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By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
Una Fairbrother, Elliot Kidd, Tanya Malagamuwa, Andrew Walley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to present current information on genes underlying severe obesity, with the main emphasis on the three genes LEP, LEPR and MC4R. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a substantial amount of evidence that variants in at least ten different genes are the cause of severe monogenic obesity. The majority of these are involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling pathway. Due to the frequency of some of the identified variants, it is clear that monogenic variants also make a significant contribution to common obesity...
August 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Deirdre K Tobias, Frank B Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Krishnan Bhaskaran, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, David A Leon, Ian J Douglas, Liam Smeeth
BACKGROUND: BMI is known to be strongly associated with all-cause mortality, but few studies have been large enough to reliably examine associations between BMI and a comprehensive range of cause-specific mortality outcomes. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we used UK primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to national mortality registration data and fitted adjusted Cox regression models to examine associations between BMI and all-cause mortality, and between BMI and a comprehensive range of cause-specific mortality outcomes (recorded by International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10] codes)...
December 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Shan Geng Weng, Bin Zhang, Xiaojian Wang, Hao Chen
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), new bilio-pancreatic diversion (NBPD), and duodenal-jejunal exclusion (DJE) on blood glucose in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high glucose, high fat food, and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to establish a T2DM animal model. T2DM rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: a sham group (n = 8), DJB group (n = 9), NBPD group (n = 10), and DJE group (n = 10)...
August 2017: Obesity Surgery
John M Jakicic, Kelliann K Davis, Renee J Rogers, Wendy C King, Marsha D Marcus, Diane Helsel, Amy D Rickman, Abdus S Wahed, Steven H Belle
Importance: Effective long-term treatments are needed to address the obesity epidemic. Numerous wearable technologies specific to physical activity and diet are available, but it is unclear if these are effective at improving weight loss. Objective: To test the hypothesis that, compared with a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (standard intervention), a technology-enhanced weight loss intervention (enhanced intervention) would result in greater weight loss...
September 20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Senthil K Vasan, Fredrik Karpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Kristina H Lewis, Shenelle A Edwards-Hampton, Jamy D Ard
There are clear and persistent disparities in obesity prevalence within the USA. Some of these disparities fall along racial/ethnic lines; however, there are a number of other social and demographic constructs where obesity disparities are present. In addition to differing rates of obesity across groups, there is growing evidence that subgroups of patients both seek out and respond to obesity treatment differently. This review article explores the epidemiology of obesity disparities, as well as the existing evidence around how different groups may respond to behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies, and potential reasons for differential uptake and response, from culture, to access, to physiology...
June 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Daniel Bessesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Obesity
Caroline M Apovian, Louis J Aronne, Daniel H Bessesen, Marie E McDonnell, M Hassan Murad, Uberto Pagotto, Donna H Ryan, Christopher D Still
OBJECTIVE: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological management of obesity. PARTICIPANTS: An Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This guideline was co-sponsored by the European Society of Endocrinology and The Obesity Society. EVIDENCE: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
W Scott Butsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lifestyle modification remains the mainstay of treatment for obesity despite the lack of substantial long-term efficacy. For many who do not respond to lifestyle therapy and are not candidates for weight loss surgery, pharmacotherapy is a viable treatment option. Advances in understanding mechanisms of appetite control, nutrient sensing, and energy expenditure have not only helped shape current drug development but have also changed the way in which antiobesity medications are prescribed...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Joshua M Sharfstein, Bruce M Psaty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Steven E Nissen, Kathy E Wolski, Lisa Prcela, Thomas Wadden, John B Buse, George Bakris, Alfonso Perez, Steven R Smith
IMPORTANCE: Few cardiovascular outcomes trials have been conducted for obesity treatments. Withdrawal of 2 marketed drugs has resulted in controversy about the cardiovascular safety of obesity agents. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the combination of naltrexone and bupropion increases major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, or nonfatal myocardial infarction) compared with placebo in overweight and obese patients...
March 8, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Daniel A Winer, Helen Luck, Sue Tsai, Shawn Winer
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chronic inflammation in metabolic tissues such as adipose tissue and the liver. Recently, growing evidence has implicated the intestinal immune system as an important contributor to metabolic disease. Obesity predisposes to altered intestinal immunity and is associated with changes to the gut microbiota, intestinal barrier function, gut-residing innate and adaptive immune cells, and oral tolerance to luminal antigens. Accordingly, the gut immune system may represent a novel therapeutic target for systemic inflammation in insulin resistance...
