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Lancet Neurology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31097385/small-vessel-disease-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Joanna M Wardlaw, Colin Smith, Martin Dichgans
Small vessel disease is a disorder of cerebral microvessels that causes white matter hyperintensities and several other common abnormalities (eg, recent small subcortical infarcts and lacunes) seen on brain imaging. Despite being a common cause of stroke and vascular dementia, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Research in humans has identified several manifestations of cerebral microvessel endothelial dysfunction including blood-brain barrier dysfunction, impaired vasodilation, vessel stiffening, dysfunctional blood flow and interstitial fluid drainage, white matter rarefaction, ischaemia, inflammation, myelin damage, and secondary neurodegeneration...
May 13, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31076244/progress-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy
#2
REVIEW
Carina Bunschoten, Bart C Jacobs, Peter Y K Van den Bergh, David R Cornblath, Pieter A van Doorn
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare and heterogeneous but treatable immune-mediated neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies are considered essential for a definite diagnosis, but poor performance and misinterpretation of the results frequently leads to misdiagnosis. Nerve ultrasound and MRI could be helpful in diagnosis. Whereas typical CIDP is relatively easy to diagnose, atypical variants with distinct phenotypes can be a diagnostic challenge. Intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, and plasma exchange are effective treatments, but maintenance treatments are often required for years, and treatment regimens require careful and regular adjustments to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment...
May 7, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31076243/myrtelle-may-canavan
#3
Rebecca Akkermans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31072781/a-generational-struggle-to-feed-a-healthy-brain
#4
Jules Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31060946/meeting-the-neurological-needs-of-refugees-and-other-forcibly-displaced-people
#5
Adrian Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029579/priorities-to-reduce-the-burden-of-stroke-in-latin-american-countries
#6
REVIEW
Sheila C Ouriques Martins, Claudio Sacks, Werner Hacke, Michael Brainin, Francisco de Assis Figueiredo, Octávio Marques Pontes-Neto, Pablo M Lavados Germain, Maria F Marinho, Arnold Hoppe Wiegering, Diana Vaca McGhie, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Sebastian F Ameriso, Walter M Camargo Villareal, Juan Carlos Durán, José E Fogolin Passos, Raul Gomes Nogueira, João J Freitas de Carvalho, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Carla H Cabral Moro, Jamary Oliveira-Filho, Rubens Gagliardi, Eduardo D Gomes de Sousa, Felipe Fagundes Soares, Katia de Pinho Campos, Paulo F Piza Teixeira, Ivete Pillo Gonçalves, Irving R Santos Carquin, Mário Muñoz Collazos, Germán E Pérez Romero, Javier I Maldonado Figueredo, Miguel A Barboza, Miguel Á Celis López, Fernando Góngora-Rivera, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Nelson Novarro-Escudero, Miguel Á Velázquez Blanco, Carlos A Arbo Oze de Morvil, Aurora B Olmedo Bareiro, Gloria Meza Rojas, Alan Flores, Jorge Arturo Hancco-Saavedra, Vivian Pérez Jimenez, Carlos Abanto Argomedo, Liliana Rodriguez Kadota, Roberto Crosa, Daissy L Mora Cuervo, Ana C de Souza, Leonardo A Carbonera, Tony F Álvarez Guzmán, Nelson Maldonado, Norberto L Cabral, Craig Anderson, Patrice Lindsay, Anselm Hennis, Valery L Feigin
The large and increasing burden of stroke in Latin American countries, and the need to meet the UN and WHO requirements for reducing the burden from non-communicable disorders (including stroke), brought together stroke experts and representatives of the Ministries of Health of 13 Latin American countries for the 1st Latin American Stroke Ministerial meeting in Gramado, Brazil, to discuss the problem and identify ways of cooperating to reduce the burden of stroke in the region. Discussions were focused on the regional and country-specific activities associated with stroke prevention and treatment, including public stroke awareness, prevention strategies, delivery and organisation of care, clinical practice gaps, and unmet needs...
April 24, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31003900/encephalitis-spreading-the-word
#7
Jules Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31003899/therapeutic-interventions-in-patients-with-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness
#8
REVIEW
Aurore Thibaut, Nicholas Schiff, Joseph Giacino, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
The management of patients with severe brain injuries and prolonged disorders of consciousness raises important issues particularly with respect to their therapeutic options. The scarcity of treatment options is challenged by new clinical and neuroimaging data indicating that some patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness might benefit from therapeutic interventions, even years after the injury. Most studies of interventions aimed at improving patients' level of consciousness and functional recovery were behavioural and brain imaging open-label trials and case reports, but several randomised controlled trials have been done, particularly focused on the effects of drugs or use of non-invasive brain stimulation...
