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Zachary J Farino, Travis J Morgenstern, Antonella Maffei, Matthias Quick, Alain J De Solis, Pattama Wiriyasermkul, Robin J Freyberg, Despoina Aslanoglou, Denise Sorisio, Benjamin P Inbar, R Benjamin Free, Prashant Donthamsetti, Eugene V Mosharov, Christoph Kellendonk, Gary J Schwartz, David R Sibley, Claudia Schmauss, Lori M Zeltser, Holly Moore, Paul E Harris, Jonathan A Javitch, Zachary Freyberg
Although long-studied in the central nervous system, there is increasing evidence that dopamine (DA) has important roles in the periphery including in metabolic regulation. Insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells express the machinery for DA synthesis and catabolism, as well as all five DA receptors. In these cells, DA functions as a negative regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), which is mediated by DA D2 -like receptors including D2 (D2R) and D3 (D3R) receptors. However, the fundamental mechanisms of DA synthesis, storage, release, and signaling in pancreatic β-cells and their functional relevance in vivo remain poorly understood...
January 9, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
James A Frank, Johannes Broichhagen, Dmytro A Yushchenko, Dirk Trauner, Carsten Schultz, David J Hodson
Following stimulation, pancreatic β-cells must orchestrate a plethora of signalling events to ensure the appropriate release of insulin and maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. Failure at any point in this cascade leads to impaired insulin secretion, elevated blood levels of glucose and eventually type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, β-cell replacement or regeneration strategies for the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus might fail if the correct cell signalling phenotype cannot be faithfully recreated...
December 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Brooke J Wanrooy, Kathryn Prame Kumar, Shu Wen Wen, Cheng Xue Qin, Rebecca H Ritchie, Connie H Y Wong
BACKGROUND: High-fat feeding and hyperglycemia, key risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), are emerging to associate with increased risk of developing dementia and cognitive decline. Despite this, clinical and experimental studies have yet to elucidate the specific contributions of either high-fat feeding or hyperglycemia to potential neuroinflammatory components. In this study, we delineate these individual components of MetS in the development of neuroinflammation...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kassem Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Louis Coplan, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Arnon Afek
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. The current paradigm in this disease's etiopathogenesis points toward the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Among the environmental variables, dietary factors, intestinal microbiota, toxins, and psychological stress have been implicated in disease onset. Areas covered: This review aims to investigate the relationship between psychological stress and T1DM by presenting evidence from epidemiological studies, animal models, and to provide the mechanism involved in this association...
October 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Suat Kucukgoncu, Urska Kosir, Elton Zhou, Erin Sullivan, Vinod H Srihari, Cenk Tek
AIM: To compare the differences of glucose metabolism outcomes between treatment-naïve, patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) and mood disorders. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of glucose intolerance in treatment-naïve, first episode patients with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). RESULTS: We identified 31 eligible studies. Compared to healthy controls, FEP group have higher insulin and insulin resistance levels, and both groups have higher glucose tolerance test results...
October 2, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Karel Erion, Barbara E Corkey
This review is motivated by the need to question dogma that has not yielded significant improvements in outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes treatment: that insulin resistance is the driver of ß-Cell failure and resulting hyperglycemia. We highlight the fact that hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia all precede overt diabetes diagnosis and can each induce the other when tested experimentally. New research highlights the importance of high levels of circulating insulin as both a driver of weight gain and insulin resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Thi Thu Huong Do, Garcia Marie, Dalle Héloïse, Dorothée Guillaume, Moldes Marthe, Fève Bruno, Buyse Marion
Insulin resistance is frequently present in patients with glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) or treated with high doses of GCs. Furthermore, others similarities between metabolic syndrome (visceral obesity, elevated blood glucose levels, dyslipidemia) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that GCs could play a role in obesity-linked complications. Here we reported that long-term corticosterone (CORT) exposure in mice induced weight gain, dyslipidemia as well as hyperglycaemia and systemic insulin resistance...
January 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Paranjeet Kaur, Amit Mittal, Surendra Kumar Nayak, Manish Vyas, Vijay Mishra, Gopal L Khatik
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the major concerns worldwide which leads to increased level of blood glucose due to deficiency of insulin and the development of insulin resistance in diabetic individuals. Basically, its impact arises due to rapid urbanization, improper diet intake, and increasingly inactive lifestyle. Diabetic patients develop serious complications with the development of disease at later stages, such as obesity, the risk of stroke and heart failure. Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2018: Current Drug Targets
Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim, Sadiq Neama Al-Kufi, Arafat Hussein Al-Dujaili, Michael Maes
Major depressive disorder (MDD), has been associated with inflammatory processes, including increased cytokine levels, even in individuals who are otherwise physically healthy, while some MDD patients may show insulin resistance (IR). However, correlations between cytokines and IR parameters have not been studied extensively in MDD. In the present study, we measured IL-1β, IL-4, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, insulin and glucose in 63 MDD patients and 27 healthy controls. The associations between cytokine levels and IR were examined...
