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American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38626405/biomechanical-increase-in-cervical-esophageal-wall-tension-during-peristalsis
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ivan M Lang, Bidyut K Medda, Reza Shaker
UNLABELLED: During pharyngeal phase of swallowing circumferential tension of the cervical esophagus (CTE) increases caused by a biomechanical process of laryngeal elevation pulling the cervical esophagus orad. The esophagus contracts longitudinally during esophageal peristalsis, therefore, we hypothesized that CTE increases during esophageal peristalsis by a biomechanical process. METHODS: We investigated this hypothesis using 28 decerebrate cats instrumented with EMG electrodes on the pharynx and esophagus, and esophageal manometry...
April 16, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38626403/neuroimmunophysiology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
EDITORIAL
Derek M McKay, Manon Defaye, Sruthi Rajeev, Wallace K MacNaughton, Yasmin Nasser, Keith A Sharkey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38625142/patients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-have-glucose-disturbances-that-mechanistically-differ-from-steatotic-liver-disease
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anne-Sofie H Jensen, Henriette Ytting, Mikkel P Werge, Elias B Rashu, Liv E Hetland, Mira Thing, Puria Nabilou, Johan Burisch, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Anders E Junker, Lise Hobolth, Christian Mortensen, Flemming Tofteng, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller, Mogens Vyberg, Reza R Serizawa, Lise L Gluud, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Autoimmune liver diseases are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the glucose-regulatory disturbances in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, n=19), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC, n=15), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, n=6). Healthy individuals (n=24) and patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD, n=18) were included as controls. Blood samples were collected during a 120 min oral glucose tolerance test...
April 16, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38593468/lpa-5-dependent-signaling-regulates-regeneration-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-following-irradiation
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Beth B McConnell, Zhongxing Liang, Chad Xu, Yiran Han, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule that regulates a wide array of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, via activation of cognate receptors. The LPA5 receptor is highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium, but its function in restoring intestinal epithelial integrity following injury has not been examined. Here, we use a radiation-induced injury model to study the role of LPA5 in regulating intestinal epithelial regeneration. Control mice ( Lpar5f/f ) and mice with an inducible, epithelial cell-specific deletion of Lpar5 in the small intestine ( Lpar5IECKO ) were subjected to 10 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and analyzed during recovery...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591148/stard5-levels-of-expression-correlate-with-onset-and-progression-of-steatosis-and-liver-fibrosis
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Genta Kakiyama, Kei Minowa, Nanah Bai-Kamara, Taishi Hashiguchi, William M Pandak, Daniel Rodriguez-Agudo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Insufficient expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory lipid transfer protein 5 (StarD5) on liver cholesterol/lipid homeostasis is not clearly defined. METHODS: The ablation of StarD5 was analyzed in mice on a normal or western diet (WD) to determine its importance in hepatic lipid accumulation and fibrosis compared to wild type (WT) mice. Rescue experiments in StarD5-/- mice and hepatocytes were performed. RESULTS: In addition to increased hepatic triglyceride/cholesterol levels, global StarD5-/- mice fed a normal diet displayed reduced plasma triglycerides and liver VLDL secretion as compared with WT counterparts...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591144/oral-tryptophan-activates-duodenal-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-healthy-subjects-a-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gaston H Rueda, Natalia Causada-Calo, Rajka Borojevic, Andrea Nardelli, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Marco Constante, Josie Libertucci, Vidhyalakshmi Mohan, Philippe Langella, Linda M P Loonen, Jerry M Wells, Harry Sokol, Elena F Verdu, Premysl Bercik
Background and Aims : Tryptophan is an essential amino acid transformed by host and gut microbial enzymes into metabolites that regulate mucosal homeostasis through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation. Alteration of tryptophan metabolism has been associated with chronic inflammation, however whether tryptophan supplementation affects the metabolite repertoire and AhR activation under physiologic conditions in humans, is unknown. Methods: We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 20 healthy volunteers...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591132/milk-and-lacticaseibacillus-casei-bl23-effects-on-intestinal-responses-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Glory Bui, Cristina Torres-Fuentes, Matteo M Pusceddu, Melanie G Gareau, Maria L Marco
Probiotic-containing fermented dairy foods have the potential to benefit human health, but the importance of the dairy matrix for efficacy remains unclear. We investigated the capacity of Lacticaseibacillus casei BL23 in phosphate-buffered saline (BL23-PBS), BL23-fermented milk (BL23-milk), and milk to modify intestinal and behavioral responses in a Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS, 3% w/v) mouse model of colitis. Significant sex-dependent differences were found such that female mice exhibited more severe colitis, greater weight loss, and higher mortality rates...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591131/high-energy-pacing-inhibits-slow-wave-dysrhythmias-in-the-small-intestine
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nipuni D Nagahawatte, Recep Avci, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Leo K Cheng
The motility of the gastrointestinal tract is coordinated in part by rhythmic slow waves, and disrupted slow wave patterns are linked to functional motility disorders. At present, there are no treatment strategies that primarily target slow wave activity. This study assessed the use of pacing to suppress glucagon-induced slow wave dysrhythmias in the small intestine. Slow waves in the jejunum were mapped in vivo using a high-resolution surface-contact electrode array in pigs (n=7). Glucagon was intravenously administered to induce hyperglycemia...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38591127/n-glycosylation-of-scap-exacerbates-hepatocellular-inflammation-and-lipid-accumulation-via-acss2-mediated-histone-h3k27-acetylation
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xuemei Li, Xiaoqin Tang, Yue Xiang, Zhibo Zhao, Yanping Li, Qiuying Ding, Linkun Zhang, Jingyuan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yao Chen
Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a widely expressed membrane glycoprotein that acts as an important modulator of lipid metabolism and inflammatory stress. N-glycosylation of SCAP has been suggested to modulate cancer development, but its role in NASH is poorly understood. In this study, the N-glycosylation of SCAP was analyzed by using sequential trypsin proteolysis and glycosidase treatment. The liver cell lines expressing wild-type and N-glycosylation sites mutated SCAP were constructed to investigate the N-glycosylation role of SCAP in regulating inflammation and lipid accumulation as well as the underlying mechanisms...
