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Diabetes prevention

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By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
Lars Bo Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Vanita R Aroda, Sharon L Edelstein, Ronald B Goldberg, William C Knowler, Santica M Marcovina, Trevor J Orchard, George A Bray, David S Schade, Marinella G Temprosa, Neil H White, Jill P Crandall
CONTEXT: Vitamin B12 deficiency may occur with metformin treatment, but few studies have assessed risk with long-term use. OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of B12 deficiency with metformin use in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)/DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). DESIGN: Secondary analysis from the DPP/DPPOS. Participants were assigned to the placebo group (PLA) (n = 1082) or the metformin group (MET) (n = 1073) for 3.2 years; subjects in the metformin group received open-label metformin for an additional 9 years...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Diabetes Care
Francesca Cinti, Ryotaro Bouchi, Ja Young Kim-Muller, Yoshiaki Ohmura, P R Sandoval, Matilde Masini, Lorella Marselli, Mara Suleiman, Lloyd E Ratner, Piero Marchetti, Domenico Accili
CONTEXT: Diabetes is associated with a deficit of insulin-producing β-cells. Animal studies show that β-cells become dedifferentiated in diabetes, reverting to a progenitor-like stage, and partly converting to other endocrine cell types. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether similar processes occur in human type 2 diabetes, we surveyed pancreatic islets from 15 diabetic and 15 nondiabetic organ donors. DESIGN: We scored dedifferentiation using markers of endocrine lineage, β-cell-specific transcription factors, and a newly identified endocrine progenitor cell marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Simona Panunzi, Lena Carlsson, Andrea De Gaetano, Markku Peltonen, Toni Rice, Lars Sjöström, Geltrude Mingrone, John B Dixon
OBJECTIVE: Eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery in diabetes include BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and poorly controlled glycemia. However, BMI does not predict diabetes remission, and thus, predictors need to be identified. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven hundred twenty-seven patients were included in a database merged from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study and two randomized controlled studies, with 415 surgical and 312 medical patients in total. Bariatric operations were divided into gastric only (GO) and gastric plus diversion (GD)...
January 2016: Diabetes Care
Symen Ligthart, Thijs T W van Herpt, Maarten J G Leening, Maryam Kavousi, Albert Hofman, Bruno H C Stricker, Mandy van Hoek, Eric J G Sijbrands, Oscar H Franco, Abbas Dehghan
BACKGROUND: Data are scarce for the lifetime risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism, including prediabetes, as are data for the risk of eventual progression from prediabetes to diabetes and for initiation of insulin treatment in previously untreated patients with diabetes. We aimed to calculate the lifetime risk of the full range of glucose impairments, from normoglycaemia to prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and eventual insulin use. METHODS: In this prospective population-based cohort analysis, we used data from the population-based Rotterdam Study...
January 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Robert Ross, Robert Hudson, Paula J Stotz, Miu Lam
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. DESIGN: 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. ( NCT00955071). SETTING: Kingston, Ontario, Canada...
March 3, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Hajime Yamazaki, Toru Tsuboya, Kunihiko Tsuji, Mitsuru Dohke, Hiroyuki Maguchi
OBJECTIVE: Only a few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and none have examined whether NAFLD improvement reduces T2DM incidence. We investigated the association between NAFLD improvement and T2DM incidence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 2000 and 2012, 4,604 participants who underwent a health check twice with >10 years between were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were positive hepatitis B surface antigen, positive hepatitis C antibody, ethanol intake >20 g/day, and diabetes...
September 2015: Diabetes Care
Jie Li, Hao Ma, Lixin Na, Shuo Jiang, Lin Lv, Gang Li, Wei Zhang, Guanqiong Na, Ying Li, Changhao Sun
CONTEXT: It is unclear why the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, especially prediabetes, between diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria, is substantially discordant. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of obesity on the agreement between HbA1c and OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes and identify the optimal HbA1c cutoff values in different body mass index (BMI) classifications. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In a population-based, cross-sectional study in Harbin, China, 4325 individuals aged 20-74 years without a prior diagnosed diabetes were involved in this study...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kari Johansson, Sven Cnattingius, Ingmar Näslund, Nathalie Roos, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Fredrik Granath, Olof Stephansson, Martin Neovius
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of gestational diabetes, large-for-gestational-age infants, preterm birth, congenital malformations, and stillbirth. The risks of these outcomes among women who have undergone bariatric surgery are unclear. METHODS: We identified 627,693 singleton pregnancies in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 2006 through 2011, of which 670 occurred in women who had previously undergone bariatric surgery and for whom presurgery weight was documented...
