Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Yedy Israel, María Elena Quintanilla, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Daniela Santapau, Pablo Berríos-Cárcamo, Marcelo Ezquer, Belen Olivares, Mario Herrera-Marschitz
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and cell injury, proposed to result in alterations that perpetuate alcohol intake and cued relapse. Studies show that brain oxidative stress is consistently associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, and literature implies that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation perpetuate each other. In line with a self-perpetuating mechanism, it is hypothesized that inhibition of either oxidative stress or neuroinflammation could reduce chronic alcohol intake and relapse...
November 15, 2019: Addiction Biology
Susanne G Mueller, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD) affects predominantly the frontal lobes. Less is known how frontal lobe GM loss affects GM loss in other regions and how it influences drinking behavior or relapse after treatment. The profile similarity index (PSI) combined with graph analysis allows to assess how GM loss in one region affects GM loss in regions connected to it, ie, GM connectivity. The PSI was used to describe the pattern of GM connectivity in 21 light drinkers (LDs) and in 54 individuals with AUD (ALC) early in abstinence...
December 20, 2019: Addiction Biology
Ting Lei, Zhenxin Hu, Ruolin Ding, Jianfang Chen, Shiqi Li, Fuhui Zhang, Xuemei Pu, Nanrong Zhao
Metabotropic glutamate receptors of class C GPCRs exist as constitutive dimers, which play important roles in activating excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. However, the activation mechanism induced by agonists has not been clarified in experiments. To address the problem, we used microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation couple with protein structure network (PSN) to explore the glutamate-induced activation for the mGluR1 homodimer. The results indicate that glutamate binding stabilizes not only the closure of Venus flytrap domains but also the polar interaction of LB2-LB2, in turn keeping the extracelluar domain in the active state...
December 26, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Judith J Prochaska, Neal L Benowitz
The health harms of combusted tobacco use are undeniable. With market and regulatory pressures to reduce the harms of nicotine delivery by combustion, the tobacco product landscape has diversified to include smokeless, heated, and electronic nicotine vaping products. Products of tobacco combustion are the main cause of smoking-induced disease, and nicotine addiction sustains tobacco use. An understanding of the biology and clinical features of nicotine addiction and the conditioning of behavior that occurs via stimuli paired with frequent nicotine dosing, as with a smoked cigarette, is important for informing pharmacologic and behavioral treatment targets...
October 2019: Science Advances
George Anderson
The pathoetiology and pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have been relatively under-explored. Consequently, no targetted pharmaceutical treatments or preventative interventions are available. The current article reviews the available data on the biological underpinnings of BPD, highlighting a role for early developmental processes, including prenatal stress and maternal dysbiosis, in BPD pathoetiology. Such factors are proposed to drive alterations in the infant's gut microbiome, in turn modulating amygdala development and the amygdala's two-way interactions with other brain regions...
March 2, 2020: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Alain Couvineau, Thierry Voisin, Pascal Nicole, Valérie Gratio, Catalina Abad, Yossan-Var Tan
Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
David H Bergin, Yu Jing, Gail Williams, Bruce G Mockett, Hu Zhang, Wickliffe C Abraham, Ping Liu
Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts numerous central nervous system (CNS) dependent pharmacological effects and may potentially modulate altered neurochemistry seen in neurological disorders. In preclinical studies, injection has been the predominant route of systemic administration. However, a significant translational step would be the use of oral agmatine treatment at therapeutic doses and better understanding of L-arginine metabolic profiles in the CNS post-treatment. The present study systematically investigated the tolerability, safety and brain-plasma neurochemistry following daily oral agmatine sulfate treatment (via gavage) to wild-type (WT) mice up to 900 mg/kg for one week (Experiment 1) or WT and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) mice at 300 mg/kg for fifteen weeks (Experiment 2)...
September 3, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brijesh G Taksande, Shreesha Nambiar, Shardha Patil, Milind J Umekar, Manish M Aglawe, Nandkishor R Kotagale
Alcohol is one of the most widely abused recreational drugs, largely linked with serious health and social concerns. However, the treatment options for alcohol-use disorders have limited efficacy and exhibit a range of adverse drug reactions. Large numbers of preclinical studies have projected a biogenic amine, agmatine as a promising potential treatment option for drug addiction, including alcoholism. In the present study, administration of agmatine (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in significant inhibition of ethanol self-administration in the right p-VTA in operant conditioning paradigm...
November 2019: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ceren Sahin Ozkartal, Erdem Tuzun, Cem Ismail Kucukali, Canan Ulusoy, Murat Giris, Feyza Aricioglu
Innate immunity activation in the central nervous system (CNS) is known to contribute to the development of depression through NOD-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome assembly. Furthermore, administration of agmatine (AGM), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, reverses stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats. We examined the effects of chronically-administered nitric oxide (NO) pathway modulating drugs on NLRP1/3-mediated neuroinflammatory responses and depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model of rats...