April 9, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38564323/intestinal-perfusion-of-unacylated-ghrelin-alleviated-metabolic-associated-fatty-liver-disease-in-rat-via-a-central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-pathway
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pengfei Lv, Hongzeng Li, Xiangbo Li, Xueyuying Wang, Jiantong Yu, Yanling Gong
Unacylated ghrelin (UAG), the unacylated form of ghrelin, accounts for 80-90% of circulation. Accumulated studies have pointed out that UAG may be used to treat metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intestinal perfusion of UAG on metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet and its possible mechanism. Neuronal retrograde tracking combined with immunofluorescence, central administration of GLP-1R antagonist, and hepatic vagotomy were performed to reveal its possible mechanism involving a central glucagon-like peptide-1 pathway...
April 2, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38563893/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activity-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-formation-of-colonic-tertiary-lymphoid-tissues
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Erika Leonor Garcia-Villatoro, Arinzechukwu Ufondu, Evelyn S Callaway, Kimberly Allred, Stephen H Safe, Robert S Chapkin, Arul Jayaraman, Clinton D Allred
After birth, the development of secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) in the colon is dependent on the expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) in immune cells as a response to the availability of AhR ligands. However, little is known about how AhR activity from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) may influence the development of tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs). As organized structures that develop at sites of inflammation or infection during adulthood, TLTs serve as localized centers of adaptive immune responses, and their presence has been associated with the resolution of inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon...
April 2, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502914/lower-uromodulin-serum-levels-are-associated-with-poorer-prognosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-hepatorenal-syndrome-type-2
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eva Maria Schleicher, Simon Johannes Gairing, Darko Castven, Charlotte Sophie Hock, Henrike Dobbermann, Sophia Heinrich, Myriam Meineck, Leonard Kaps, Peter Robert Galle, Julia Weinmann-Menke, Marc Nguyen-Tat, Jens Uwe Marquardt, Christian Labenz
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is associated with a dismal prognosis in patients with cirrhosis, and therapeutic options are limited. Biomarkers to identify patients with poor response to therapy are urgently needed. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of serum levels of Uromodulin (sUMOD) in patients with cirrhosis and HRS treated with terlipressin and albumin (T/A). In total, 156 patients (81 patients with HRS treated with T/A, 42 patients with cirrhosis without kidney injury and 33 patients with cirrhosis with prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI)) were included...
March 19, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502145/-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-and-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-served-as-key-components-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-alleviate-colitis
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Binqiang Xu, Yang Fu, Nuoming Yin, Wenfei Qin, Zehua Huang, Wei Xiao, Huizhen Huang, Qixiang Mei, Junjie Fan, Yue Zeng, Chunlan Huang
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) via rectifying gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how specific bacteria-associated immune response contributes to alleviated colitis. 40 donors were divided into high (donor-H) and low (donor-L) groups according to diversity and the abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium by 16S rRNA sequencing. FMT was performed on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Mice with colitis showed significant improvement in intestinal injury and immune imbalance after FMT with group donor-H ( p <0...
March 19, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38469632/panaxynol-improves-crypt-and-mucosal-architecture-suppresses-colitis-enriched-microbes-and-alters-the-immune-response-to-mitigate-colitis
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brooke M Bullard, Sierra J McDonald, Thomas D Cardaci, Brandon N VanderVeen, Ahmed D Mohammed, Jason L Kubinak, Joseph F Pierre, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Daping Fan, Lorne J Hofseth, E Angela Murphy
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the large intestine, which impacts millions worldwide. Current interventions aimed at treating UC symptoms can have off-target effects, invoking the need for alternatives that may provide similar benefits with less unintended consequences. This study builds on our initial data, which showed that panaxynol - a novel, potent, bioavailable compound found in American ginseng - can suppress disease severity in murine colitis. Here we explore the underlying mechanisms by which panaxynol improves both chronic and acute murine colitis...
