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Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31972770/non-medical-use-of-naphazoline-naphthyzin-two-case-reports
#1
Valentin Yurievich Skryabin, Maria Alekseevna Vinnikova, Sergey Dmitrievich Komarov, Albert Grigorievich Khvan
: The paper describes 2 case reports of non-medical use of Naphazoline (Naphthyzin). Both demonstrate that the peripherally acting alpha-adrenergic agonist Naphazoline obtains some addictive potential. The drug produces a feeling of euphoria, which resembles the perceived effects of psychostimulants. Both patients and people who consume Naphazoline for intoxication report increased tolerance after repeated use which indicates the addictive potential of the substance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first examination of non-medical Naphazoline use and the first attempt to describe its addictive potential...
January 14, 2020: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32331017/171-buprenorphine-a-treatment-for-psychic-pain-and-suicidal-ideation
#2
Ori-Michael Benhamou, Sean Lynch, Lidia Klepacz
Buprenorphine (BPN) is an opiate medication that is increasingly used in the management of Opioid Use Disorder and pain disorders. This case report highlights the acute efficacy of using buprenorphine-naloxone (BPN-NAL) to reverse anhedonia and suicidal ideation in an individual with OUD, chronic pain and severe suicide attempts.We present a case of a 39-year-old male with a history of bipolar disorder, several lethal suicide attempts and polysubstance abuse, who presented to the hospital after self-immolation, burning 45% total body surface area...
April 2020: CNS Spectrums
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32530350/the-synthetic-cannabinoids-phenomenon-from-structure-to-toxicological-properties-a-review
#3
Vera L Alves, João L Gonçalves, Joselin Aguiar, Helena M Teixeira, José S Câmara
The word "cannabinoid" refers to every chemical substance, regardless of structure or origin, that joins the cannabinoid receptors of the body and brain and that have similar effects to those produced by the Cannabis plant and based on their source of production, cannabinoids can be classified into endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids represent the largest class of drugs detected through the EU Early Warning System with a total of 190 substances notified from 2008 to 2018 and about 280 have been reported worldwide to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime...
June 12, 2020: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32538252/acute-effects-of-mdma-on-trust-cooperative-behaviour-and-empathy-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-experiment
#4
Anna Borissova, Bart Ferguson, Matthew B Wall, Celia Ja Morgan, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Mark Bolstridge, Michael Ap Bloomfield, Tim M Williams, Amanda Feilding, Kevin Murphy, Robin J Tyacke, David Erritzoe, Lorna Stewart, Kim Wolff, David Nutt, H Valerie Curran, Will Lawn
BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is being actively researched as an adjunct to psychotherapy. It may be beneficial to trust, empathy and cooperative behaviour due to its acute prosocial effects. AIM: To test (a) the acute effects of MDMA on measures of empathy, trust and cooperative behaviour, and (b) subacute changes in mood three days after MDMA administration. METHODS: Twenty-five participants ( n =7 female), participated in this double-blind, repeated-measures, placebo-controlled experiment...
June 15, 2020: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32238244/-a-potentially-fatal-aphrodisiac-cantharidin-poisoning
#5
Priscila Diaz, António Carneiro, Vera Montes, Sara Alves
Cantharidin is a toxin extracted from coleoptera beetles, commonly known as 'Spanish fly'. Traditionally it was used as an aphrodisiac, a vesicant or as an abortifacient. Intoxication by this substance has been widely reported, generally associated with gastrointestinal complications, such as digestive hemorrhage, and genitourinary disorders, such as hematuria and acute kidney injury. The authors describe the case of a 51-year old male patient who developed severe cantharidin poisoning after ingesting a preparation ('tea formulation') containing the substance...
April 1, 2020: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32562935/who-becomes-addicted-and-to-what-psychosocial-predictors-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictive-disorders
#6
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yuri Rassovsky
A multitude of psychological and social factors likely contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. As different people develop different addictions, it is important to understand whether psychosocial factors are related differently to different types of addictive disorders. In this study, we examined the unique interaction of personality traits, family environment, and life events in predicting substance (drugs, alcohol) and behavioral (gambling, sex) addictive disorders, among 207 participants suffering from an addictive disorder and 79 controls...
June 11, 2020: Psychiatry Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32570932/delineating-the-psychic-structure-of-substance-use-and-addictions-from-neurobiology-to-clinical-implications-ten-years-later
#7
Pier Paolo Pani, Angelo G I Maremmani, Matteo Pacini, Emanuela Trogu, Gian Luigi Gessa, Pedro Ruiz, Icro Maremmani
The diagnosis of substance use disorder is currently based on the presence of specifically identified behavioral symptoms. In addition, other psychiatric signs and symptoms accompany addictive behavior, contributing to the full picture of patients' psychopathologic profile. Historically, such symptoms were confined within the framework of "comorbidity", as comorbid psychiatric disorders or personality traits. However, an alternative unitary view of the psychopathology of addiction, inclusive of related psychiatric symptoms, has been claimed, with the support of epidemiological, neurobiological, and neuropsychological evidence...