April 16, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30987830/correction-to-lancet-neurol-2019-18-504-12
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30982582/freezing-of-gait-before-the-introduction-of-levodopa
#10
Peter J Koehler, Jorik Nonnekes, Bastiaan R Bloem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30981640/csf-and-blood-biomarkers-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Lucilla Parnetti, Lorenzo Gaetani, Paolo Eusebi, Silvia Paciotti, Oskar Hansson, Omar El-Agnaf, Brit Mollenhauer, Kaj Blennow, Paolo Calabresi
In the management of Parkinson's disease, reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease mostly relies on clinical symptoms, which hampers the detection of the earliest phases of the disease-the time at which treatment with forthcoming disease-modifying drugs could have the greatest therapeutic effect. Reliable prognostic markers could help in predicting the response to treatments. Evidence suggests potential diagnostic and prognostic value of CSF and blood biomarkers closely reflecting the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, such as α-synuclein species, lysosomal enzymes, markers of amyloid and tau pathology, and neurofilament light chain...
April 10, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30981639/daniel-friedman
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30975520/stroke-genetics-discovery-biology-and-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Martin Dichgans, Sara L Pulit, Jonathan Rosand
Stroke, a leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide, has a heritable component. Recent gene discovery efforts have expanded the number of known single-gene disorders associated with stroke and have linked common variants at approximately 35 genetic loci to stroke risk. These discoveries have highlighted novel mechanisms and pathways implicated in stroke related to large artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolism, and small vessel disease, and defined shared genetic influences with related vascular traits...
April 8, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30975519/gait-impairments-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Anat Mirelman, Paolo Bonato, Richard Camicioli, Terry D Ellis, Nir Giladi, Jamie L Hamilton, Chris J Hass, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Elisa Pelosin, Quincy J Almeida
Gait impairments are among the most common and disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Nonetheless, gait is not routinely assessed quantitatively but is described in general terms that are not sensitive to changes ensuing with disease progression. Quantifying multiple gait features (eg, speed, variability, and asymmetry) under natural and more challenging conditions (eg, dual-tasking, turning, and daily living) enhanced sensitivity of gait quantification. Studies of neural connectivity and structural network topology have provided information on the mechanisms of gait impairment...
April 8, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954372/imaging-biomarkers-of-vulnerable-carotid-plaques-for-stroke-risk-prediction-and-their-potential-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Luca Saba, Tobias Saam, H Rolf Jäger, Chun Yuan, Thomas S Hatsukami, David Saloner, Bruce A Wasserman, Leo H Bonati, Max Wintermark
Stroke represents a massive public health problem. Carotid atherosclerosis plays a fundamental part in the occurence of ischaemic stroke. European and US guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with carotid plaques are based on quantification of the percentage reduction in luminal diameter due to the atherosclerotic process to select the best therapeutic approach. However, better strategies for prevention of stroke are needed because some subtypes of carotid plaques (eg, vulnerable plaques) can predict the occurrence of stroke independent of the degree of stenosis...
April 3, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30910444/patrik-brundin-life-on-the-river
#16
Adrian Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30910443/safety-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-cannabinoids-in-neurological-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Friedman, Jacqueline A French, Mauro Maccarrone
In the past two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, pain, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabis-based treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis have been approved in some countries. Randomised controlled trials of plant-derived cannabidiol for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, two severe childhood-onset epilepsies, provide evidence of anti-seizure effects...
March 22, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898551/reduction-of-iron-neurotoxicity-in-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#18
Craig S Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898550/deferoxamine-mesylate-in-patients-with-intracerebral-haemorrhage-i-def-a-multicentre-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-phase-2-trial
#19
Magdy Selim, Lydia D Foster, Claudia S Moy, Guohua Xi, Michael D Hill, Lewis B Morgenstern, Steven M Greenberg, Michael L James, Vineeta Singh, Wayne M Clark, Casey Norton, Yuko Y Palesch, Sharon D Yeatts
BACKGROUND: Iron from haemolysed blood is implicated in secondary injury after intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to assess the safety of the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and to establish whether the drug merits investigation in a phase 3 trial. METHODS: We did a multicentre, futility-design, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial at 40 hospitals in Canada and the USA. Adults aged 18-80 years with primary, spontaneous, supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive deferoxamine mesylate (32 mg/kg per day) or placebo (saline) infusions for 3 consecutive days within 24 h of haemorrhage onset...
March 18, 2019: Lancet Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879893/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. METHODS: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016...
March 14, 2019: Lancet Neurology
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