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Addiction physiolgical

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Constanza Garcia-Keller, Cora Smiley, Cara Monforton, Samantha Melton, Peter W Kalivas, Justin Gass
Converging epidemiological studies show that a life-threatening event increases the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which carries 30% to 50% comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUDs). Such comorbidity results in greater drug use and poorer treatment outcomes. There is overlap between the enduring synaptic neuroadaptations produced in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) by acute restraint stress and cocaine self-administration. Because of these coincident neuroadaptations, we hypothesized that an odor paired with acute restraint stress would reinstate drug seeking and chose two mechanistically distinct drugs of abuse to test this hypothesis: alcohol and cocaine...
July 7, 2019: Addiction Biology
Juan Suárez, Sophia Khom, Francisco Alén, Luis A Natividad, Florence P Varodayan, Reesha R Patel, Dean Kirson, Rocío Arco, Antonio Ballesta, Michal Bajo, Leticia Rubio, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Marisa Roberto
Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), typically used as antidepressants, induces long-lasting behavioral changes associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the contribution of SSRI (fluoxetine)-induced alterations in neurobiological processes underlying alcohol relapse such as endocannabinoid and glutamate signaling in the central amygdala (CeA) remains largely unknown. We utilized an integrative approach to study the effects of repeated fluoxetine administration during abstinence on ethanol drinking...
July 24, 2019: Addiction Biology
Ross van de Wetering, Susan Schenk
Repeated exposure to drugs produces a plethora of persistent brain changes, some of which underlie the development of drug addiction. An important objective of addiction research is to identify the brain changes that might mediate the transition from drug use to drug misuse. The persistent accumulation of the transcription factor, ∆FosB, following repeated drug exposure provides a means of achieving this objective. Experiments were conducted on sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of extensive 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) self-administration on immunohistochemical measurements of ∆FosB accumulation in 12 brain regions was compared with a matched, drug-naive, control group...
August 1, 2019: Addiction Biology
Andrea L Johnstone, Nadja S Andrade, Estelle Barbier, Bohdan B Khomtchouk, Christopher A Rienas, Kenneth Lowe, Derek J Van Booven, Esi Domi, Rustam Esanov, Samara Vilca, Jenica D Tapocik, Keli Rodriguez, Danielle Maryanski, Michael Christopher Keogh, Marcus W Meinhardt, Wolfgang H Sommer, Markus Heilig, Zane Zeier, Claes Wahlestedt
Epigenetic enzymes oversee long-term changes in gene expression by integrating genetic and environmental cues. While there are hundreds of enzymes that control histone and DNA modifications, their potential roles in substance abuse and alcohol dependence remain underexplored. A few recent studies have suggested that epigenetic processes could underlie transcriptomic and behavioral hallmarks of alcohol addiction. In the present study, we sought to identify epigenetic enzymes in the brain that are dysregulated during protracted abstinence as a consequence of chronic and intermittent alcohol exposure...
August 1, 2019: Addiction Biology
Brian M Cox, Thomas E Cote, Irwin Lucki
The marked increase in deaths related to opioid drugs since 1999 was associated with an increase in the number of prescriptions for opioid drugs. This was accompanied by increasing demand for improved management of chronically painful conditions. These factors suggest that improvements are needed in the education of physicians with regard to the management of chronic pain, the optimal therapeutic application of opioid drugs, and the avoidance of substance use disorders. In this paper we address the evidence that physician education can influence prescribing practices and discuss approaches to enhancing the pre-clinical and clinical education of medical students in pain management and substance use disorders...
July 18, 2019: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Howard D Chilcoat, Halle R Amick, Molly R Sherwood, Kelly E Dunn
Opioid use disorder (OUD) and its consequences are a major public health concern. The partial agonist buprenorphine is a safe and effective treatment for OUD, but concerns about abuse, misuse, and diversion of buprenorphine have been raised. This narrative review examined the rates and motives for use of illicit buprenorphine in the United States. Findings from the 17 included studies suggest the majority of study participants using illicit buprenorphine do so for reasons related to misuse (to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms or achieve or maintain abstinence from other opioids)...
September 2019: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Marie-Christine Tonon, Hubert Vaudry, Julien Chuquet, Florent Guillebaud, Jinjiang Fan, Olfa Masmoudi-Kouki, David Vaudry, Damien Lanfray, Fabrice Morin, Vincent Prevot, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Jean-Denis Troadec, Jérôme Leprince
The existence of specific binding sites for benzodiazepines (BZs) in the brain has prompted the search for endogenous BZ receptor ligands designated by the generic term « endozepines ». This has led to the identification of an 86-amino acid polypeptide capable of displacing [3 H]diazepam binding to brain membranes, thus called diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). It was subsequently found that the sequence of DBI is identical to that of a lipid carrier protein termed acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). The primary structure of DBI/ACBP has been well preserved, suggesting that endozepines exert vital functions...