March 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Adam E Locke, Bratati Kahali, Sonja I Berndt, Anne E Justice, Tune H Pers, Felix R Day, Corey Powell, Sailaja Vedantam, Martin L Buchkovich, Jian Yang, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Tonu Esko, Tove Fall, Teresa Ferreira, Stefan Gustafsson, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Joshua C Randall, Thomas W Winkler, Andrew R Wood, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jessica D Faul, Jennifer A Smith, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Jin Chen, Rudolf Fehrmann, Åsa K Hedman, Juha Karjalainen, Ellen M Schmidt, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Denise Anderson, Marian Beekman, Jennifer L Bolton, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Steven Buyske, Ayse Demirkan, Guohong Deng, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne U Jackson, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Sarah E Medland, Michael A Nalls, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Marjolein J Peters, Inga Prokopenko, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Aaron Isaacs, Eva Albrecht, Johan Ärnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Antony P Attwood, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Isabelita N Bas, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Roza Blagieva, Matthias Blüher, Stefan Böhringer, Lori L Bonnycastle, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Ida H Caspersen, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Robert Clarke, E Warwick Daw, Anton J M de Craen, Graciela Delgado, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Niina Eklund, Karol Estrada, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Ross M Fraser, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Bruna Gigante, Alan S Go, Alain Golay, Alison H Goodall, Scott D Gordon, Mathias Gorski, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher J Groves, Gaëlle Gusto, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Goran Hallmans, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Christian Hengstenberg, Oddgeir Holmen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Alan L James, Janina M Jeff, Åsa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Leena Kinnunen, Wolfgang Koenig, Markku Koskenvuo, Wolfgang Kratzer, Jaana Laitinen, Claudia Lamina, Karin Leander, Nanette R Lee, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Ken Sin Lo, Stéphane Lobbens, Roberto Lorbeer, Yingchang Lu, François Mach, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Wendy L McArdle, Stela McLachlan, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Evelin Mihailov, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Antonella Mulas, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Markus M Nöthen, Ilja M Nolte, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Rainer Rettig, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, William R Scott, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Amy J Swift, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Sian-Tsung Tan, Bamidele O Tayo, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Hae-Won Uh, Liesbeth Vandenput, Frank C Verhulst, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Helen R Warren, Dawn Waterworth, Michael N Weedon, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Eoin P Brennan, Murim Choi, Zari Dastani, Alexander W Drong, Per Eriksson, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Jesper R Gådin, Ali G Gharavi, Michael E Goddard, Robert E Handsaker, Jinyan Huang, Fredrik Karpe, Sekar Kathiresan, Sarah Keildson, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Michiaki Kubo, Jong-Young Lee, Liming Liang, Richard P Lifton, Baoshan Ma, Steven A McCarroll, Amy J McKnight, Josine L Min, Miriam F Moffatt, Grant W Montgomery, Joanne M Murabito, George Nicholson, Dale R Nyholt, Yukinori Okada, John R B Perry, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Eva Reinmaa, Rany M Salem, Niina Sandholm, Robert A Scott, Lisette Stolk, Atsushi Takahashi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Ferdinand M van 't Hooft, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Wei Zheng, Krina T Zondervan, Andrew C Heath, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, John Blangero, Pascal Bovet, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Giancarlo Cesana, Aravinda Chakravarti, Daniel I Chasman, Peter S Chines, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, Daniele Cusi, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Anna F Dominiczak, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Stephan B Felix, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Oscar H Franco, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Thomas Illig, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Berit Johansen, Pekka Jousilahti, J Wouter Jukema, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Paul Knekt, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Valeriya Lyssenko, Satu Männistö, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Colin A McKenzie, Barbara McKnight, Frans L Moll, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Pamela A F Madden, Gerard Pasterkamp, John F Peden, Annette Peters, Dirkje S Postma, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Paul M Ridker, John D Rioux, Marylyn D Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Heribert Schunkert, Peter E H Schwarz, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Ronald P Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Anke Tönjes, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, Uwe Völker, Gérard Waeber, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline C Witteman, M Carola Zillikens, Linda S Adair, Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Stefan R Bornstein, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimaki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Andres Metspalu, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Fernando Rivadeneira, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, Naveed Sattar, Eric E Schadt, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Mark Walker, Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, David R Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S Fox, Iris M Heid, Jeffrey R O'Connell, David P Strachan, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Lude Franke, Timothy M Frayling, Mark I McCarthy, Peter M Visscher, André Scherag, Cristen J Willer, Michael Boehnke, Karen L Mohlke, Cecilia M Lindgren, Jacques S Beckmann, Inês Barroso, Kari E North, Erik Ingelsson, Joel N Hirschhorn, Ruth J F Loos, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes...
February 12, 2015: Nature
Kristy Breuhl Smith, Michael Seth Smith
Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese...
March 2016: Primary Care
George A Bray, Gema Frühbeck, Donna H Ryan, John P H Wilding
A modern approach to obesity acknowledges the multifactorial determinants of weight gain and the health benefits to be derived from weight loss. Foundational to any weight loss effort is lifestyle change, diet, and increased physical activity. The approach should be a high quality diet to which patients will adhere accompanied by an exercise prescription describing frequency, intensity, type, and time with a minimum of 150 min moderate weekly activity. For patients who struggle with weight loss and who would receive health benefit from weight loss, management of medications that are contributing to weight gain and use of approved medications for chronic weight management along with lifestyle changes are appropriate...
May 7, 2016: Lancet
Carlos M Grilo, Deborah L Reas, James E Mitchell
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research...
June 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
James E Mitchell, Nicholas J Christian, David R Flum, Alfons Pomp, Walter J Pories, Bruce M Wolfe, Anita P Courcoulas, Steven H Belle
IMPORTANCE: Severe obesity (body mass index ≥35 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) is associated with significant medical comorbidity and increased mortality. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss, the extent of which can vary. Postoperative predictors of weight loss have not been adequately examined. OBJECTIVE: To describe postoperative eating behaviors and weight control and their effects on 3-year change in weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Amir A Ghaferi, Marilyn Woodruff, Jenna Arnould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
2016-04-22 22:20:32
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