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Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Ja Wook Koo, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, Quincey LaPlant, Gabor Egervari, Kevin M Braunscheidel, Danielle N Adank, Deveroux Ferguson, Jian Feng, Haosheng Sun, Kimberly N Scobie, Diane M Damez-Werno, Efrain Ribeiro, Catherine Jensen Peña, Deena Walker, Rosemary C Bagot, Michael E Cahill, Sarah Ann R Anderson, Benoit Labonté, Georgia E Hodes, Heidi Browne, Benjamin Chadwick, Alfred J Robison, Vincent F Vialou, Caroline Dias, Zachary Lorsch, Ezekiell Mouzon, Mary Kay Lobo, David M Dietz, Scott J Russo, Rachael L Neve, Yasmin L Hurd, Eric J Nestler
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in modulating neural and behavioral plasticity to drugs of abuse. We found a persistent downregulation of exon-specific Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to chronic opiate exposure, which was mediated by specific epigenetic modifications at the corresponding Bdnf gene promoters. Exposure to chronic morphine increased stalling of RNA polymerase II at these Bdnf promoters in VTA and altered permissive and repressive histone modifications and occupancy of their regulatory proteins at the specific promoters...
March 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Eric J Nestler, Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disease in which, after a period of recreational use, a subset of individuals develops compulsive use that does not stop even in light of major negative consequences. Here, we review the evidence for underlying epigenetic remodeling in brain in two settings. First, excessive dopamine signaling during drug use may modulate gene expression, altering synaptic function and circuit activity and leading over time to maladaptive behaviors in vulnerable individuals. Second, on a longer timescale, life experience can shape the epigenetic landscape in brain and thereby may contribute to an individual's vulnerability by amplifying drug-induced changes in gene expression that drive the transition to addiction...
April 3, 2019: Neuron
Julianna Goenaga, Gregory L Powell, Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Jose Piña, Sandy Phan, Alesia V Prakapenka, Stephanie V Koebele, Mark D Namba, Erin A McClure, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson, Cassandra D Gipson
Women report greater craving during certain phases of the menstrual cycle. As well, research indicates that pharmacotherapies for smoking may be less efficacious in women compared with men, which may be due to interactions with natural fluctuations in ovarian hormone levels. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutamatergic compound that has shown some efficacy in treating substance use disorders and aids in the prevention of relapse. However, it is unclear whether NAC has sex-specific effectiveness for nicotine relapse treatment...
February 7, 2019: Addiction Biology
Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Leila Dargahi, Abbas Haghparast
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive psychostimulant that is frequently abused worldwide. Although the biggest challenge to the efficient treatment of drug dependence is relapse, its mechanism is completely unclear. Plenty of evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to drug-induced reward especially in brain regions that are involved in the reward system, but there is no document about relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that has powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties...
February 22, 2019: Addiction Biology
Caroline B Pantazis, Gary Aston-Jones
The lateral septum (LS) is a brain region implicated in motivation, addiction, anxiety, and affect. We recently found that LS is necessary for cocaine-seeking behaviors including conditioned place preference and reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking, which involve LS input to limbic regions including ventral tegmental area (VTA) and orexin neurons in hypothalamus. Here, we microinjected baclofen-muscimol (B-M) in LS prior to testing in a behavioral economics (BE) paradigm. We found that intra-LS B-M decreased motivation (increased demand elasticity; α) for cocaine, but did not change consumption at low effort (Q0 )...
March 21, 2019: Addiction Biology
Shun Zhang, Rui Wang, Guanghui Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The characteristic feature of PD is the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). DAergic neurons in the SN accumulate black and insoluble membrane structures known as neuromelanin during aging. The oxidation of dopamine (DA) to form neuromelanin generates many o-quinones, including DA o-quinones, aminochrome, and 5,6-indolequinone. The focus of this review is to discuss the role of DA oxidation in association with PD...
February 20, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jody Tanabe, Michael Regner, Joseph Sakai, Diana Martinez, Joshua Gowin
Substance use disorder is a leading causes of preventable disease and mortality. Drugs of abuse cause molecular and cellular changes in specific brain regions and these neuroplastic changes are thought to play a role in the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Neuroimaging has identified neural substrates associated with problematic substance use and may offer clues to reduce its burden on the patient and society. Here, we provide a narrative review of neuroimaging studies that have examined the structures and circuits associated with reward, cues and craving, learning, and cognitive control in substance use disorders...
March 11, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Ivette M Menéndez-Perdomo, Peter J Facchini
Sacred lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an ancient aquatic plant used throughout Asia for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), mostly within the aporphine and bisbenzylisoquinoline structural categories, are among the main bioactive constituents in the plant. The alkaloids of sacred lotus exhibit promising anti-cancer, anti-arrhythmic, anti-HIV, and anti-malarial properties. Despite their pharmacological significance, BIA metabolism in this non-model plant has not been extensively investigated...
