Collections Diet and Disease - Diet and Di...

Diet and Disease - Diet and Disease Prevention
Qinpeng Bu, Jingkai Zhang, Xiang Guo, Yifei Feng, Huan Yan, Weimin Cheng, Zhitao Feng, Meiqun Cao
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have shown potential antidepressant effects. This study evaluated the effect and probable mechanisms of bifid triple viable capsules (BTVCs) on a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into Normal, CUMS model, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX), BTVCs, and FLX+BTVCs groups. Depressive-like behaviours, pathological changes in the hippocampus, changes in serum metabolites and potential biomarkers, and metabolic pathways were detected via behavioural tests, haematoxylin-eosin staining, nissl staining, non-targetted metabolomics, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2022: Frontiers in Nutrition
Krishaa L, Ted Kheng Siang Ng, Hai Ning Wee, Jianhong Ching
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome (GM) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGB). Alterations in GM composition and diversity have been observed in both animal models and in human patients with AD. GM dysbiosis has been implicated in increased intestinal permeability, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, neuroinflammation and the development of hallmarks of AD...
April 2023: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Maciej Cettler, Marzena Zielińska, Jowita Rosada-Kurasińska, Anna Kubica-Cielińska, Konrad Jarosz, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska
RATIONALE AND SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES Pain is a subjective unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Acute pain occurs irrespective of age and has a prevalence of about 5% of the general population. Surgical procedures and painful diagnostic procedures are the main causes of this unpleasant and dangerous phenomenon for hospitalized children. It should be remembered that maintaining homeostasis in a child undergoing surgery is also affected by provision of an adequate level of analgesia and sedation as well as nerve conduction block within the surgical site...
2022: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Wesley K Lefferts, Mary M Davis, Rudy J Valentine
Age-related chronic diseases are among the most common causes of mortality and account for a majority of global disease burden. Preventative lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, play a critical role in attenuating chronic disease burden. However, the exact mechanism behind exercise as a form of preventative medicine remains poorly defined. Interestingly, many of the physiological responses to exercise are comparable to aging. This paper explores an overarching hypothesis that exercise protects against aging/age-related chronic disease because the physiological stress of exercise mimics aging...
2022: Frontiers in Physiology
Ashley Strzelecki, Jessica Weafer, William W Stoops
Stimulant use disorders present an enduring public health concern. Chronic stimulant use is associated with a range of health problems, with notable increases in stimulant overdose that disproportionately affect marginalized populations. With these persistent problems, it is important to understand the behavioral and pharmacological factors that contribute to stimulant use in humans. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an update and narrative review on recent human laboratory research that has evaluated the behavioral pharmacology of stimulant drugs...
2022: Advances in Pharmacology
Jiseung Kang, Mincheol Park, Eunkyung Lee, Jieun Jung, Tae Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation and cognitive mental decline. Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between low serum vitamin D levels and an increased risk of AD. Vitamin D regulates gene expression via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear ligand-dependent transcription factor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenic and therapeutic effects of vitamin D on AD is not fully understood yet. To better understand how vitamin D regulates the expression of genes related to AD pathology, first, we induced vitamin D deficiency in 5xFAD mice by providing a vitamin-D-deficient diet and observed the changes in the mRNA level of genes related to Aβ processing, which resulted in an increase in the Aβ load in the brain...
July 28, 2022: Biomedicines
Suzie Lavoie, Micah M Murray, Patricia Deppen, Maria G Knyazeva, Michael Berk, Olivier Boulat, Pierre Bovet, Ashley I Bush, Philippe Conus, David Copolov, Eleonora Fornari, Reto Meuli, Alessandra Solida, Pascal Vianin, Michel Cuénod, Thierry Buclin, Kim Q Do
In schizophrenia patients, glutathione dysregulation at the gene, protein and functional levels, leads to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. These patients also exhibit deficits in auditory sensory processing that manifests as impaired mismatch negativity (MMN), which is an auditory evoked potential (AEP) component related to NMDA receptor function. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, was administered to patients to determine whether increased levels of brain glutathione would improve MMN and by extension NMDA function...
