Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Deanna Montgomery, Jessica P Anand, Mason A Baber, Jack J Twarozynski, Joshua G Hartman, Lennon J Delong, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg
The opioid receptors modulate a variety of biological functions, including pain, mood, and reward. As a result, opioid ligands are being explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of indications. Multifunctional opioid ligands, which act simultaneously at more than one type of opioid receptor, show promise for use in the treatment of addiction, pain, and other conditions. Previously, we reported the creation of bifunctional kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist/mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands from the classically delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist selective dimethyltyrosine-tetrahydroisoquinoline (Dmt-Tiq) scaffold through the addition of a 7-benzyl pendant on the tetrahydroisoquinoline ring...
November 26, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Øyvind Andreassen, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Anne-Lill Njå, Einar Furulund, Sverre Nesvåg
This proposed study will examine whether structured physical activity reduces the recovery time of cognitive functioning during the early phase of substance use disorder treatment. Addiction or substance dependence is associated with neurobiological changes and cognitive impairment that can affect quality of life and the efficacy of therapy for up to a year after clinical detoxification. The biological, psychological, and social effects of physical exercise have the potential to be a therapeutic approach to increase quality of life and relieve symptoms associated with substance abuse, such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Chiranjeev Sharma, Yong Jin Oh, Byoungduck Park, Sooyeun Lee, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sangkil Lee, Ji Hae Seo, Young Ho Seo
Thiazolidinedione is a five-membered heterocycle that is widely used in drug discovery endeavors. In this study, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of thiazolidinedione-based HDAC6 inhibitors. In particular, compound 6b exerts an excellent inhibitory activity against HDAC6 with an IC50 value of 21 nM, displaying a good HDAC6 selectivity over HDAC1. Compound 6b dose-dependently induces the acetylation level of α -tubulin via inhibition of HDAC6 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line...
December 9, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Brittany N Kuhn, Peter W Kalivas, Ana-Clara Bobadilla
Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder with grave personal consequences that has an extraordinary global economic impact. Despite decades of research, the options available to treat addiction are often ineffective because our rudimentary understanding of drug-induced pathology in brain circuits and synaptic physiology inhibits the rational design of successful therapies. This understanding will arise first from animal models of addiction where experimentation at the level of circuits and molecular biology is possible...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mohamad Harastani, Amine Benterkia, Farnaz Majid Zadeh, Amine Nait-Ali
The abnormal aging mechanism associated with drug abuse results in poor performance of face recognition systems on illicit drug addicts (mainly methamphetamine). Consequently, the high correlation between drug addiction and crime exaggerates the urge for further investigations to originate and overcome this problem. Concurrently, face asymmetry was found to play a significant role in face recognition and age estimation. Therefore, facial asymmetry assessment for meth-addicts is highly serviceable, acknowledging how meth addiction accelerates biological aging and causes severe face distortion...
January 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Elke Humer, Thomas Probst, Christoph Pieh
Biomarkers are a recent research target within biological factors of psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence for deriving biomarkers within psychiatric disorders in serum or urine samples in humans, however, few studies have investigated this differentiation in brain or cerebral fluid samples in psychiatric disorders. As brain samples from humans are only available at autopsy, animal models are commonly applied to determine the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases and to test treatment strategies. The aim of this review is to summarize studies on biomarkers in animal models for psychiatric disorders...
February 17, 2020: Metabolites
Jennifer J Newson, Daniel Hunter, Tara C Thiagarajan
Across the landscape of mental health research and diagnosis, there is a diverse range of questionnaires and interviews available for use by clinicians and researchers to determine patient treatment plans or investigate internal and external etiologies. Although individually, these tools have each been assessed for their validity and reliability, there is little research examining the consistency between them in terms of what symptoms they assess, and how they assess those symptoms. Here, we provide an analysis of 126 different questionnaires and interviews commonly used to diagnose and screen for 10 different disorder types including depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), addiction, bipolar disorder, eating disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as comparator questionnaires and interviews that offer an all-in-one cross-disorder assessment of mental health...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kuisheng Sun, Feng Wang, Lin Ma, Xiaofan Ren, Chun Zhang, Weifang Rong, Tao Sun
Drug addiction is considered the pathological usurpation of normal learning and memory. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) plays an important role in normal learning and memory, but the effect of GPER1 on addiction-related pathological memory has not been reported. Our study used GPER1 knockout (GPER1 KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to compare the sensitivity differences of morphine- and sucrose-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA), and differences in dopamine (DA) content in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
March 14, 2020: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Don Ross
Interdisciplinary study of addiction is facilitated by relative unification of the concept. What should be sought is not formal unification through literal analytic definition, which would undermine practical flexibility within disciplines and intervention practices. However, leading controversies around whether addiction should be conceived as a 'disease', and over whether addiction is 'chosen' behavior, are made more difficult to resolve by failure to apply philosophical reflection on these general concepts...
