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Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Minjeong Kim, Won-Jun Jang, Rupa Shakya, Boyeon Choi, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee
Metabolomics is a powerful tool used in the description of metabolic system perturbations caused by diseases or abnormal conditions, and it usually involves qualitative and/or quantitative metabolome determination, accompanied by bioinformatics assessment. Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant with serious abuse potential and due to the absence of effective pharmacotherapy and a high recurrence potential, methamphetamine addiction is a grave issue. Moreover, its addiction mechanisms remain unclear, probably due to the lack of experimental models that reflect personal genetic variances and environmental factors determining drug addiction occurrence...
September 20, 2019: Metabolites
Erin L Karschner, W David Darwin, Robert S Goodwin, Stephen Wright, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Sativex(®), a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC's effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. METHODS: Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board-approved study...
January 2011: Clinical Chemistry
Jeremy R Johnson, Mary Burnell-Nugent, Dominique Lossignol, Elena Doina Ganae-Motan, Richard Potts, Marie T Fallon
This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract (n = 60), THC extract (n = 58), or placebo (n = 59)...
February 2010: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez, Isabel Prieto, Ana-Belén Segarra, Magdalena Martínez-Cañamero, Inmaculada Banegas, Marc de Gasparo
After millennia of knowledge of opium, it was only recently that endogenous substances called opioids with similar properties to opium and derivatives were discovered. The first to be discovered were enkephalins. In addition to the regulation of their synthesis and expression of receptors, an important mechanism for the regulation of their functions carried out by multiple proteolytic enzymes acting at all levels of their structure is described. The action of such enzymes, known as enkephalinases, is also regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors which ultimately affect the control of the enkephalins's action...
2019: Vitamins and Hormones
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Siddharth Sarkar, Mohit Varshney, Vaibhav Patil, Rakesh Lal
BACKGROUND: Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. METHODS: Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included in the study...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Christopher C Presley, Craig W Lindsley
Opium is the latex from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum L., which humankind has utilized since ancient Mesopotamia all the way to modern times. Opium used to be surrounded in divine mystery or magic-like abilities and was given to cure a wide variety of diseases until its analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties were understood, the resulting alkaloids were isolated, and their structure and properties unmasked. Opium went from being sold in any store front in the form of pills or tinctures with no prescription necessary for purchase or smoked in an opium den down the street, to then bringing about consumer advocacy and the right to know what is in a medication...
October 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Kan Hong Zheng, Afra Khan, Eduardo D Espiridion
Phenibut, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, is a synthetic, nootropic GABAB receptor agonist used to treat anxiety, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal, and other conditions. The drug is licensed and widely used in Russia however, phenibut can be purchased through online vendors in other countries. The current literature on the effects of phenibut intoxication and withdrawal in humans is limited. In this case report, a 23-year-old male with a history of heavy phenibut and alcohol use presented to the emergency department with suicidal thoughts, somatic complaints, and seeking help with detoxification...
July 24, 2019: Curēus
Yonatan M Kupchik, Michael D Scofield, Kenner C Rice, Kejun Cheng, Bernard P Roques, Peter W Kalivas
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a target of dense nucleus accumbens projections. Many of these projections coexpress GABA and the neuropeptide enkephalin, a δ and μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand. Of these two, the MOR in the VP is known to be involved in reward-related behaviors, such as hedonic responses to palatable food, alcohol intake, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Stimulating MORs in the VP decreases extracellular GABA, indicating that the effects of MORs in the VP on cocaine seeking are via modulating GABA neurotransmission...
January 15, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Susana Barbosa Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression, key symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts, are considered the main factors that precipitate relapse in chronic cocaine addiction. Preclinical studies have found that rodents exposed to different withdrawal periods show an increase in anxiety and depressive-like behavior. Mirtazapine - a tetracyclic medication - is used primarily to treat depression and, sometimes, anxiety. It has also successfully improved withdrawal symptoms in drug-dependent patients...
May 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Chiung-Chun Huang, Che-Ming Yeh, Mei-Ying Wu, Alice Y W Chang, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Neuroadaptation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a central component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, has been implicated in the development of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and relapse to cocaine seeking. However, little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying such adaptation. Using a mouse model of behavioral sensitization, we show that animals withdrawn from repeated cocaine exposure have a selective deficit in the ability to elicit metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the shell of the NAc in response to bath application of the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)...
March 16, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bart de Laat, Alissa Goldberg, Julia Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Nabeel Nabulsi, Ming-Qiang Zheng, Soheila Najafzadeh, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jim Ropchan, Stephanie S O'Malley, Yiyun Huang, Evan D Morris, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: Naltrexone is a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist used as a treatment for alcohol use disorder. However, only modest clinical effects have been observed, possibly because of limited knowledge about the biological variables affecting the efficacy of naltrexone. We investigated the potential role of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in the therapeutic effect of naltrexone. METHODS: A total of 48 non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers (16 women) who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence participated in two alcohol drinking paradigms (ADPs) separated by a week of open-label naltrexone (100 mg daily)...
