Faruk Turgut, Alaa S Awad, Emaad M Abdel-Rahman
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decline in or loss of kidney function. AKI is not only associated with substantial morbidity and mortality but also with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is classically defined and staged based on serum creatinine concentration and urine output rates. The etiology of AKI is conceptually classified into three general categories: prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal. Although this classification may be useful for establishing a differential diagnosis, AKI has mostly multifactorial, and pathophysiologic features that can be divided into different categories...
January 3, 2023: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Pedro Póvoa, Luís Coelho, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Ricard Ferrer, Angela Huttner, Andrew Conway Morris, Vandack Nobre, Paula Ramirez, Anahita Rouze, Jorge Salluh, Mervyn Singer, Daniel A Sweeney, Antoni Torres, Grant Waterer, Andre C Kalil
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In this context, biomarkers could be considered as indicators of either infection or dysregulated host response or response to treatment and/or aid clinicians to prognosticate patient risk. More than 250 biomarkers have been identified and evaluated over the last few decades, but no biomarker accurately differentiates between sepsis and sepsis-like syndrome. Published data support the use of biomarkers for pathogen identification, clinical diagnosis, and optimization of antibiotic treatment...
January 2, 2023: Intensive Care Medicine
Mehdi C Shelhamer, Paul D Wesson, Ian L Solari, Deanna L Jensen, William Alex Steele, Vihren G Dimitrov, John Daniel Kelly, Shazia Aziz, Victor Perez Gutierrez, Eric Vittinghoff, Kevin K Chung, Vidya P Menon, Herman A Ambris, Sanjiv M Baxi
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but it is unknown whether prone positioning improves outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with moderate to severe ARDS due to COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study at a New York City hospital at the peak of the early pandemic in the United States, under crisis conditions. The aim was to determine the benefit of prone positioning in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS due to COVID-19...
February 2021: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Vinaya Simha
Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the most common lipid abnormalities encountered in clinical practice. Many monogenic disorders causing severe hypertriglyceridemia have been identified, but in most patients triglyceride elevations result from a combination of multiple genetic variations with small effects and environmental factors. Common secondary causes include obesity, uncontrolled diabetes, alcohol misuse, and various commonly used drugs. Correcting these factors and optimizing lifestyle choices, including dietary modification, is important before starting drug treatment...
October 12, 2020: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ana Isabel Avila Bernabeu, Teresa Cavero Escribano, Mercedes Cao Vilarino
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare cause of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, consumptive thrombocytopenia, and multisystem end organ involvement, most commonly affecting the kidney. Diagnosis is clinical, after exclusion of other TMA causes. Primary aHUS arises from genetic abnormalities, resulting in uncontrolled complement activity, while a variety of clinical scenarios cause secondary aHUS, including infection, pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and medications...
2020: Nephron
Stefania Gioia, Silvia Nardelli, Lorenzo Ridola, Oliviero Riggio
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) includes a heterogeneous group of conditions. The aim of this paper is to make an overview on the denominations, diagnostical features and management of porto-sinusoidal vascular disease (PSVD) and chronic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) being the main causes of NCPH in the Western world. RECENT FINDINGS: The management of NCPH consists in the treatment of associated diseases and of portal hypertension (PH)...
September 17, 2020: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Wilma Barcellini, Bruno Fattizzo
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a greatly heterogeneous disease due to autoantibodies directed against erythrocytes, with or without complement activation. The clinical picture ranges from mild/compensated to life-threatening anemia, depending on the antibody's thermal amplitude, isotype and ability to fix complement, as well as on bone marrow compensation. Since few years ago, steroids, immunesuppressants and splenectomy have been the mainstay of treatment. More recently, several target therapies are increasingly used in the clinical practice or are under development in clinical trials...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Jeffrey Wagner, Jesse Fitzpatrick, Nora Goldschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2020: Circulation
Jason Phua, Li Weng, Lowell Ling, Moritoki Egi, Chae-Man Lim, Jigeeshu Vasishtha Divatia, Babu Raja Shrestha, Yaseen M Arabi, Jensen Ng, Charles D Gomersall, Masaji Nishimura, Younsuck Koh, Bin Du
As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads across the world, the intensive care unit (ICU) community must prepare for the challenges associated with this pandemic. Streamlining of workflows for rapid diagnosis and isolation, clinical management, and infection prevention will matter not only to patients with COVID-19, but also to health-care workers and other patients who are at risk from nosocomial transmission. Management of acute respiratory failure and haemodynamics is key. ICU practitioners, hospital administrators, governments, and policy makers must prepare for a substantial increase in critical care bed capacity, with a focus not just on infrastructure and supplies, but also on staff management...