November 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Nathaniel L Baker, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Kathleen T Brady
RATIONALE: Stress has been shown to be a significant factor in the maintenance of marijuana use. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been shown to moderate behavioral responding to stress as well as play a role in the neuroadaptations that occur as a consequence of long-term drug use. OBJECTIVES: The current study evaluated the impact of oxytocin pretreatment on craving, stress, and anxiety responses following a psychosocial stress task in marijuana-dependent individuals...
August 2013: Psychopharmacology
Linus Haberbosch, Sein Schmidt, Andreas Jooss, Arvid Köhn, Leonard Kozarzewski, Maria Rönnefarth, Michael Scholz, Stephan A Brandt
Alternating current stimulation (ACS) is an established means to manipulate intrinsic cortical oscillations. While working towards clinical impact, ACS mechanisms of action remain unclear. For ACS's well-documented influence on occipital alpha, hypotheses include neuronal entrainment as well as rebound phenomena. As a retinal origin is also discussed, we employed a novel form of ACS with the advantage that it specifically targets occipital alpha-oscillations via retinofugal pathways retinofugal ACS (rACS). We aimed to confirm alpha-enhancement outlasting the duration of stimulation with 10 Hz rACS...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yi Huang, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Chon-Haw Tsai, Ming-Kuei Lu
Pairing transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with specific stimulus-intervals induces associative motor plasticity at the primary motor cortex (M1). Electroacupuncture (EA) is an established medical technique in the eastern countries. This study investigates whether EA paired with TMS induces distinct M1 motor plasticity. Fifteen healthy, right-handed subjects (aged 23.6 ± 2.0 years, eight women) were studied. Two-hundred and twenty-five pairs of TMS of the left M1 preceded by right EA at acupoint "Neiguan" [Pericardium 6 (PC6), located 2 decimeters proximal from the wrist wrinkle] were respectively applied with the interstimulus interval (ISI) of individual somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) N20 latency plus 2 ms (N20+2) and minus 5 ms (N20-5) with at least 1-week interval...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Walter E Müller, Anne Eckert, Gunter P Eckert, Heidrun Fink, Kristina Friedland, Serge Gauthier, Robert Hoerr, Ralf Ihl, Siegfried Kasper, Hans-Jürgen Möller
OBJECTIVES: The mitochondrial cascade hypothesis of dementia assumes mitochondrial dysfunction as an important common pathomechanism for the whole spectrum of age-associated memory disorders from cognitive symptoms in the elderly over mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, a drug such as the Ginkgo special extract EGb 761® which improves mitochondrial function should be able to ameliorate cognitive deficits over the whole aging spectrum. METHODS: We review the most relevant publications about effects of EGb 761® on cognition and synaptic deficits in preclinical studies as well as on cognitive deficits in man from aging to dementia...
May 2, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Siegfried Kasper, Walter E Müller, Hans-Peter Volz, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Egon Koch, Angelika Dienel
OBJECTIVES: Silexan is a lavender oil preparation available in 80-mg capsules. Here we review clinical trials investigating its anxiolytic efficacy, safety and tolerability in humans, as well as preclinical investigations supporting this therapeutic use. METHODS: Besides three selected publications reporting preclinical investigations, seven clinical trials are included, of which five had a treatment duration of 6 or 10 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the HAM-A total score reduction, while single items were assessed with regard to effects on concomitant depressive symptoms and on quality of sleep...
September 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Pierrick Poisbeau, Geraldine Gazzo, Laurent Calvel
OBJECTIVES: Anxiety and adjustment disorders are among the most prevalent mental health conditions. This review focuses on γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA R)-mediated anxiolysis, describing the action of both endogenous and exogenous modulators of GABAA R. Future directions and innovative strategies to alleviate anxiety symptoms are discussed, with a particular emphasis on etifoxine. METHODS: We used available data from the recent literature to update the mode of action of anxiolytics...
2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Alexander T Chen, John T Chibnall, Henry A Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that schizophrenia is associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, glutathione deficit, and increased brain oxidative stress (free radicals). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a strong antioxidant with potential therapeutic benefit in schizophrenia, according to some reports. We conducted a review of the published controlled studies, with the goal of determining the efficacy profile of NAC as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. METHODS: An online search was conducted for all placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials of NAC in schizophrenia, and a review was conducted...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, A Thomas McLellan
This article reviews scientific advances in the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorder and related developments in public policy. In the past two decades, research has increasingly supported the view that addiction is a disease of the brain. Although the brain disease model of addiction..
January 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Kyle Kampman, Margaret Jarvis
The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it...
September 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Henry R Kranzler, Michael Soyka
Importance: Alcohol consumption is associated with 88 000 US deaths annually. Although routine screening for heavy alcohol use can identify patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and has been recommended, only 1 in 6 US adults report ever having been asked by a health professional about their drinking behavior. Alcohol use disorder, a problematic pattern of alcohol use accompanied by clinically significant impairment or distress, is present in up to 14% of US adults during a 1-year period, although only about 8% of affected individuals are treated in an alcohol treatment facility...
August 28, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Rajita Sinha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
E Chris Vincent, Arthur Zebelman, Cheryl Goodwin, Mary M Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2006: Journal of Family Practice
2019-03-09 00:13:22
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