June 8, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Harrison J VanDolah, Brent A Bauer, Karen F Mauck
Cannabidiol (CBD) oils are low tetrahydrocannabinol products derived from Cannabis sativa that have become very popular over the past few years. Patients report relief for a variety of conditions, particularly pain, without the intoxicating adverse effects of medical marijuana. In June 2018, the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of rare, severe epilepsy, further putting the spotlight on CBD and hemp oils. There is a growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence to support use of CBD oils for many conditions, suggesting its potential role as another option for treating challenging chronic pain or opioid addiction...
June 12, 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Lael Reinstatler, Nagy A Youssef
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature on the efficacy of ketamine for the treatment of suicidal ideation (SI). METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to January 2015 for clinical trials and case reports describing therapeutic ketamine administration to patients presenting with SI/suicidality. Searches were also conducted for relevant background material regarding the pharmacological function of ketamine. RESULTS: Nine publications (six studies and three case reports) met the search criteria for assessing SI after administration of subanesthetic ketamine...
March 2015: Drugs in R&D
Guillaume Ferré, Georges Czaplicki, Pascal Demange, Alain Milon
Dynorphin is a neuropeptide involved in pain, addiction and mood regulation. It exerts its activity by binding to the kappa opioid receptor (KOP) which belongs to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. The dynorphin peptide was discovered in 1975, while its receptor was cloned in 1993. This review will describe: (a) the activities and physiological functions of dynorphin and its receptor, (b) early structure-activity relationship studies performed before cloning of the receptor (mostly pharmacological and biophysical studies of peptide analogues), (c) structure-activity relationship studies performed after cloning of the receptor via receptor mutagenesis and the development of recombinant receptor expression systems, (d) structural biology of the opiate receptors culminating in X-ray structures of the four opioid receptors in their inactive state and structures of MOP and KOP receptors in their active state...
2019: Vitamins and Hormones
Shimaalsadat Sajadi, Majid Kazemi, Babak Bakhtar, Hamid Ostadebrahimi
BACKGROUND: The neonates of addicted women are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome. This study aimed to compare the effects of auricular seed acupressure and foot reflexology on neonatal abstinence syndrome among the neonates of addicted women. METHODS: Thirty one neonates of addicted women were purposively recruited and randomly allocated through coin flipping to receive either foot reflexology then seed acupressure or seed acupressure then foot reflexology...
August 2019: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Constanza Garcia-Keller, Cora Smiley, Cara Monforton, Samantha Melton, Peter W Kalivas, Justin Gass
Converging epidemiological studies show that a life-threatening event increases the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which carries 30% to 50% comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUDs). Such comorbidity results in greater drug use and poorer treatment outcomes. There is overlap between the enduring synaptic neuroadaptations produced in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) by acute restraint stress and cocaine self-administration. Because of these coincident neuroadaptations, we hypothesized that an odor paired with acute restraint stress would reinstate drug seeking and chose two mechanistically distinct drugs of abuse to test this hypothesis: alcohol and cocaine...
July 7, 2019: Addiction Biology
Juan Suárez, Sophia Khom, Francisco Alén, Luis A Natividad, Florence P Varodayan, Reesha R Patel, Dean Kirson, Rocío Arco, Antonio Ballesta, Michal Bajo, Leticia Rubio, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Marisa Roberto
Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), typically used as antidepressants, induces long-lasting behavioral changes associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the contribution of SSRI (fluoxetine)-induced alterations in neurobiological processes underlying alcohol relapse such as endocannabinoid and glutamate signaling in the central amygdala (CeA) remains largely unknown. We utilized an integrative approach to study the effects of repeated fluoxetine administration during abstinence on ethanol drinking...
July 24, 2019: Addiction Biology
Ross van de Wetering, Susan Schenk
Repeated exposure to drugs produces a plethora of persistent brain changes, some of which underlie the development of drug addiction. An important objective of addiction research is to identify the brain changes that might mediate the transition from drug use to drug misuse. The persistent accumulation of the transcription factor, ∆FosB, following repeated drug exposure provides a means of achieving this objective. Experiments were conducted on sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of extensive 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) self-administration on immunohistochemical measurements of ∆FosB accumulation in 12 brain regions was compared with a matched, drug-naive, control group...
August 1, 2019: Addiction Biology
Andrea L Johnstone, Nadja S Andrade, Estelle Barbier, Bohdan B Khomtchouk, Christopher A Rienas, Kenneth Lowe, Derek J Van Booven, Esi Domi, Rustam Esanov, Samara Vilca, Jenica D Tapocik, Keli Rodriguez, Danielle Maryanski, Michael Christopher Keogh, Marcus W Meinhardt, Wolfgang H Sommer, Markus Heilig, Zane Zeier, Claes Wahlestedt
Epigenetic enzymes oversee long-term changes in gene expression by integrating genetic and environmental cues. While there are hundreds of enzymes that control histone and DNA modifications, their potential roles in substance abuse and alcohol dependence remain underexplored. A few recent studies have suggested that epigenetic processes could underlie transcriptomic and behavioral hallmarks of alcohol addiction. In the present study, we sought to identify epigenetic enzymes in the brain that are dysregulated during protracted abstinence as a consequence of chronic and intermittent alcohol exposure...
August 1, 2019: Addiction Biology
2019-08-23 16:27:30
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