June 18, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32416296/new-method-of-creating-hybrid-of-buprenorphine-loaded-rifampin-polyethylene-glycol-alginate-nanoparticles
#8
Sara Masoumi, Akbar Esmaeili
An indicator for cytochrome P450 enzymes which have the most fundamental role in methadone metabolism in the liver. In this study preparation in vitro, in vivo release and biological activities of Fe3 O4 @ZnO/rifampin/polyethylene glycol/buprenorphine/alginate nanoparticles investigated. Rifampin is activator for the cytochrome P-3 enzymes which can detoxify residual drugs in the liver. This paper examines the changes pH, absorption rate, drug release, in vivo test (30 rats) in selected Wistar rats. All rats were either orally addicted to morphine after 21 days...
May 19, 2020: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32457073/genetic-architecture-and-molecular-neuropathology-of-human-cocaine-addiction
#9
Spencer B Huggett, Michael C Stallings
We integrated genomic and bioinformatic analyses, using data from the largest genome-wide association study of cocaine dependence (CD; n = 6546; 82.37% with CD; 57.39% male) and the largest postmortem gene-expression sample of individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD; n = 36; 51.35% with CUD; 100% male). Our genome-wide analyses identified one novel gene ( NDUFB9 ) associated with the genetic predisposition to CD in African-Americans. The genetic architecture of CD was similar across ancestries. Individual genes associated with CD demonstrated modest overlap across European-Americans and African-Americans, but the genetic liability for CD converged on many similar tissue types (brain, heart, blood, liver) across ancestries...
July 1, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32490525/the-impact-of-appetite-regulating-neuropeptide-leptin-on-alcohol-use-alcohol-craving-and-addictive-behavior-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#10
Patrick Bach, Anne Koopmann, Falk Kiefer
AIMS: The appetite regulating hormone leptin, which is mainly secreted from adipose tissue, is an important regulator of food intake and modulator of reward-driven behavior. Leptin exerts its biological actions via binding to the leptin receptor, which is expressed in the hypothalamus, but also in the hippocampus, the amygdala and the substantia nigra. In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), leptin attenuates the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons that project to the Nucleus accumbens (NAc), which serves as relay to other brain areas of the "addiction network", such as the prefrontal cortex...
June 3, 2020: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32526230/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-and-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-interplay-providing-anticancer-targeting-strategies-and-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Cinzia Lanzi, Giuliana Cassinelli
The development of pharmacological and biological inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has changed the treatment paradigm of several neoplastic diseases. However, the occurrence of intrinsic and acquired resistance represents a limit to the efficacy of these drugs even in RTK-addicted cancers. The identification of innovative therapeutic approaches and rationale-based drug combinations remains a primary need to improve patients' outcome. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix bind to and modulate the biological activity of a great number of heparan sulfate (HS) binding proteins...
June 9, 2020: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32526240/inhibitors-of-neuropeptide-peptidases-engaged-in-pain-and-drug-dependence
#12
Kinga Hartman, Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Marek Smoluch, Jerzy Silberring
Owing to a broad spectrum of functions performed by neuropeptides, this class of signaling molecules attracts an increasing interest. One of the key steps in the regulation of biological activity of neuropeptides is proteolytic conversion or degradation by proteinases that change or terminate biological activity of native peptides. These enzymes, in turn, are regulated by inhibitors, which play integral role in controlling many metabolic pathways. Thus, the search for selective inhibitors and detailed knowledge on the mechanisms of binding of these substances to enzymes, could be of importance for designing new pharmacological approaches...
June 8, 2020: Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32568519/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-heroin-and-desomorphine
#13
Jaime Mella, Javier Romero-Parra, Gonzalo Recabarren-Gajardo
Opioids are arguably one of the most important pharmacologic classes, mainly due to their rich history, their useful and potent analgesic effects, and also - just as importantly - to their "Dark Side," constituted by their reinforcing properties that have led countless of users to a spiral of addiction, biological dependence, tolerance, withdrawal syndromes, and death. Among the most significant abused and addictive known opioids are heroin and desomorphine, both synthetic derivatives of morphine that belong to the 4,5-epoxymorphinan structural chemical group of the opioid family drugs...