July 5, 2019: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
David A Wiss
The opioid crisis has reached epidemic proportions in the United States with rising overdose death rates. Identifying the underlying factors that contribute to addiction vulnerability may lead to more effective prevention strategies. Supply side environmental factors are a major contributing component. Psychosocial factors such as stress, trauma, and adverse childhood experiences have been linked to emotional pain leading to self-medication. Genetic and epigenetic factors associated with brain reward pathways and impulsivity are known predictors of addiction vulnerability...
2019: Frontiers in Public Health
Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hock-Kean Liew, Hao-Ming Li, Shinn-Zong Lin, Shin-Yuan Chen
Drug and alcohol addiction has become an emerging public health issue and is a great burden to patients, their families, and society. It is characterized by high relapse rates and significant morbidity and mortality, and most available treatments result in only modest improvement. These findings highlight the necessity for new approaches to treat addiction. Scientific reports in the past two decades suggest that addiction involves impaired neural plasticity and decreased hippocampal neurogenesis. Stem cell therapy and its derived neurotrophic factors can potentially target the underlying pathophysiology of addiction...
July 4, 2019: Cell Transplantation
Thomas Larrieu, Sophie Layé
The central nervous system (CNS) has the highest concentration of lipids in the organism after adipose tissue. Among these lipids, the brain is particularly enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) represented by the omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) series. These PUFAs include arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. PUFAs have received substantial attention as being relevant to many brain diseases, including anxiety and depression. This review addresses an important question in the area of nutritional neuroscience regarding the importance of ω3 PUFAs in the prevention and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, mainly depression and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Norah Mulvaney-Day, Brent J Gibbons, Shums Alikhan, Mustafa Karakus
Objectives. To assess the impact of the 2008 Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) on mental and substance use disorder services in the private, large group employer-sponsored insurance market in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database from January 2005 through September 2015 by using population-level interrupted time series regressions to determine whether parity implementation was associated with utilization and spending outcomes...
June 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Peter J Hamilton, Eric J Nestler
As an individual becomes addicted to a drug of abuse, nerve cells within the brain's reward circuitry adapt at the epigenetic level during the course of repeated drug exposure. These drug-induced epigenetic adaptations mediate enduring changes in brain function which contribute to life-long, drug-related behavioral abnormalities that define addiction. Targeting these epigenetic alterations will enhance our understanding of the biological basis of addiction and might even yield more effective anti-addiction therapies...
June 27, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Clara Pérez-Mañá, Esther Papaseit, Francina Fonseca, Adriana Farré, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and other new synthetic opioids (NSO) have burst onto the illegal drug market as new psychoactive substances (NPS). They are often sold as heroin to unsuspecting users and produce euphoria through their agonist action on μ- opioid receptors. Their high consumption, often combined with other substances, has led to multiple intoxications during recent years. In some countries, such as the United States, the consumption of opioids, whether for medical or recreational purposes, has become epidemic and is considered a public health problem...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fabrizio Schifano, Laura Orsolini, G Duccio Papanti, John M Corkery
Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings...
February 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Tania Ahuja, Ofole Mgbako, Caroline Katzman, Allison Grossman
This case report describes the development of withdrawal from phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist. Although phenibut is not an FDA-approved medication, it is available through online retailers as a nootropic supplement. There are reports of dependence in patients that misuse phenibut. We report a case in which a patient experienced withdrawal symptoms from phenibut and was successfully treated with a baclofen taper. This case report highlights the development of phenibut use disorder with coingestion of alcohol and potential management for phenibut withdrawal...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Matthew I Hardman, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten
Phenibut is a glutamic acid derivative with activity on the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B, A, and B-phenethylamine receptors. It is prescribed in former Communist Bloc countries for anxiolysis and related psychiatric disorders. It can be easily obtained in Western countries and is thought to have abuse potential. Abrupt discontinuation has been reported to precipitate an abstinence syndrome. A review of the literature identified 22 reported cases, many of which were notable for severe psychomotor agitation and requirements for aggressive pharmacologic treatment...
May 20, 2019: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Kathleen M Carroll, Elise E DeVito, Sarah W Yip, Charla Nich, Mehmet Sofuoglu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Concurrent use of cocaine and opioids is a persistent and challenging problem, particularly within methadone maintenance settings, and there are no approved pharmacotherapies for this population. Galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, was found in a randomized clinical trial to reduce cocaine use among methadone-maintained individuals who were also cocaine dependent. Because of the potential of galantamine to reduce multiple drugs of abuse, it may also reduce opioid use...
July 2019: American Journal on Addictions
Maurizio Coppola, Giuseppe Sacchetto, Raffaella Mondola
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder persisting in adulthood in 40-60% of cases. Clinical and neuroimaging studies suggest that patients affected by both drug addiction and ADHD show higher rates of craving for drug than patients without ADHD. We designed a pilot open-label study to investigate the effects of ADHD on craving for heroin in methadone maintenance therapy patients. METHOD: Patients were recruited from outpatient facilities in an addiction treatment unit in the municipality of Alba, Italy...
January 2019: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Hildi Hagedorn, Marie Kenny, Adam J Gordon, Princess E Ackland, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Wei Yu, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors...
December 13, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
2019-06-20 14:30:48
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