March 14, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Alexander Reisinger, Susanne Vogt, Anna Essl, Ines Rauch, Florian Bangerl, Philipp Eller, Gerald Hackl
BACKGROUND: Poppers are nitrite-containing liquids, which are inhaled for their aphrodisiac and hallucinogenic effects. Despite some cases of severe poisonings, poppers are often perceived as harmless by consumers. Inhalation and ingestion of poppers are well known, but, according to our literature review, intravenous abuse has not been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man injected poppers intravenously for recreational purposes. He then suffered from dyspnoea and general discomfort...
March 2020: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Mark Willenbring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2020: Addiction
Elizabeth M Oliva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2020: Addiction
Nafisseh S Warner, Matthew A Warner, Julie L Cunningham, Halena M Gazelka, W Michael Hooten, Bhanuprakash Kolla, David O Warner
The use of buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, for the management of chronic pain and/or opioid use disorder is increasing. As such, medical providers will more frequently encounter patients on this therapy. In this paper, we synthesize existing knowledge (derived through keyword searches using MEDLINE databases) in a novel conceptual framework for patients on buprenorphine presenting with acute pain or for those requiring surgical or invasive procedures. This framework is based on three unique domains: the patient, the features of the acute pain insult, and the environment...
February 12, 2020: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Kenneth Blum, David Baron, Thomas McLaughlin, Mark S Gold
The consensus of the current literature strongly supports the concept that brain neurotransmitters, and second messengers involved in the net release of dopamine in the mesolimbic region, especially the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc), is directly linked to motivation, anti-stress, incentive salience (wanting), and well-being. The role of dopamine in terms of alcohol withdrawal symptomology, cocaine craving behavior, dopamine -condensation products (TIQs), and more recently, the genetic aspects of drug-seeking and pro-dopamine regulation, provide compelling evidence of the relevant molecular neurological correlates of dopaminergic /endorphinergic mechanisms in reward circuitry due to genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic insults...
April 15, 2020: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Rita Nieto Montesinos, Brice Moulari, Jessica Gromand, Arnaud Beduneau, Alf Lamprecht, Yann Pellequer
The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, expressed at high levels at the blood-brain barrier, exerts a profound effect on the disposition of various therapeutic compounds in the brain. A rapid and efficient modulation of this efflux transporter could enhance the distribution of its substrates and thereby improve central nervous system pharmacotherapies. This study explored the impact of the intravenous coadministration of two P-glycoprotein modulators, tariquidar and elacridar, on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of loperamide, a P-glycoprotein substrate probe, in rats...
April 2014: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Michael L Smith, Daniel C Nichols, Paula Underwood, Zachary Fuller, Matthew A Moser, Ron Flegel, David A Gorelick, Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Brandon Presley, Bob Bianchi, John Coleman, Fran Diamond, Gerry McNally
Clandestine chemists have demonstrated an ability to convert commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations to methamphetamine. Some of these formulations have properties that manufacturers claim limit or block the extraction of pseudoephedrine and its direct conversion to methamphetamine. In this study, 3 commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations were evaluated for ease of extraction and conversion to methamphetamine using a common chemistry technique called the one-pot method that is frequently employed by clandestine chemists...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hichem Moulahoum, Figen Zihnioglu, Suna Timur, Hakan Coskunol
Substance use disorders are a widely recognized problem, which affects various levels of communities and influenced the world socioeconomically. Its source is deeply embedded in the global population. In order to fight against such an adversary, governments have spared no efforts in implementing substance abuse treatment centers and funding research to develop treatments and prevention procedures. In this review, we will discuss the use of immunological-based treatments and detection kit technologies. We will be detailing the steps followed to produce performant antibodies (antigens, carriers, and adjuvants) focusing on cocaine and methamphetamine as examples...
January 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Saeed Ahmed, Ramya Bachu, Padma Kotapati, Mahwish Adnan, Rizwan Ahmed, Umer Farooq, Hina Saeed, Ali Mahmood Khan, Aarij Zubair, Iqra Qamar, Gulshan Begum
Objective: Gabapentin (GBP) is an anticonvulsant medication that is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS) and posttherapeutic neuralgia. GBP is commonly prescribed off-label for psychiatric disorders despite the lack of strong evidence. However, there is growing evidence that GBP may be effective and clinically beneficial in both psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. This review aimed to perform a systematic analysis of peer-reviewed published literature on the efficacy of GBP in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
V E Medvedev, O N Tereshchenko, N V Kost, A Yu Ter-Israelyan, E V Gushanskaya, I K Chobanu, O Yu Sokolov, N F Myasoedov
AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of monotherapy with phenazepam to complex treatment with the peptide preparation selank and phenazepam in patients with anxiety disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Authors explored the anxiolytic effect and tolerability of monotherapy with phenazepam (30 patients) and complex treatment with selank and phenazepam (40 patients) in anxiety-phobic, hypochondriac and somatoform disorders (ICD-10 items F40.2-9, F41.1-9, F45.0-2)...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
2020-02-26 00:00:32
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