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2 Minute Medicine ® - Sports Medicine

Collection of high-impact paper summaries that have been hand-picked, written and peer-reviewed by practicing clinicians. Provides 2 minute summarization and application to bedside care. Updated weekly.

https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001963/quantifying-the-reduction-of-primary-breast-cancer-associated-with-exercise
#1
SUMMARY
Simon Pan, Alex Chan
1. Across a follow-up period of approximately 5 years, there was a non-linear relationship between exercise at breast cancer diagnosis and distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI), with greater exercise exposure up to a certain threshold correlating with greater reductions in the risk of recurrence. 2. The relationship between the level of exercise at diagnosis and DRFI events was only observed in the premenopausal population and not the postmenopausal population. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) While studies have shown that exercise both before and after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is associated with reduced mortality, the association between exercise and disease recurrence after BC diagnosis has not been thoroughly investigated...
June 16, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001699/wearing-a-mask-during-high-intensity-exercise-did-not-impact-hemodynamics-during-exercise
#2
SUMMARY
Flaviu Trifoi
1. In a healthy population, wearing a mask during high-intensity exercise does not change hemodynamic response during exercise. 2. In a healthy population, wearing a mask during high-intensity exercise causes an increase in heart rate during the recovery period after exercise. Evidence rating level: 1b The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was very challenging for countless people. With the mental health challenges that this virus presented, a large proportion of individuals became more sedentary. Exercise opportunities such as sports events were halted due to social distancing regulations...
January 23, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001698/vascular-function-improvements-derived-from-exercise-are-not-sex-dependent
#3
SUMMARY
Flaviu Trifoi
1. The exercise training prevented increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol which were observed in the non-exercise group and this positive change was not dependent on sex. 2. Changes in visceral fat and lean fat-free mass in response to exercise were dependent on sex. Evidence Rating Level: 1b One of the leading causes of morbidity in older individuals can be attributed to cardiovascular (CV) causes. As such, an emphasis on lifestyle modifications, namely exercise, has been a large part of reducing the incidence of such diseases...
January 22, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001640/supplemental-oxygen-impacts-the-muscular-response-to-exercise-in-non-hypoxemic-copd-patients
#4
SUMMARY
Flaviu Trifoi, Ashley Jackson
1. In this randomized controlled trial, patients who received supplemental oxygen with their combined endurance and strength training routine showed significant increases in peak work rate compared to those who received medical air. 2. Furthermore, those who received supplemental oxygen showed significant increases in total quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area compared to those who received medical air. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) is a lung condition caused by obstruction of small airways and lung parenchymal destruction, leading to shortness of breath and other respiratory symptoms...
December 19, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001639/low-to-moderate-intensity-exercise-for-1-hour-attenuates-lipid-levels-and-insulin-resistance
#5
SUMMARY
Flaviu Trifoi, Ashley Jackson
1. This randomized controlled trial found that compared to no exercise, low-intensity exercise on a treadmill for 1 hour significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels following a fat-rich meal that was ingested 12 hours post-exercise. 2. Furthermore, when compared to no exercise, moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill for 1 hour significantly reduced insulin resistance following a fatty-rich meal ingested 12 hours post-exercise. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide...
December 18, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001588/combined-aerobic-and-strength-training-most-effective-for-improving-diabetes-outcomes
#6
SUMMARY
Soroush Nedaie, Alex Chan
1. This randomized pilot study demonstrates that fasting blood glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) were significantly improved with aerobic training, strength training, or combined aerobic plus strength training, compared with the control group in patients with T2DM. 2. The combined exercise intervention was the most successful in altering these parameters. Evidence Rating Level : 1 (Excellent) Diabetes mellitus affects 382 million adults globally, projected to increase to 439 million by 2030, with 85–95% being T2DM...
November 21, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001568/chronic-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-increase-maximum-fat-oxidation-in-adults-with-overweight-and-obesity
#7
SUMMARY
Flaviu Trifoi, Ashley Jackson
1. In this meta-analysis, both high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training showed a significant improvement in maximum fat oxidation compared to controls in patients with overweight and obesity. 2. Furthermore, there was a significant dose-response effect between exercise intensity and maximum fat oxidation during moderate-intensity continuous training. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) High body mass index (BMI) is well-known to increase the risk and worsen the prognosis of a multitude of diseases...
November 14, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001559/structured-exercise-interventions-led-to-improvements-in-mild-to-moderate-mental-health-problems-in-adolescents
#8
SUMMARY
Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review, adolescents (aged 10-19 years) showed clinical improvements in mild to moderate anxiety and depression in response to structured exercise. 2. Furthermore, the self-selected intensity of the structured exercise intervention impacted the enjoyment and commitment of individuals. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Many adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health disorders, including, but not limited to, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Current treatments, which include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medications, and other psychosocial therapies, are associated with challenges regarding adherence and lack of efficacy...
November 10, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001534/higher-intensity-exercise-associated-with-greater-decrease-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-risk
#9
SUMMARY
Donika Yakoub, Alex Chan
1. This analysis of a population-based cohort found that those who engaged in high and moderate decreasing amounts of vigorous physical activity (VPA) over twenty-five years decreased their relative risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by 41%, emphasizing that vigorous (as opposed to moderate) physical activity in early adulthood provided the most benefit.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Chronic liver disease is most commonly attributed to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the current primary therapeutic and preventative recommendations for this condition include lifestyle modification...