May 2020: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Chenguang Shen, Zhaoqin Wang, Fang Zhao, Yang Yang, Jinxiu Li, Jing Yuan, Fuxiang Wang, Delin Li, Minghui Yang, Li Xing, Jinli Wei, Haixia Xiao, Yan Yang, Jiuxin Qu, Ling Qing, Li Chen, Zhixiang Xu, Ling Peng, Yanjie Li, Haixia Zheng, Feng Chen, Kun Huang, Yujing Jiang, Dongjing Liu, Zheng Zhang, Yingxia Liu, Lei Liu
Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation...
April 28, 2020: JAMA
Feng He, Yu Deng, Weina Li
In late December 2019, a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases has been reported in Wuhan, China. A few days later, the causative agent of this mysterious pneumonia was identified as a novel coronavirus. This causative virus has been temporarily named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the relevant infected disease has been named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization, respectively. The COVID-19 epidemic is spreading in China and all over the world now. The purpose of this review is primarily to review the pathogen, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, but also to comment briefly on the epidemiology and pathology based on the current evidence...
July 2020: Journal of Medical Virology
Mauro Bernardi, Paolo Angeli, Joan Claria, Richard Moreau, Pere Gines, Rajiv Jalan, Paolo Caraceni, Javier Fernandez, Alexander L Gerbes, Alastair J O'Brien, Jonel Trebicka, Thierry Thevenot, Vicente Arroyo
The pathophysiological background of decompensated cirrhosis is characterised by a systemic proinflammatory and pro-oxidant milieu that plays a major role in the development of multiorgan dysfunction. Such abnormality is mainly due to the systemic spread of bacteria and/or bacterial products from the gut and danger-associated molecular patterns from the diseased liver triggering the release of proinflammatory mediators by activating immune cells. The exacerbation of these processes underlies the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure...
June 2020: Gut
Adam Kemeny-Beke, Peter Szodoray
PURPOSE: Our aim was to summarize key aspects of the pathomechanism and the ocular involvements of rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases. METHODS: Apart from a paper in French (Morax V, Ann Oculist 109:368-370, 1893), all papers referred to in this article were published in English. All the materials were peer-reviewed full-text papers, letters, reviews, or book chapters obtained through a literature search of the PubMed database using the keywords ocular manifestations; pathogenesis; systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; fibromyalgia; systemic lupus erythematosus; seronegative spondyloarthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; reactive arthritis; enteropathic arthritis; psoriatic arthritis; systemic sclerosis; polymyalgia rheumatica and covering all years available...
February 2020: International Ophthalmology
Michael R Rudnick, Amanda K Leonberg-Yoo, Harold I Litt, Raphael M Cohen, Susan Hilton, Peter P Reese
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has long been observed in both experimental and clinical studies. However, recent observational studies have questioned the prevalence and severity of CIN following intravenous contrast exposure. Initial studies of acute kidney injury following intravenous contrast were limited by the absence of control groups or contained control groups that did not adjust for additional acute kidney injury risk factors, including prevalent chronic kidney disease, as well as accepted prophylactic strategies...
January 2020: American Journal of Kidney Diseases
Benjamin Misselwitz, Matthias Butter, Kristin Verbeke, Mark R Fox
Lactose is the main source of calories in milk, an essential nutriedigestion, patients with visceral hypersensitivity nt in infancy and a key part of the diet in populations that maintain the ability to digest this disaccharide in adulthood. Lactase deficiency (LD) is the failure to express the enzyme that hydrolyses lactose into galactose and glucose in the small intestine. The genetic mechanism of lactase persistence in adult Caucasians is mediated by a single C→T nucleotide polymorphism at the LCTbo -13'910 locus on chromosome-2...
November 2019: Gut
Rebecca R Chamley, David A Holdsworth, Kim Rajappan, Edward D Nicol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2019: European Heart Journal
Adeel Rafi Ahmed, Ayanfeoluwa Obilana, David Lappin
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is frequently required to manage critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). There is limited evidence to support the current practice of RRT in intensive care units (ICUs). Recently published randomized control trials (RCTs) have further questioned our understanding of RRT in critical care. The optimal timing and dosing continues to be debatable; however, current evidence suggests delayed strategy with less intensive dosing when utilising RRT. Various modes of RRT are complementary to each other with no definite benefits to mortality or renal function preservation...
2019: Critical Care Research and Practice
A J Lees
There are three classes of people: those who see, those who see when they are shown, those who do not see Leonardo da Vinci The three cardinal qualities necessary for the ideal neurologist are observation, the ability to reason backwards inferentially and specialist knowledge. Modern medical technology has greatly increased the ability to diagnose and treat disease but it has also encouraged a benign variant of abulia, which is killing off the art and science of clinical reasoning. Intent gazing at the unfamiliar with old eyes or a long look at the familiar with new eyes offers the neurologist an opportunity to discover hitherto unnoticed diagnostic signs far beyond the resolution of the brain scanner and even the light microscope...
October 2019: Practical Neurology
Amanda C Chan, Einar Wilder-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2015: Neurology
Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Hugo Botha, Brian S Katz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2014: Neurology
2019-08-29 19:04:19
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