March 12, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38469630/albumin-promoter-driven-flpo-expression-induces-efficient-genetic-recombination-in-mouse-liver
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xiaohui Zhu, Yan Yang, Dongfeng Feng, Oliver Wang, Jiaxiang Chen, Jiale Wang, Bin Wang, Yang Liu, Brandy H Edenfield, Ashley N Haddock, Ying Wang, Tushar Patel, Yan Bi, Baoan Ji
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tissue-specific gene manipulations are widely used in genetically engineered mouse models. A single recombinase system, such as the one using Alb-Cre, has been commonly used for liver-specific genetic manipulations. However, most diseases are complex, involving multiple genetic changes and various cell types. A dual recombinase system is required for conditionally modifying different genes sequentially in the same cell or inducing genetic changes in different cell types within the same organism...
March 12, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38440826/protease-activated-receptor-2-drives-migration-in-a-colon-cancer-cell-line-but-not-in-non-cancerous-human-epithelial-cells
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Larissa Lucena Périco, Andrew J Vegso, Cristiane H Baggio, Wallace K MacNaughton
The inflamed mucosa contains a complex assortment of proteases which may participate in wound healing or in the development of inflammation-associated colon cancer. We sought to determine the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in epithelial wound healing in both untransformed and transformed colonic epithelial cells. Monolayers of primary epithelial cells derived from organoids cultivated from patient colonic biopsies, and of the T84 colon cancer cell line, were grown to confluence, wounded in the presence of a selective PAR2-activating peptide, and healing visualized by live cell microscopy...
March 5, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38410866/a-simple-and-effective-genotyping-workflow-for-rapid-detection-of-crispr-genome-editing
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lingxiang Wang, Jiale Wang, Dongfeng Feng, Bin Wang, Yasmin Jahan-Mihan, Ying Wang, Yan Bi, Do Young Lim, Baoan Ji
Genetically engineered mouse models play a pivotal role in the modeling of diseases, exploration of gene functions, and the development of novel therapies. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology has revolutionized the process of developing such models by enabling precise genome modifications of the multiple interested genes simultaneously. Following genome editing, an efficient genotyping methodology is crucial for subsequent characterization. However, current genotyping methods are laborious, time-consuming, and costly...
February 27, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38375587/lipidomic-signatures-discriminate-subtle-hepatic-changes-in-the-progression-of-porcine-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Roberto Martínez-Beamonte, Carmen Arnal, Cristina Barranquero, Juan J Puente-Lanzarote, José M Lou-Bonafonte, Gonzalo Gonzalo-Romeo, Gabriele Mocciaro, Benjamin Jenkins, Joaquin C Surra, María J Rodríguez-Yoldi, Víctor Alastrué-Vera, Jesús Letosa, Agustín García-Gil, Antonio Güemes, Albert Koulman, Jesús Osada
Recently, the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in common strains of pigs has been achieved using a diet high in saturated fat, fructose, cholesterol and cholate and deficient in choline and methionine. The aim of the present work was to characterize the hepatic and plasma lipidomic changes that accompany the progression of NASH and its reversal by switching pigs back to a chow diet. One month of this extreme steatotic diet was sufficient to induce porcine NASH. The lipidomic platform using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyzed 467 lipid species...
February 20, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38375576/the-effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-on-gastric-electrical-activity-and-sensorimotor-function-in-healthy-volunteers-a-double-blinded-crossover-study
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
I-Hsuan Huang, Jolien Schol, Stefan Calder, Armen A Gharibans, Karen Van den Houte, Annelies Verheyden, Bert Broeders, Florencia Carbone, Gregory O'Grady, Jan Tack
Biopsychosocial factors are associated with disorders of gut brain interaction and exacerbate gastrointestinal symptoms. The mechanisms underlying pathophysiological alterations of stress remain unclear. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central regulator of the hormonal stress response and has diverse impact on different organ systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of peripheral CRH infusion on meal-related gastrointestinal symptoms, gastric electrical activity and gastric sensorimotor function in healthy volunteers (HVs)...
February 20, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38349781/a-mathematical-model-of-enac-and-slc26a6-regulation-by-cftr-in-salivary-gland-ducts
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shan Su, Amanda Wahl, John Rugis, Vinod Suresh, David Yule, James Sneyd
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by the mutations of CFTR, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Cftr is a critical ion channel expressed in the apical membrane of mouse salivary gland striated duct cells. Although Cftr is primarily a Cl- channel, its knockout leads to higher salivary Cl- and Na+ concentrations and lower pH. Mouse experiments show that the activation of Cftr up-regulates ENaC (Epithelial Na+ Channel) protein expression level and Slc26a6 (a 1Cl- : 2HCO3 - exchanger of the solute carrier family) activity...
February 13, 2024: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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