitry is associated with response to psychotherapy in youths with anxiety disorders. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy compared with supportive therapy was conducted in youths with anxiety disorders...
January 21, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33472389/the-importance-of-conduct-disorder-in-the-treatment-of-violence-in-schizophrenia-efficacy-of-clozapine-compared-with-olanzapine-and-haloperidol
#13
Menahem Krakowski, Umit Tural, Pál Czobor
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of violence in schizophrenia remains a challenging problem, especially in patients with conduct disorder. Previous clinical studies did not select patients on the basis of violence and did not focus on conduct disorder. This study is a head-to-head comparison of clozapine, olanzapine, and haloperidol in the treatment of violent schizophrenia patients with and without conduct disorder. METHODS: Physically assaultive schizophrenia patients (N=99) were randomly assigned to receive clozapine, olanzapine, or haloperidol in a 12-week double-blind trial...
January 21, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33472388/the-world-health-organization-risk-drinking-levels-measure-of-alcohol-consumption-prevalence-and-health-correlates-in-nationally-representative-surveys-of-u-s-adults-2001-2002-and-2012-2013
#14
Dvora Shmulewitz, Efrat Aharonovich, Katie Witkiewitz, Raymond F Anton, Henry R Kranzler, Jennifer Scodes, Karl F Mann, Melanie M Wall, Deborah Hasin
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about change over time in the prevalence of World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels (very high, high, moderate, low) and their association with health conditions, overall and by gender. The authors used two sets of nationally representative U.S. survey data to determine whether changes over time varied by gender and to examine whether health conditions related to alcohol were associated with WHO risk drinking level within each survey, and whether these associations differed by gender...
January 21, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33472387/multimodal-neuroimaging-of-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-in-a-u-s-population-based-sample-of-school-age-children
#15
Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Delfina Janiri, Gaelle E Doucet, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Dylan M Nielson, Sophia Frangou, Argyris Stringaris
OBJECTIVE: Suicide deaths and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are considered a public health emergency, yet their underpinnings in the brain remain elusive. The authors examined the classification accuracy of individual, environmental, and clinical characteristics, as well as multimodal brain imaging correlates, of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a U.S. population-based sample of school-age children. METHODS: Children ages 9-10 years (N=7,994) from a population-based sample from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study were assessed for lifetime suicidal thoughts and behaviors...
January 21, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789458/highlights-from-residents-journal-march-2021
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789457/the-elusive-phenotype-of-preadolescent-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-can-neuroimaging-deliver-on-its-promise
#17
EDITORIAL
Randy P Auerbach, Henry W Chase, David A Brent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789456/the-trifecta-of-misery-and-disease-vulnerability-poverty-childhood-maltreatment-and-inflammation
#18
EDITORIAL
Charles B Nemeroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789455/disclosure-of-editors-financial-relationships
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789454/anxiety-depression-and-suicide-in-youth
#20
EDITORIAL
Ned H Kalin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2021: American Journal of Psychiatry
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