American Journal of Psychiatry

Eric J Lenze, Angela Stevens, Jill D Waring, Vy T Pham, Rita Haddad, Josh Shimony, J Philip Miller, Christopher R Bowie
OBJECTIVE: Age-related cognitive decline, the deterioration in functions such as memory and executive function, is faced by most older adults and affects function and quality of life. No approved treatments exist for age-related cognitive decline. Computerized cognitive training has been shown to provide consistent albeit modest improvements in cognitive function as measured by neuropsychological testing. Vortioxetine, an antidepressant medication, has putative procognitive and proneuroplastic properties and therefore may be able to augment cognitive training...
March 26, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Laurena Holleran, Sinead Kelly, Clara Alloza, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Celso Arango, Nerisa Banaj, Vince Calhoun, Dara Cannon, Vaughan Carr, Aiden Corvin, David C Glahn, Ruben Gur, Elliot Hong, Cyril Hoschl, Fleur M Howells, Anthony James, Joost Janssen, Peter Kochunov, Stephen M Lawrie, Jingyu Liu, Covadonga Martinez, Colm McDonald, Derek Morris, David Mothersill, Christos Pantelis, Fabrizio Piras, Steven Potkin, Paul E Rasser, David Roalf, Laura Rowland, Theodore Satterthwaite, Ulrich Schall, Gianfranco Spalletta, Filip Spaniel, Dan J Stein, Anne Uhlmann, Aristotle Voineskos, Andrew Zalesky, Theo G M van Erp, Jessica A Turner, Ian J Deary, Paul M Thompson, Neda Jahanshad, Gary Donohoe
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia has recently been associated with widespread white matter microstructural abnormalities, but the functional effects of these abnormalities remain unclear. Widespread heterogeneity of results from studies published to date preclude any definitive characterization of the relationship between white matter and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Given the relevance of deficits in cognitive function to predicting social and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, the authors carried out a meta-analysis of available data through the ENIGMA Consortium, using a common analysis pipeline, to elucidate the relationship between white matter microstructure and a measure of general cognitive performance, IQ, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants...
March 26, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alexis C Edwards, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and risk of suicide, before and after accounting for psychiatric comorbidity, and assessed the extent to which the observed association is due to a potentially causal mechanism or genetic and familial environmental confounding factors that increase risk for both. METHODS: Longitudinal population-wide Swedish medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries were used to evaluate the risk of death by suicide as a function of AUD history...
March 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Walter H Kaye, Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Laura A Berner, Alice V Ely, Ursula F Bailer, Martin P Paulus, Julie L Fudge
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric condition, yet the pathophysiology of this disorder and its primary symptom, extreme dietary restriction, remains poorly understood. In states of hunger relative to satiety, the rewarding value of food stimuli normally increases to promote eating, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa avoid food despite emaciation. This study's aim was to examine potential neural insensitivity to these effects of hunger in anorexia nervosa...
March 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Shan H Siddiqi, Stephan F Taylor, Danielle Cooke, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mark S George, Michael D Fox
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of different depression symptoms may require different brain stimulation targets with different underlying brain circuits. The authors sought to identify such targets, which could improve the efficacy of therapeutic brain stimulation and facilitate personalized therapy. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed two independent cohorts of patients who received left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of depression (discovery sample, N=30; active replication sample, N=81; sham replication sample, N=87)...
March 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Donald C Goff, Chenxiang Li, Lorna Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jodie P Gray, Veronika I Müller, Simon B Eickhoff, Peter T Fox
OBJECTIVE: Imaging studies of major depressive disorder have reported structural and functional abnormalities in a variety of spatially diverse brain regions. Quantitative meta-analyses of this literature, however, have failed to find statistically significant between-study spatial convergence, other than transdiagnostic-only effects. In the present study, the authors applied a novel multimodal meta-analytic approach to test the hypothesis that major depression exhibits spatially convergent structural and functional brain abnormalities...
February 26, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Collin M Reiff, Elon E Richman, Charles B Nemeroff, Linda L Carpenter, Alik S Widge, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Ned H Kalin, William M McDonald
OBJECTIVE: The authors provide an evidenced-based summary of the literature on the clinical application of psychedelic drugs in psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Searches of PubMed and PsycINFO via Ovid were conducted for articles in English, in peer-reviewed journals, reporting on "psilocybin," "lysergic acid diethylamide," "LSD," "ayahuasca," " 3,4 -methylenedioxymethamphetamine," and "MDMA," in human subjects, published between 2007 and July 1, 2019...
February 26, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Martin Køster Rimvall, Jim van Os, Frank Verhulst, Rasmus Trap Wolf, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Lars Clemmensen, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Pia Jeppesen
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic experiences affect more than 10% of children and often co-occur with nonpsychotic mental disorders. However, longitudinal studies of the outcome of psychotic experiences based on unbiased information on mental health service use and psychotropic medications are scarce. The authors investigated whether psychotic experiences at ages 11-12 predicted a psychiatric diagnosis or treatment with psychotropic medications by ages 16-17. METHODS: In a longitudinal register-based follow-up study of the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000, a total of 1,632 children ages 11-12 were assessed for psychotic experiences in face-to-face interviews...