June 22, 2020: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32609628/co-occurrences-of-substance-use-and-other-potentially-addictive-behaviors-epidemiological-results-from-the-psychological-and-genetic-factors-of-the-addictive-behaviors-pga-study
#14
Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims: Changes in the nomenclature of addictions suggest a significant shift in the conceptualization of addictions, where non-substance related behaviors can also be classified as addictions. A large amount of data provides empirical evidence that there are overlaps of different types of addictive behaviors in etiology, phenomenology, and in the underlying psychological and biological mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the co-occurrences of a wide range of substance use and behavioral addictions...
June 26, 2020: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31705528/g-protein-biased-kratom-alkaloids-and-synthetic-carfentanil-amide-opioids-as-potential-treatments-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#15
Anna M Gutridge, Meridith T Robins, Robert J Cassell, Rajendra Uprety, Kendall L Mores, Mee Jung Ko, Gavril W Pasternak, Susruta Majumdar, Richard M van Rijn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitragyna speciosa, more commonly known as kratom, is a plant that contains opioidergic alkaloids but is unregulated in most countries. Kratom is used in the self-medication of chronic pain and to reduce illicit and prescription opioid dependence. Kratom may be less dangerous than typical opioids because of the stronger preference of kratom alkaloids to induce receptor interaction with G proteins over β-arrestin proteins. We hypothesized that kratom (alkaloids) can also reduce alcohol intake...
April 2020: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32296241/-addictive-behaviors-clinical-facts
#16
REVIEW
C Lucet, J P Olié
Despite the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities, substance use disorder must be understood as an autonomous pathology due to its own determinants, semiology and possibilities of evolution, either spontaneous or under treatment.The ease of access to multiple synthetic products via the Internet combined with the creativity of chemists are contributing to the emergence of novel practices ranging from chemsex to purple drank.Addictive behaviours result from a combination of individual factors (biological and psychological vulnerability) and contextual factors (availability and triviality of the toxicant in the environment)...
April 15, 2020: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31779072/structure-activity-relationships-of-7-substituted-dimethyltyrosine-tetrahydroisoquinoline-opioid-peptidomimetics
#17
Deanna Montgomery, Jessica P Anand, Mason A Baber, Jack J Twarozynski, Joshua G Hartman, Lennon J Delong, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg
The opioid receptors modulate a variety of biological functions, including pain, mood, and reward. As a result, opioid ligands are being explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of indications. Multifunctional opioid ligands, which act simultaneously at more than one type of opioid receptor, show promise for use in the treatment of addiction, pain, and other conditions. Previously, we reported the creation of bifunctional kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist/mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands from the classically delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist selective dimethyltyrosine-tetrahydroisoquinoline (Dmt-Tiq) scaffold through the addition of a 7-benzyl pendant on the tetrahydroisoquinoline ring...
November 26, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31803108/the-effect-of-high-intensity-interval-circuit-training-on-cognitive-functioning-and-quality-of-life-during-recovery-from-substance-abuse-disorder-a-study-protocol
#18
Øyvind Andreassen, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Anne-Lill Njå, Einar Furulund, Sverre Nesvåg
This proposed study will examine whether structured physical activity reduces the recovery time of cognitive functioning during the early phase of substance use disorder treatment. Addiction or substance dependence is associated with neurobiological changes and cognitive impairment that can affect quality of life and the efficacy of therapy for up to a year after clinical detoxification. The biological, psychological, and social effects of physical exercise have the potential to be a therapeutic approach to increase quality of life and relieve symptoms associated with substance abuse, such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31835389/development-of-thiazolidinedione-based-hdac6-inhibitors-to-overcome-methamphetamine-addiction
#19
Chiranjeev Sharma, Yong Jin Oh, Byoungduck Park, Sooyeun Lee, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sangkil Lee, Ji Hae Seo, Young Ho Seo
Thiazolidinedione is a five-membered heterocycle that is widely used in drug discovery endeavors. In this study, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of thiazolidinedione-based HDAC6 inhibitors. In particular, compound 6b exerts an excellent inhibitory activity against HDAC6 with an IC50 value of 21 nM, displaying a good HDAC6 selectivity over HDAC1. Compound 6b dose-dependently induces the acetylation level of α -tubulin via inhibition of HDAC6 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line...
December 9, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31849622/understanding-addiction-using-animal-models
#20
Brittany N Kuhn, Peter W Kalivas, Ana-Clara Bobadilla
Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder with grave personal consequences that has an extraordinary global economic impact. Despite decades of research, the options available to treat addiction are often ineffective because our rudimentary understanding of drug-induced pathology in brain circuits and synaptic physiology inhibits the rational design of successful therapies. This understanding will arise first from animal models of addiction where experimentation at the level of circuits and molecular biology is possible...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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