December 15, 2019: Brain Research
Niyamat Chimthanawala, Shruti Patil, Rishabh Agrawal, Nandkishor R Kotagale, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Although ethanol withdrawal depression is one of the prominent reasons for its reinstatement and dependence, its neurochemical basis is not clearly understood. Present study investigated the role of agmatinergic system in ethanol withdrawal-induced depression using forced swim test (FST) in rats. Chronic exposure of animals to ethanol for 21 days and its abrupt withdrawal produced depression like behavior as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, compared to the pair-fed control animals. The ethanol withdrawal-induced depression was significantly attenuated by agmatine (20-40 μg/rat, i...
September 11, 2019: Alcohol
Bernard J Crespi
The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel and effective drugs have, however, been developed for many years. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how evolutionary biology can provide a useful framework for psychiatric drug development...
2019: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Cristina Miliano, Giulia Margiani, Liana Fattore, Maria Antonietta De Luca
In the last decade, the trend of drug consumption has completely changed, and several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have appeared on the drug market as legal alternatives to common drugs of abuse. Designed to reproduce the effects of illegal substances like cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, or ketamine, NPS are only in part controlled by UN conventions and represent an emerging threat to global public health. The effects of NPS greatly differ from drug to drug and relatively scarce information is available at present about their pharmacology and potential toxic effects...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Barbara Lovrecic, Mercedes Lovrecic, Branko Gabrovec, Marco Carli, Matteo Pacini, Angelo G I Maremmani, Icro Maremmani
Background : In the last decade there has been a progressive increase in the use of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) that are not yet under international control. In particular, novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) have reappeared on the recreational drug market in the last few years. As a result, the use of NSOs has increased rapidly. This poses an emerging and demanding challenge to public health. Aim : To raise awareness among clinicians and other professionals about NPSs, especially NSOs, to summarize current knowledge about pharmacological properties, forms of NSO on the market, pattern of use, effects and consequences of use...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jakob Demant, Silje Anderdal Bakken, Atte Oksanen, Helgi Gunnlaugsson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Internet use has changed drug dealing over the past decade owing to the emergence of darknet services. Yet, little is known about drug dealing in public online services. This study reports findings from a Nordic comparative study on social media drug dealing. It is the first in-depth study on the increase of digitally mediated drug dealing outside the cryptomarkets. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study using online ethnography and semi-structured interviews...
May 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Helena Fels, Stefanie Lottner-Nau, Tanja Sax, Gabriele Roider, Matthias Graw, Volker Auwärter, Frank Musshoff
Most recently, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has emerged on the illicit drug market and is sold on the Internet as a "research chemical". Its structure is closely related to the synthetic opioid AH-7921. U-47700 is a μ-opioid receptor agonist with a potency of approximately 7.5 times that of morphine. In this study, postmortem concentrations of U-47700 are presented in 26 fatalities which occurred between April 2016 and August 2017 in the southern part of Germany. In 18 of these cases, quantitative analyses of U-47700 were carried out in femoral blood, heart blood, liver, urine, vitreous humor, pericardial fluid, and gastric content...
August 2019: Forensic Science International
Jan G Bruhn, Hesham R El-Seedi, Nikolai Stephanson, Olof Beck, Alexander T Shulgin
Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti...
June 2008: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Igho J Onakpoya, Elizabeth T Thomas, Joseph J Lee, Ben Goldacre, Carl J Heneghan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and harms of pregabalin in the management of neuropathic pain. DESIGN: Rapid review and meta-analysis of phase III, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years and above with neuropathic pain defined according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria. INTERVENTIONS: Pregabalin or placebo. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcomes were pain (as measured using validated scales) and adverse events...
January 21, 2019: BMJ Open
Waed Al-Khalaileh, Rana Abu-Farha, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: There has been a trend in the past five years in Jordan for ophthalmic anticholinergic preparations to be misused or abused. This is done mainly to experience mental altering effects such as mood changes, euphoria or hallucinations. Such products are mostly obtained from community pharmacies without a prescription. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to observe the requests of ophthalmic preparations in community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan, and evaluating the most popular and frequently requested ophthalmic drops suspected of abuse...
August 2019: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Karma Rabgay, Neti Waranuch, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Ratree Sawangjit, Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cannabis, cannabinoids, and their administration routes on pain and adverse euphoria events. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect,, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Embase from inception until June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of cannabis or cannabinoids on pain reduction. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted and assessed the quality of studies by means of Cochrane risk of bias...
September 5, 2019: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Antoine Bechara, Kent C Berridge, Warren K Bickel, Jose A Morón, Sidney B Williams, Jeffrey S Stein
Two major questions about addictive behaviors need to be explained by any worthwhile neurobiological theory. First, why do people seek drugs in the first place? Second, why do some people who use drugs seem to eventually become unable to resist drug temptation and so become "addicted"? We will review the theories of addiction that address negative-reinforcement views of drug use (i.e., taking opioids to alleviate distress or withdrawal), positive-reinforcement views (i.e., taking drugs for euphoria), habit views (i...
October 2019: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
2019-10-28 17:54:30
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