July 20, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Sai Tian, Rong Huang, Jing Han, Rongrong Cai, Dan Guo, Hongyan Lin, Jiaqi Wang, Shaohua Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are both chronic inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels with the risk of MCI in T2DM patients. We divided recruited T2DM patients into two groups, MCI group and healthy-cognition controls, according to Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Demographic characteristics, clinical parameters and neuropsychological tests were examined. We recruited 202 T2DM patients in this study, including 94 MCI and 108 healthy-cognition controls...
October 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shreyasi Chatterjee, Amritpal Mudher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two of the most prevalent diseases in the elderly population worldwide. A growing body of epidemiological studies suggest that people with T2DM are at a higher risk of developing AD. Likewise, AD brains are less capable of glucose uptake from the surroundings resembling a condition of brain insulin resistance. Pathologically AD is characterized by extracellular plaques of Aβ and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Norman Sartorius
The comorbidity of mental and physical disorders is a major challenge for health care worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing and is likely to continue to grow due to the increase in life expectancy and a variety of other reasons. The comorbidity of depression and diabetes can be seen as a prototypical example of mental/physical comorbidity. The prevalence of both conditions is growing, and depression is twice as frequent in people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. Health services are by and large inadequately prepared to deal with comorbid depression and diabetes, and the increasing specialization (and fragmentation) of medicine will probably make things worse...
March 2018: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Mark P Mattson, Thiruma V Arumugam
During aging, the cellular milieu of the brain exhibits tell-tale signs of compromised bioenergetics, impaired adaptive neuroplasticity and resilience, aberrant neuronal network activity, dysregulation of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis, the accrual of oxidatively modified molecules and organelles, and inflammation. These alterations render the aging brain vulnerable to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and stroke. Emerging findings are revealing mechanisms by which sedentary overindulgent lifestyles accelerate brain aging, whereas lifestyles that include intermittent bioenergetic challenges (exercise, fasting, and intellectual challenges) foster healthy brain aging...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Martin Valdearcos, John D Douglass, Megan M Robblee, Mauricio D Dorfman, Daniel R Stifler, Mariko L Bennett, Irene Gerritse, Rachael Fasnacht, Ben A Barres, Joshua P Thaler, Suneil K Koliwad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Natalie Nanayakkara, Anthony Pease, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Natalie Wischer, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Jane Speight, Barbora de Courten, Sophia Zoungas
This study explores the prevalence of, and factors associated with, likely depression and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes in a large, national sample. Australian National Diabetes Audit data were analysed from adults with type 2 diabetes attending 50 diabetes centres. The Brief Case find for Depression and Diabetes Distress Score 17 were administered to screen for likely depression and diabetes-related distress, respectively. A total of 2,552 adults with type 2 diabetes participated: (mean ± SD) age was 63 ± 13 years, diabetes duration was 12 ± 10 years, and HbA1c was 8 ± 2%...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aditya K Khetan, Sanjay Rajagopalan
The burden of diabetes is expected to rise from 415 million individuals in 2015 to 642 million individuals by 2040. Most individuals pass through a phase of prediabetes before developing full-blown diabetes. Insulin resistance, impaired incretin action, and insulin hypersecretion are central to the pathophysiology of prediabetes. Individuals older than 40 years of age and other high-risk individuals should be screened for diabetes with fasting plasma glucose and/or hemoglobin A1c. For those diagnosed with prediabetes, the goal of treatment should be restoring euglycemia, because there are data showing that restoring normoglycemia during prediabetes and early diabetes can produce lasting remission...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Ana C Andreazza, Andrew A Nierenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, David Artis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: Science
Ines Delgado, Lison Huet, Sandra Dexpert, Cédric Beau, Damien Forestier, Patrick Ledaguenel, Agnès Aubert, Julie Sauvant, Bruno Aouizerate, Eric Magne, Lucile Capuron
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that the risk of depressive symptoms in obesity is potentiated in subjects presenting a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. Inflammation is often considered a defining criteria of metabolic health. However, this factor may drive the association of metabolic health with depressive symptoms given its well-known role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed at determining the relative contribution of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities to depressive symptoms in obesity...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ivana Novak, Anna Solini
Type 2 diabetes is reaching an alarming prevalence worldwide. Its complex pathogenesis certainly includes a pivotal role of low-grade inflammation, which could be triggered by excessive purinergic signaling. In this complex scenario, extracellular ATP impairs the function of two key players: β-cell and adipose tissue. In the former, P2Y and possibly some P2X receptors-ion channels regulate insulin secretion, but it is still debated whether excessive ATP can via P2X receptors impair β-cell function directly or whether cell damage is due to an excessive systemic release of cytokines...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
2018-03-11 11:31:53
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