R D Christensen, R H Nussenzveig, H M Yaish, E Henry, L D Eggert, A M Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: We instituted a quality improvement process to enhance our capacity to diagnose genetic hemolytic conditions in neonates with extreme hyperbilirubinemia. STUDY DESIGN: During a 1-year period, whenever the total serum bilirubin (TSB) was >25 mg dl(-1) a special evaluation was performed. If we deemed an erythrocyte membrane defect likely, based on red blood cell morphology, EMA-flow cytometry was performed. Otherwise 'next-generation' sequencing was performed using a panel of genes involved in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia...
August 2014: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Michael Kaplan, Ruben Bromiker, Cathy Hammerman
Increased hemolysis in the presence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia appears to augment the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. The mechanism of this intensifying effect is uncertain. In direct antiglobulin titer (DAT) positive, isoimmune hemolytic disease, the bilirubin threshold at which neurotoxicity occurs appears to be lower than in DAT-negative hyperbilirubinemia. In other hemolytic conditions, the hemolysis may simply facilitate the development of extremely high serum bilirubin levels. Whether the hemolytic process per se exerts an independent effect or whether a very rapid rise in serum bilirubin might lead to greater penetration of the blood-brain barrier is unclear...
November 2014: Seminars in Perinatology
Myra H Wyckoff, Khalid Aziz, Marilyn B Escobedo, Vishal S Kapadia, John Kattwinkel, Jeffrey M Perlman, Wendy M Simon, Gary M Weiner, Jeanette G Zaichkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Pediatrics
Joseph W Rossano, Wendell E Jones, Stamatios Lerakis, Michael G Millin, Ira Nemeth, Pascal Cassan, Joan Shook, Siobán Kennedy, David Markenson, Richard N Bradley
OBJECTIVE: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been used successfully in many populations to improve survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. While ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia are more prevalent in adults, these arrhythmias do occur in infants. The Scientific Advisory Council of the American Red Cross reviewed the literature on the use of AEDs in infants in order to make recommendations on use in the population. METHODS: The Cochrane library and PubMed were searched for studies that included AEDs in infants, any external defibrillation in infants, and simulation studies of algorithms used by AEDs on pediatric arrhythmias...
July 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Karen E Muchowski
Although neonatal jaundice is common, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus (i.e., chronic bilirubin encephalopathy) are rare. Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is controversial. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening with bilirubin levels or targeted screening based on risk factors. However, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Academy of Family Physicians found insufficient evidence that screening improves outcomes. Universal screening may also increase rates of phototherapy, sometimes inappropriately...
June 1, 2014: American Family Physician
Pi-Feng Chang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Kevin Liu, Shu-Jen Yeh, Yen-Hsuan Ni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia in infants who are exclusively breast-fed. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted to investigate the effects of birth body weight, sex, mode of delivery, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, variant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene, and hepatic solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene on hyperbilirubinemia in neonates who were breast-fed. Hyperbilirubinemia was diagnosed when a full term neonate had a bilirubin level ≧15...
October 2011: Journal of Pediatrics
Vinod K Bhutani, M Jeffrey Maisels, Ann R Stark, Giuseppe Buonocore
Kernicterus is still occurring but should be largely preventable if health care personnel follow the recommendations listed in this guideline. These recommendations emphasize the importance of universal, systematic assessment of the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia, lactation support, close follow-up, and prompt intervention when necessary. A systems-based approach to prevent severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia should be implemented at all birthing facilities and coordinated with continuing ambulatory care...
2008: Neonatology
John R Petersen, Anthony O Okorodudu, Amin A Mohammad, Amarasiri Fernando, Karen E Shattuck
BACKGROUND: Newborns are being discharged from hospitals within 1-2 days of birth, before hyperbilirubinemia usually becomes clinically evident. We investigated the use of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) before discharge to determine whether it affects the use of laboratory bilirubin testing or decreases the number of neonates readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia within 7 days of initial discharge. METHODS: We retrospectively searched a clinical laboratory and hospital database to determine the number of births, newborn readmission rates for hyperbilirubinemia, length of stay, and the number of bilirubin measurements in the clinical laboratory ordered for all babies in the newborn unit at the University of Texas Medical Branch from August 2002 to March 2003 (before TcB testing) and from May 2003 to December 2003 (after TcB)...
March 2005: Clinical Chemistry
Stanley Ip, Mei Chung, John Kulig, Rebecca O'Brien, Robert Sege, Stephan Glicken, M Jeffrey Maisels, Joseph Lau
This article is adapted from a published evidence report concerning neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with an added section on the risk of blood exchange transfusion (BET). Based on a summary of multiple case reports that spanned more than 30 years, we conclude that kernicterus, although infrequent, has at least 10% mortality and at least 70% long-term morbidity. It is evident that the preponderance of kernicterus cases occurred in infants with a bilirubin level higher than 20 mg/dL. Given the diversity of conclusions on the relationship between peak bilirubin levels and behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes, it is apparent that the use of a single total serum bilirubin level to predict long-term outcomes is inadequate and will lead to conflicting results...
July 2004: Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
Jaundice occurs in most newborn infants. Most jaundice is benign, but because of the potential toxicity of bilirubin, newborn infants must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinemia and, in rare cases, acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. The focus of this guideline is to reduce the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy while minimizing the risks of unintended harm such as maternal anxiety, decreased breastfeeding, and unnecessary costs or treatment...
July 2004: Pediatrics
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