Lee Peyton, Alfredo Oliveros, Doo-Sup Choi, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Psychiatric illness is a prevalent and highly debilitating disorder, and more than 50% of the general population in both middle- and high-income countries experience at least one psychiatric disorder at some point in their lives. As we continue to learn how pervasive psychiatric episodes are in society, we must acknowledge that psychiatric disorders are not solely relegated to a small group of predisposed individuals but rather occur in significant portions of all societal groups. Several distinct brain regions have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disease...
March 30, 2021: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Petra Amchova, Filip Siska, Yousef Tizabi
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological manipulations of glutamatergic ionotropic receptors have been suggested as a promising target for addiction treatment. Antagonists of AMPA/kainate receptors were shown to reduce alcohol intake or alcohol-seeking in various animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NBQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, on methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine self-administration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer METH (0...
April 13, 2021: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Camilla L Nord, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Kristen A Lindquist, Yina Ma, Lindsey Marwood, Ajay B Satpute, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: Influential theories predict that antidepressant medication and psychological therapies evoke distinct neural changes. AIMS: To test the convergence and divergence of antidepressant- and psychotherapy-evoked neural changes, and their overlap with the brain's affect network. METHOD: We employed a quantitative synthesis of three meta-analyses (n = 4206). First, we assessed the common and distinct neural changes evoked by antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, by contrasting two comparable meta-analyses reporting the neural effects of these treatments...
February 25, 2021: British Journal of Psychiatry
Yanaira Alonso-Caraballo, Suman K Guha, Elena H Chartoff
Drugs of abuse and highly palatable foods (e.g. high fat or sweet foods) have powerful reinforcing effects, which can lead to compulsive and addictive drives to ingest these substances to the point of psychopathology and self-harm--specifically the development of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and obesity. Both SUD and binge-like overeating can be defined as disorders in which the salience of the reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of, other rewards that promote well-being...
January 2021: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Carmen Rodríguez-Rivera, Miguel M Garcia, Miguel Molina-Álvarez, Carmen González-Martín, Carlos Goicoechea
In the last years, clusterin, a challenging and paradoxical apolipoprotein, has been of growing interest amongst a rising number of scientists. This enigmatic protein is present in all fluids of the organism besides within the intracellular matrix, and it plays diverse, and at times contrary, roles in a growing number of pathologies. It seems to vary its location and function to assure cellular survival being cytoprotective hence its significance in neuroprotection and cancer along with chemotherapy resistance...
February 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Benoît Schreck, Nicolas Wagneur, Pascal Caillet, Marie Gérardin, Jennyfer Cholet, Michel Spadari, Nicolas Authier, Juliana Tournebize, Marion Gaillard, Anais Serre, Louise Carton, Stéphanie Pain, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a variant of cyclical vomiting syndrome in a context of chronic cannabis usage. Our aim was to compare French cases to those identified in the international literature in order to further our knowledge of the clinical criteria, pathophysiology and treatments for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. METHODS: We analysed cases reported in the international literature up to 30 June 2017, obtained from the MEDLINE, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library databases; we selected relevant articles based on title and abstract...
January 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Aaron J Ruberto, Marco L A Sivilotti, Savannah Forrester, Andrew K Hall, Frances M Crawford, Andrew G Day
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the cause or optimal treatment of hyperemesis in habitual cannabis users. Anecdotal evidence supports the use of haloperidol over traditional antiemetics for this newly recognized disorder. We compare haloperidol with ondansetron for cannabis hyperemesis syndrome. METHODS: We randomized cannabis users with active emesis to either haloperidol (with a nested randomization to either 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) or ondansetron 8 mg intravenously in a triple-blind fashion...
November 5, 2020: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bernhard Luscher, Mengyang Feng, Sarah J Jefferson
There has been much recent progress in understanding of the mechanism of ketamine's rapid and enduring antidepressant effects. Here we review recent insights from clinical and preclinical studies, with special emphasis of ketamine-induced changes in GABAergic synaptic transmission that are considered essential for its antidepressant therapeutic effects. Subanesthetic ketamine is now understood to exert its initial action by selectively blocking a subset of NMDA receptors on GABAergic interneurons, which results in disinhibition of glutamatergic target neurons, a surge in extracellular glutamate and correspondingly elevated glutamatergic synaptic transmission...
2020: Advances in Pharmacology
Joao P De Aquino, José M Flores, Victor J Avila-Quintero, Peggy Compton, Mehmet Sofuoglu
The clinical features and neurobiology of pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) are inextricably linked. Despite emerging evidence supporting the negative impact of ongoing pain in the treatment of OUD, the pharmacological management of pain in the presence of OUD has received limited attention. We sought to systematically review the studies investigating pharmacotherapies for pain among persons with OUD. Eligible studies had participants with OUD and outcomes including evoked or spontaneous pain. We searched Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, and Embase...
September 24, 2020: Addiction Biology
Jiajie Chen, Fan Wang, Jia Zhu, Yongbin Li, Wei Liu, Jiuhua Xue, Hong Shi, Wei Li, Qiang Li, Wei Wang
Abstinence is one of the important measures for heroin addiction. However, it is unknown whether long-term abstinence (LA) would improve the coupling among three core brain networks (salience, default mode, and executive control) and decrease craving in treated heroin addicts. Forty-three heroin addicts with LA, 27 heroin addicts with short-term abstinence (SA), and 46 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) participated in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The authors compared the functional connectivity among the three groups and examined how the coupling among salience, default mode, and executive control networks related to duration of abstinence and craving before and after drug cue exposure among heroin addicts...