February 26, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Christopher R K Ching, Boris A Gutman, Daqiang Sun, Julio Villalon Reina, Anjanibhargavi Ragothaman, Dmitry Isaev, Artemis Zavaliangos-Petropulu, Amy Lin, Rachel K Jonas, Leila Kushan, Laura Pacheco-Hansen, Ariana Vajdi, Jennifer K Forsyth, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Geor Bakker, Therese van Amelsvoort, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Wendy R Kates, Linda E Campbell, Kathryn L McCabe, Michael C Craig, Eileen Daly, Maria Gudbrandsen, Clodagh M Murphy, Declan G Murphy, Kieran C Murphy, Ania Fiksinski, Sanne Koops, Jacob Vorstman, T Blaine Crowley, Beverly S Emanuel, Raquel E Gur, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, David R Roalf, Kosha Ruparel, J Eric Schmitt, Elaine H Zackai, Courtney A Durdle, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tony J Simon, Anne S Bassett, Nancy J Butcher, Eva W C Chow, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Adam Cunningham, Joanne Doherty, David E Linden, Hayley Moss, Michael J Owen, Marianne van den Bree, Nicolas A Crossley, Gabriela M Repetto, Paul M Thompson, Carrie E Bearden
OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female)...
February 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Marieke Klein, Euginia L Singgih, Anne van Rens, Ditte Demontis, Anders D Børglum, Nina Roth Mota, Anna Castells-Nobau, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Han G Brunner, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Annette Schenck, Monique van der Voet, Barbara Franke
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD often co-occurs with intellectual disability, and shared overlapping genetics have been suggested. The aim of this study was to identify novel ADHD genes by investigating whether genes carrying rare mutations linked to intellectual disability contribute to ADHD risk through common genetic variants. Validation and characterization of candidates were performed using Drosophila melanogaster ...
February 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Katherine G Jonas, Laura J Fochtmann, Greg Perlman, Yuan Tian, John M Kane, Evelyn J Bromet, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: At first hospitalization, a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) predicts illness severity and worse treatment outcomes. The mechanism of this association, however, remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that lengthy untreated psychosis is toxic or that it reflects a more severe form of schizophrenia. Alternatively, the association may be an artifact of lead-time bias. These hypotheses are tested in a longitudinal study of schizophrenia with 2,137 observations spanning from childhood to 20 years after first admission...
February 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Carsten Hjorthøj, Marie Stefanie Kejser Starzer, Michael Eriksen Benros, Merete Nordentoft
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that infections increase the risk of schizophrenia. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate 1) whether infections increase the risk of substance-induced psychosis, and 2) whether infections increase the risk of converting from substance-induced psychosis to schizophrenia. METHODS: The study data were drawn from the combined nationwide Danish registers and included all people born in Denmark since 1981. The authors used Cox proportional hazards regression with infections as time-varying covariates, estimating hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals...
February 12, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Deborah S Hasin, Dvora Shmulewitz, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Mark Olfson, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall
OBJECTIVE: Given changes in U.S. marijuana laws, attitudes, and use patterns, individuals with pain may be an emerging group at risk for nonmedical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. The authors examined differences in the prevalence of nonmedical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder among U.S. adults with and without pain, as well as whether these differences widened over time. METHODS: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2002; N=43,093) and NESARC-III (2012-2013; N=36,309) were analyzed using logistic regression...
January 22, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lisa M McTeague, Benjamin M Rosenberg, James W Lopez, David M Carreon, Julia Huemer, Ying Jiang, Christina F Chick, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Disrupted emotional processing is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated functional disruptions in neural circuitry underlying emotional processing across a range of tasks and across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic quantitative meta-analysis of published neuroimaging data. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging findings published through May 2018 that compared activation during emotional processing tasks in patients with psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia, bipolar or unipolar depression, anxiety, and substance use) to matched healthy control participants...
January 22, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah A Sullivan, Daphne Kounali, Mary Cannon, Anthony S David, Paul C Fletcher, Peter Holmans, Hannah Jones, Peter B Jones, David E J Linden, Glyn Lewis, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Alexandros Rammos, Andrew Thompson, Dieter Wolke, Jon Heron, Stanley Zammit
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, course, and outcome of psychotic experiences from childhood through early adulthood in the general population and examined prediction of psychotic disorder. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using the semistructured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview at ages 12, 18, and 24 (N=7,900 with any data). Incidence rates were estimated using flexible parametric modeling, and positive predictive values (PPVs), sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were estimated for prediction...
January 7, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Damiaan Denys, Ilse Graat, Roel Mocking, Pelle de Koning, Nienke Vulink, Martijn Figee, Pieter Ooms, Mariska Mantione, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rick Schuurman
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment option for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, clinical experience with DBS for OCD remains limited. The authors examined the tolerability and effectiveness of DBS in an open study of patients with refractory OCD. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients, including 16 patients from a previous trial, received bilateral DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) between April 2005 and October 2017 and were followed for 12 months...
January 7, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Wayne K Goodman, Eric A Storch, Jeffrey F Cohn, Sameer A Sheth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jordan W Smoller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lisa M Shin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
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