October 25, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001499/elements-of-the-built-environment-influence-physical-activity-behaviors-in-older-adults
#10
SUMMARY
Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, traffic safety and destination accessibility were the factors of the built environment most significantly associated with physical activity (PA) behavior in older adults. 2. However, mixed land use and the quality of pedestrian and commercial facilities were factors of the built environment that were not associated with PA behaviors in older adults. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Physical activity (PA) has several health benefits, especially in older populations, which can promote improvements in mental and physical function...
October 10, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001496/a-daily-physical-activity-intervention-improves-the-health-related-fitness-status-of-primary-school-children
#11
SUMMARY
Ashley Jackson
1. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, children who received a daily physical activity (PA) intervention showed improvements in waist-to-height ratio, cardiorespiratory endurance, lower body muscle strength, lower body muscle endurance, and flexibility compared to the control group. 2. Furthermore, children without sports club membership showed more pronounced improvements in cardiorespiratory endurance and flexibility, indicating that this population may benefit the most from daily PA in school. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Physical activity (PA) is an important determinant of fitness and can have various long-term health benefits, especially in children and adolescents...
October 9, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001407/survivors-of-childhood-cancer-are-less-active-than-their-peers
#12
SUMMARY
Alex Gipsman
1. In a cross-sectional study, adolescent survivors of childhood cancers were more sedentary than age-matched controls. 2. Age, gender, BMI, cancer relapse, and central nervous system tumors were all associated with less physical activity and more sedentary time. Evidence rating: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for chronic medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.  Higher levels of physical activity are associated with a variety of long-term health benefits and an improved quality of life in the general population...
August 30, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001404/many-exercise-modalities-are-effective-treatments-for-hypertension
#13
SUMMARY
Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, aerobic exercise training, dynamic resistance training, combined training, high-intensity interval training, and isometric exercise training were all associated with significant reductions in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. 2. However, isometric wall squatting was the most effective exercise for reducing systolic blood pressure, while running was most effective for lowering diastolic blood pressure. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) It is well known that exercise is an effective non-pharmacological treatment for hypertension...
August 29, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001402/there-remains-a-significant-intention-behavior-gap-in-physical-activity
#14
SUMMARY
Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the intention-behavior gap in physical activity was 47.6%. 2. Furthermore, a very low proportion of non-intenders engaged in physical activity, indicating that intention is an important first step toward the behavior. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Physical activity has several important health benefits. However, a large percentage of the population worldwide does not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Promoting physical activity is an essential step in improving these statistics...
August 28, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001351/aerobic-physical-activity-and-muscle-strengthening-may-help-reduce-mortality-from-influenza-and-pneumonia
#15
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this prospective cohort study, those who met aerobic and strength training recommendations had a significantly lower risk of influenza and pneumonia mortality than those who met neither guideline. 2. As for muscle strengthening, compared to those who engaged in <2 episodes per week, those who engaged in 2 episodes of strength training had a lower risk of influenza and pneumonia mortality, while those with ≥7 episodes/week had a higher risk. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) The importance of physical activity may extend beyond cardiovascular, neurological, and cancer risk modification...
August 2, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001349/the-use-of-combined-hormonal-contraceptives-may-not-protect-against-musculoskeletal-pathologies
#16
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review, there was limited data to support the use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) to prevent musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. 2. There was also low-certainty evidence to suggest that CHC use was associated with higher risks of future fracture and total knee arthroplasty. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) It is known that women typically experience more musculoskeletal (MSK) pain and chronic MSK conditions compared to men. Some have postulated that these sex differences may be related to their menstrual status...
August 1, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001345/increased-physical-activity-may-reduce-the-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-irrespective-of-genetic-risk
#17
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this prospective cohort study, it was found that those with the highest levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) had the lowest risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM), independent of genetic risk. 2. However, there was an additive interaction between MVPA and genetic risk, suggesting a greater effect of MVPA among those at a higher genetic risk for T2DM. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Physical activity remains a mainstay in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, such recommendations have been founded mainly on self-reported measurements...
July 31, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001344/higher-cardiorespiratory-fitness-may-be-protective-against-breast-cancer-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this prospective cohort study, higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was associated with a substantially lower risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. 2. However, this protective effect of high CRF was only seen in those with overweight/obesity or a higher body fat percentage. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Several risk factors exist for developing breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal women. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) represents a modifiable risk factor that may affect the risk of developing breast cancer...
July 28, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001269/physical-activity-may-improve-the-reproductive-function-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#19
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, physical activity improved the reproductive outcomes of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), whether used alone or in combination with other interventions. 2. In addition, physical activity was associated with improvements in psychological factors in women with PCOS. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Issues with fertility are common and distressing for women diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Physical activity is often recommended to PCOS patients to maintain a healthy body weight and improve insulin sensitivity...
June 28, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001264/physical-activity-improves-mental-well-being-after-traumatic-events
#20
SUMMARY
Nicholas Ng Fat Hing, Ashley Jackson
1. In this systematic review, physical activity levels were correlated with improvements in mental well-being and various mental health symptoms after traumatic events. 2. Conversely, those who did not engage in physical activity had worsened mental health symptoms and experienced more relational problems following traumatic events. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Recent studies have suggested that physical activity may have a unique role in maintaining both physical and mental health in several mental health disorders...
June 27, 2023: 2 Minute Medicine
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