August 2008: Neuropsychopharmacology
Yonela Ntamo, Khanyisani Ziqubu, Nireshni Chellan, Bongani B Nkambule, Tawanda M Nyambuya, Sithandiwe E Mazibuko-Mbeje, Kwazikwakhe B Gabuza, Fabio Marcheggiani, Luca Tiano, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla
Oxidative stress is a key pathological feature implicated in both acute and chronic liver diseases, including drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The latter describes hepatic injury arising as a direct toxic effect of administered drugs or their metabolites. Although still underreported, DILI remains a significant cause of liver failure, especially in developed nations. Currently, it is understood that mitochondrial-generated oxidative stress and abnormalities in phase I/II metabolism, leading to glutathione (GSH) suppression, drive the onset of DILI...
2021: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Han-Jie Liu, Lei Wang, Lin Kang, Juan Du, Sha Li, Hui-Xian Cui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sulforaphane-N-acetyl-cysteine (SFN-NAC) is a sulforaphane (SFN) metabolite with a longer half-life and better blood-brain barrier permeability than those of SFN. Previous studies have found that SFN-NAC can act via ERK to destroy microtubules and inhibit cell growth in lung cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and it is unknown whether SFN-NAC can inhibit the growth of glioma. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time that SFN-NAC activates autophagy-mediated downregulation of α-tubulin expression via the ERK pathway...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Nafisseh S Warner, Matthew A Warner, Julie L Cunningham, Halena M Gazelka, W Michael Hooten, Bhanu Prakash Kolla, David O Warner
The use of buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, for the management of chronic pain and/or opioid use disorder is increasing. As such, medical providers will more frequently encounter patients on this therapy. In this paper, we synthesize existing knowledge (derived through keyword searches using MEDLINE databases) in a novel conceptual framework for patients on buprenorphine presenting with acute pain or for those requiring surgical or invasive procedures. This framework is based on three unique domains: the patient, the features of the acute pain insult, and the environment...
June 2020: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
In Young Kim, Min June Shim, Dong Min Lee, A Reum Lee, Mi Ae Kim, Mi Jin Yoon, Mi Ri Kwon, Hae In Lee, Min Ji Seo, Yong Won Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi
Although the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib (Btz) is in current clinical use as a front-line treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical efficacy in solid tumors has not been satisfactory. Here, we show that loperamide (Lop), an antidiarrheal drug, effectively sensitizes various colon cancer cells, but not normal epithelial cells, to PI-mediated cell death. We report that combined treatment with Btz and Lop induces paraptosis-like cell death accompanied by severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuolation...
April 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kendall D Jeynes, E Leigh Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a prerequisite for health; yet, there is no special nutritional assessment or guidance for drug and alcohol dependent individuals, despite the fact that their food consumption is often very limited, risking malnutrition. Further, the premise is examined that malnutrition may promote drug seeking and impede recovery from substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD: A narrative review addressed the relationship between substance use disorders and nutrition, including evidence for malnutrition, as well as their impact on metabolism and appetite regulation...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rasnik K Singh, Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Kristina M Lee, Derya Ucmak, Kirsten Wong, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Mio Nakamura, Tian Hao Zhu, Tina Bhutani, Wilson Liao
Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lucy Chen, Andreas Michalsen
Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) encompasses both Western-style medicine and complementary health approaches as a new combined approach to treat a variety of clinical conditions. Chronic pain is the leading indication for use of CIM, and about 33% of adults and 12% of children in the US have used it in this context. Although advances have been made in treatments for chronic pain, it remains inadequately controlled for many people. Adverse effects and complications of analgesic drugs, such as addiction, kidney failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding, also limit their use...
April 24, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jia Wang, Xutong Li, Dongfeng Zhang
Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the results remain controversial. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant articles published up to October 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. A total of 16 articles were eligible for this meta-analysis...
February 27, 2016: Nutrients
Peter Burckhardt
Vegetarian and vegan diets contain low amounts of protein and calcium. For this reason they are supposed to cause low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. But this is not the case, except for vegans with a particularly low calcium intake. The absence of osteoporosis or low BMD can be explained by the low acid load of these diets. Nutritional acid load is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with fracture risk. Low acid load is correlated with lower bone resorption and higher BMD...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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