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Forensic psychiatry

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26 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Pearl L H Mok, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, David Springate, Aske Astrup, Nav Kapur, Sussie Antonsen, Ole Mors, Roger T Webb
Importance: Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. Objective: To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Amir Sariaslan, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
IMPORTANCE: Absolute and relative risks of violence are increased in patients with psychotic disorders, but the contribution of triggers for violent acts to these risks is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a range of triggers for violent acts are associated with risks of violence in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and in individuals without a psychiatric diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using a sample of all individuals born in Sweden between 1958 and 1988 (N = 3 123 724), we identified patients in the National Patient Register who were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 34 903) and bipolar disorder (n = 29 692), as well as unaffected controls (n = 2 763 012)...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Eileen P Ryan, Joseph M Otonichar
Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders...
July 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Antti Latvala, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Catarina Almqvist, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein
IMPORTANCE: Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated physiological correlate of aggressive and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents, but whether low resting heart rate increases the risk of violence and other antisocial and risk-taking behaviors in adulthood has not been studied in representative samples. OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive association of resting heart rate with violent and nonviolent criminality and with fatal and nonfatal injuries owing to assaults and unintentional injuries in the population...
October 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Donald W Black
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted...
July 2015: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Gilian Tenbergen, Matthias Wittfoth, Helge Frieling, Jorge Ponseti, Martin Walter, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Tillmann H C Kruger
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sebastian Mohnke, Sabine Müller, Till Amelung, Tillmann H C Krüger, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Martin Walter, Klaus M Beier, Henrik Walter
Psychosocial and biological factors have been implicated in paedophilia, such as alterations in brain structure and function. The purpose of this paper is to review the expanding body of literature on this topic including brain abnormality case reports, as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Case studies of men who have committed sexual offences against children implicate frontal and temporal abnormalities that may be associated with impaired impulse inhibition. Structural neuroimaging investigations show volume reductions in paedophilic men...
November 2014: Progress in Neurobiology
Macià Buades-Rotger, David Gallardo-Pujol
Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed...
2014: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Scott O Lilienfeld, Robert D Latzman, Ashley L Watts, Sarah F Smith, Kevin Dutton
Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N = 3388), we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael T Treadway, Joshua W Buckholtz, Justin W Martin, Katharine Jan, Christopher L Asplund, Matthew R Ginther, Owen D Jones, René Marois
Determining the appropriate punishment for a norm violation requires consideration of both the perpetrator's state of mind (for example, purposeful or blameless) and the strong emotions elicited by the harm caused by their actions. It has been hypothesized that such affective responses serve as a heuristic that determines appropriate punishment. However, an actor's mental state often trumps the effect of emotions, as unintended harms may go unpunished, regardless of their magnitude. Using fMRI, we found that emotionally graphic descriptions of harmful acts amplify punishment severity, boost amygdala activity and strengthen amygdala connectivity with lateral prefrontal regions involved in punishment decision-making...
September 2014: Nature Neuroscience
Marc T Swogger, Zach Walsh, Michael Christie, Brittany M Priddy, Kenneth R Conner
Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined (a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and (b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression...
July 2015: Aggressive Behavior
Jin-Hong Park, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Elizabeth Letourneau
Motivated by recent developments on dimension reduction (DR) techniques for time series data, the association of a general deterrent effect towards South Carolina (SC)'s registration and notification (SORN) policy for preventing sex crimes was examined. Using adult sex crime arrestee data from 1990 to 2005, the the idea of Central Mean Subspace (CMS) is extended to intervention time series analysis (CMS-ITS) to model the sequential intervention effects of 1995 (the year SC's SORN policy was initially implemented) and 1999 (the year the policy was revised to include online notification) on the time series spectrum...
January 2014: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
Henrik Lysell, Bo Runeson, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström
OBJECTIVE: To identify specific risk factors for filicide, parental killing of one's own children. METHOD: A nationwide matched cohort study of filicides, including filicide-suicide, was conducted in Sweden 1973-2008 (N = 151). We linked longitudinal national registry data on offender psychiatric and neurologic morbidity (ICD codes), suicide attempts, traumatic injury, and previous criminality. We compared filicide offenders and their children to age- and sex-matched general population controls and their children...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Samuel J Leistedt, Paul Linkowski
The authors investigated the relationship between cinema and psychopathy to describe and analyze the portrayal of fictional psychopathic characters in popular films and over cinematic history. From 400 films (1915-2010), 126 fictional psychopathic characters (21 female and 105 male) were selected based on the realism and clinical accuracy of their profiles. Movies were then analyzed by senior forensic psychiatrists and cinema critics. Secondary (71%) and manipulative (48%) subtypes were the most common in the female group, while secondary (51%) and prototypical (34%) were the most common in the male group...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Andrea L Glenn, Adrian Raine
Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?...
January 2014: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Vânia Gomes, Patrícia Jardim, Francisco Taveira, Ricardo J Dinis-Oliveira, Teresa Magalhães
Paternal incest is one of the most serious forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse with clinical, social, and legal relevance. A retrospective study was performed, based on forensic reports and judicial decisions of alleged cases of biological paternal incest of victims under 18 years old (n = 215) from 2003 to 2008. Results highlight that in a relevant number of cases: victims were female; the abuse begun at an early age with reiteration; the alleged perpetrator presented a history of sexual crimes against children; sexual practices were physically poorly intrusive, which associated with a forensic medical evaluation performed more than 72 h after the abuse, explain partially the absence of physical injuries or other evidence-these last aspects are different from extrafamilial cases...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Mark L Howe
Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences...
2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
R James R Blair
Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child's environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous-unemotional component and an impulsive-antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum...
November 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Owen D Jones, Anthony D Wagner, David L Faigman, Marcus E Raichle
Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being offered in court cases. Consequently, the legal system needs neuroscientists to act as expert witnesses who can explain the limitations and interpretations of neuroscientific findings so that judges and jurors can make informed and appropriate inferences. The growing role of neuroscientists in court means that neuroscientists should be aware of important differences between the scientific and legal fields, and, especially, how scientific facts can be easily misunderstood by non-scientists, including judges and jurors...
2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Christopher Racine, Stephen Billick
Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
2015-07-12 14:26:07
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