November 3, 2020: Addiction Biology
Michael B Gatch, Ritu A Shetty, Nathalie Sumien, Michael J Forster
A new generation of novel cathinone compounds has been developed as stimulant substitutes to avoid drug control laws and detection of use by blood tests. Dipentylone, N-ethylhexedrone, 4-chloroethcathinone (4-CEC), and 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (MPHP) were tested for in vivo psychostimulant-like effects to assess their abuse liability. Locomotor activity was assessed in an open-field assay using Swiss-Webster mice to screen for locomotor stimulant effects and to identify behaviorally-active dose ranges, times of peak effect, and durations of action...
November 5, 2020: Addiction Biology
Scott A Langenecker, Leah R Kling, Natania A Crane, Stephanie M Gorka, Robin Nusslock, Katherine S F Damme, Jessica Weafer, Harriet de Wit, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction and dependence continue as an unresolved source of morbidity and mortality. Two approaches to identifying risk for abuse and addiction are psychopharmacological challenge studies and neuroimaging experiments. The present study combined these two approaches by examining associations between self-reported euphoria or liking after a dose of d-amphetamine and neural-based responses to anticipation of a monetary reward. METHODS: Healthy young adults (N = 73) aged 19 and 26, without any history of alcohol/substance dependence completed four laboratory sessions in which they received oral d-amphetamine (20 mg) or placebo, and completed drug effect questionnaires...
January 1, 2020: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Steven C Eastlack, Elyse M Cornett, Alan D Kaye
Kratom, or Mitragyna, is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, with unique pharmacological properties. It is commonly consumed by preparing the leaves into decoction or tea, or by grinding them into a powder. Recent evidence has revealed that kratom has physiological effects similar to opioids, including pain relief and euphoria, as well as stimulant properties, which together raise potential concern for dependence and addiction. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that the prevalence of kratom use is increasing in many parts of the world, raising important considerations for healthcare providers...
June 2020: Pain and Therapy
Shannon Inglet, Bradly Winter, Sarah E Yost, Sophia Entringer, Anh Lian, Meryl Biksacky, Renee D Pitt, Whitney Mortensen
OBJECTIVE: To compile and synthesize the available literature describing medical cannabis use across various disease states. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches were conducted using MeSH and/or keywords. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were included if they described the use of cannabis-based products and medications in the treatment of a predefined list of disease states in humans and were published in English...
November 2020: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Min-Ho Nam, Woojin Won, Kyung-Seok Han, C Justin Lee
μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors that is critical for analgesia, reward, and euphoria. MOR is distributed in various brain regions, including the hippocampus, where traditionally, it is believed to be localized mainly at the presynaptic terminals of the GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to exert a strong disinhibitory effect on excitatory pyramidal neurons. However, recent intensive research has uncovered the existence of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, shedding light on how astrocytic MOR participates in opioid signaling via glia-neuron interaction in the hippocampus...
January 2021: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hiromitsu Imai, Misaki Morita, Hajime Morita, Tetsuji Ohyama, Shimako Tanaka, Shinya Uchida, Noriyuki Namiki, Naoto Uemura, Kyoichi Ohashi
AIMS: Opioids are commonly used analgesics for moderate to severe pain, but levels of drug effect vary among individuals. As for the mechanisms underlying these individual differences, there have been reports suggesting effects of polymorphisms in the gene encoding μ-opioid receptor ( OPRM1 ). However, whether these polymorphisms affect the actions of μ-opioid receptor partial agonists has yet to be determined. This study aimed to assess differences in the pharmacological actions of buprenorphine, a μ-opioid receptor partial agonist, due to a polymorphism (A118G, rs1799971) in the OPRM1 gene in humans...
November 2020: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giovanni Martinotti, Marco Di Nicola, Filippo Ruggeri, Gianluigi Conte, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2014: BioMed Research International
Wei-Ning Jiang, Xiao Jing, Man Li, Hong Deng, Tao Jiang, Ke-Zhao Xiong, Ying Chen, Xiao-Fei Wang, Quan-Jun Wang
Corydalis is a Chinese herb that has been used in China for hundreds of years for analgesic and other purposes. Corydaline and l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) are the main active ingredients of Corydalis. This study was aimed to study the potential utility of corydaline and l-THP in the treatment of opioid abuse and addiction and explore the possible mechanisms underlying their pharmacological actions. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was used to evaluate the rewarding effects of morphine and Western-blot immunoreactive assays were used to evaluate morphine-induced changes in dopamine D2 receptor and GluA1 AMPA receptor and GluA2 AMPA receptor expression in the brain of rats...
July 25, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ze-Xu Wei, Qi Wu, Qing-Shan Liu, Yong Cheng
Drug dependence may affect the neurotransmitter system levels in the human body. This study recruited 113 healthy control subjects, 118 heroin-dependent patients and 118 methamphetamine-dependent patients and examined the serum 5-HT, dopamine, glutamate and norepinephrine levels in the 349 volunteers. ELISA assays demonstrated that the serum 5-HT levels were significantly reduced in the drug-dependent patients, whereas the serum dopamine and glutamate levels were both significantly increased in the drug-dependent patients when compared with control subjects...
August 17, 2020: Journal of Neural Transmission
Erin N Bobeck, QiLiang Chen, Michael M Morgan, Susan L Ingram
Opioid inhibition of presynaptic GABA release in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) activates the descending antinociception pathway. Tolerance to repeated opioid administration is associated with upregulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. The objective of these studies was to test the hypothesis that adenylyl cyclase contributes to opioid tolerance by modulating GABA neurotransmission. Repeated microinjections of morphine or the adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 into the vlPAG decreased morphine antinociception as would be expected with the development of tolerance...
August 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology
2020-08-29 17:33:22
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