February 26, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Gilad Twig, Israel Gluzman, Amir Tirosh, Hertzel C Gerstein, Gal Yaniv, Arnon Afek, Estela Derazne, Dorit Tzur, Avraham Karasik, Barak Gordon, Eyal Fruchter, Gadi Lubin, Assaf Rudich, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a risk factor for an accelerated rate of cognitive decline and dementia. However, the relationship between cognitive function and the subsequent development of diabetes is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a historical-prospective cohort study merging data collected at premilitary recruitment assessment with information collected at the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. Included were men aged 25 years or older without a history of diabetes at the beginning of follow-up with available data regarding their general intelligence score (GIS), a comprehensive measure of cognitive function, at age 17 years...
November 2014: Diabetes Care
Kristine Færch, Nanna B Johansen, Daniel R Witte, Torsten Lauritzen, Marit E Jørgensen, Dorte Vistisen
CONTEXT: There is little overlap between diabetes diagnosed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood glucose, and it is unclear which pathophysiological defects are captured when using HbA1c for diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We examined and compared the relationship between insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in different subphenotypes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional analysis of the Danish ADDITION-PRO study was performed (n = 1713)...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wei Bao, Deirdre K Tobias, Katherine Bowers, Jorge Chavarro, Allan Vaag, Louise Groth Grunnet, Marin Strøm, James Mills, Aiyi Liu, Michele Kiely, Cuilin Zhang
IMPORTANCE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The identification of important modifiable factors could help prevent T2DM in this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of physical activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors in the progression from GDM to T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 4554 women from the Nurses' Health Study II who had a history of GDM, as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study...
July 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Mònica Bulló, Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, Maria-Isabel Covas, Núria Ibarrola-Jurado, Dolores Corella, Fernando Arós, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Dora Romaguera, José Lapetra, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventós, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Josep Basora, Miguel Angel Muñoz, José V Sorlí, Miguel A Martínez-González
BACKGROUND: Interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether dietary changes without calorie restriction also protect from diabetes has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of Mediterranean diets for the primary prevention of diabetes in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial, from October 2003 to December 2010 (median follow-up, 4.1 years). DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized trial...
January 7, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Roeland J W Middelbeek, Martin J Abrahamson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Katherine Esposito, Maria Ida Maiorino, Michela Petrizzo, Giuseppe Bellastella, Dario Giugliano
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effects of dietary interventions on glycemic control, need for diabetes medications, and remission of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Originally, in a two-arm trial design, overweight, middle-aged men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a low-carbohydrate Mediterranean diet (LCMD; n = 108) or a low-fat diet (n = 107). After 4 years, participants who were still free of diabetes medications were further followed up until the primary end point (need of a diabetic drug); remission of diabetes (partial or complete) and changes in weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated...
July 2014: Diabetes Care
Philippe A Halban, Kenneth S Polonsky, Donald W Bowden, Meredith A Hawkins, Charlotte Ling, Kieren J Mather, Alvin C Powers, Christopher J Rhodes, Lori Sussel, Gordon C Weir
OBJECTIVE: This article examines the foundation of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and suggests areas for future research on the underlying mechanisms that may lead to improved prevention and treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A group of experts participated in a conference on 14-16 October 2013 cosponsored by the Endocrine Society and the American Diabetes Association. A writing group prepared this summary and recommendations. RESULTS: The writing group based this article on conference presentations, discussion, and debate...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Marie-France Hivert, Jason L Vassy, James B Meigs
Knowledge of the genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has evolved tremendously over the past few years. Following advances in technology and analytical approaches, collaborative case-control genome-wide association studies have revealed up to 65 loci credibly associated with T2DM. Prospective population studies have demonstrated that aggregated genetic risk scores, so-called because they sum the genetic risk attributed to each locus, can predict incident T2DM among individuals of various age ranges and diverse ethnic backgrounds...
April 2014: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium is testing interventions designed to preserve or improve β-cell function in prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: β-Cell function is measured using hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). The adult medication protocol randomizes participants to 12 months of placebo, metformin alone, liraglutide plus metformin, or insulin (3 months) followed by metformin (9 months)...
2014: Diabetes Care
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