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125 papers 25 to 100 followers Articles and research that relate to Public Health issues in Luton and Bedfordshire
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699054/a-randomized-trial-of-e-cigarettes-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#1
Peter Hajek, Anna Phillips-Waller, Dunja Przulj, Francesca Pesola, Katie Myers Smith, Natalie Bisal, Jinshuo Li, Steve Parrott, Peter Sasieni, Lynne Dawkins, Louise Ross, Maciej Goniewicz, Qi Wu, Hayden J McRobbie
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are commonly used in attempts to stop smoking, but evidence is limited regarding their effectiveness as compared with that of nicotine products approved as smoking-cessation treatments. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults attending U.K. National Health Service stop-smoking services to either nicotine-replacement products of their choice, including product combinations, provided for up to 3 months, or an e-cigarette starter pack (a second-generation refillable e-cigarette with one bottle of nicotine e-liquid [18 mg per milliliter]), with a recommendation to purchase further e-liquids of the flavor and strength of their choice...
January 30, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700403/effect-of-breakfast-on-weight-and-energy-intake-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#2
Katherine Sievert, Sultana Monira Hussain, Matthew J Page, Yuanyuan Wang, Harrison J Hughes, Mary Malek, Flavia M Cicuttini
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of regular breakfast consumption on weight change and energy intake in people living in high income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and January 2018 investigating the effect of breakfast on weight or energy intake. ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform search portal were also searched in October 2018 to identify any registered yet unpublished or ongoing trials...
January 30, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707329/a-systematic-review-of-interventions-that-promote-frequent-hiv-testing
#3
REVIEW
Margaret M Paschen-Wolff, Arjee Restar, Anisha D Gandhi, Stephanie Serafino, Theodorus Sandfort
As of 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV testing guidelines recommend that those at increased risk for HIV are tested two to four times per year. Evidence-based interventions that promote frequent and repeated testing remain sparse. We conducted a systematic review to: (1) identify frequent testing interventions; and (2) determine which were successful in increasing frequent testing rates. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, and CINAHL for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2010 and September 30, 2017...
February 1, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715636/exploring-the-relationship-between-foster-care-experiences-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-a-sample-of-homeless-former-foster-youth
#4
Amanda Yoshioka-Maxwell, Eric Rice
Recent research shows high rates of poor behavioral health outcomes among homeless former foster youth, including increased risk for HIV-risk behaviors. In the current study, data were collected from 184 youth at drop-in centers in Los Angeles using behavioral health questionnaires to explore the relationships between specific aspects of foster care experiences and engagement in HIV-risk behaviors. Results indicated that youth whose first homelessness experience occurred before leaving foster care were significantly more likely to engage in drug use with sex and exchange sex than those whose first homelessness experience occurred after leaving foster care...
February 4, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30528484/global-patterns-of-mortality-in-international-migrants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Robert W Aldridge, Laura B Nellums, Sean Bartlett, Anna Louise Barr, Parth Patel, Rachel Burns, Sally Hargreaves, J Jaime Miranda, Stephen Tollman, Jon S Friedland, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: 258 million people reside outside their country of birth; however, to date no global systematic reviews or meta-analyses of mortality data for these international migrants have been done. We aimed to review and synthesise available mortality data on international migrants. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases for observational studies, systematic reviews, and randomised controlled trials published between Jan 1, 2001, and March 31, 2017, without language restrictions...
December 5, 2018: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496009/trends-in-trust-in-the-sources-of-health-information-on-e-cigarettes-among-us-adults-2015-2017
#6
Daniel Owusu, Scott R Weaver, Bo Yang, David L Ashley, Lucy Popova
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate recent levels and trends in trust in sources of health information on e-cigarettes in the United States. METHODS: We obtained data from nationally representative samples of adults in 2015 (n = 5389), 2016 (n = 5273), and 2017 (n = 5389) that reported trust in 13 sources of health information on e-cigarettes in the United States. We used weighted linear regression models to examine temporal trends in trust levels. RESULTS: Doctors, health organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health experts and scientists, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and family and friends were trusted, whereas news media, e-cigarette users, social media, vape shop employees, and e-cigarette and cigarette companies were distrusted...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496103/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-282-causes-of-death-in-195-countries-and-territories-1980-2017-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2017
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30419237/air-pollution-and-noncommunicable-diseases-a-review-by-the-forum-of-international-respiratory-societies-environmental-committee-part-2-air-pollution-and-organ-systems
#8
REVIEW
Dean E Schraufnagel, John R Balmes, Clayton T Cowl, Sara De Matteis, Soon-Hee Jung, Kevin Mortimer, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Mary B Rice, Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez, Akshay Sood, George D Thurston, Teresa To, Anessa Vanker, Donald J Wuebbles
Although air pollution is well known to be harmful to the lung and airways, it can also damage most other organ systems of the body. It is estimated that about 500,000 lung cancer deaths and 1.6 million COPD deaths can be attributed to air pollution, but air pollution may also account for 19% of all cardiovascular deaths and 21% of all stroke deaths. Air pollution has been linked to other malignancies, such as bladder cancer and childhood leukemia. Lung development in childhood is stymied with exposure to air pollutants, and poor lung development in children predicts lung impairment in adults...
November 9, 2018: Chest
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29221643/respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-walking-down-a-traffic-polluted-road-compared-with-walking-in-a-traffic-free-area-in-participants-aged-60-years-and-older-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-age-matched-healthy-controls-a-randomised-crossover
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank J Kelly, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults...
January 27, 2018: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30131059/association-of-longitudinal-alcohol-consumption-trajectories-with-coronary-heart-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-six-cohort-studies-using-individual-participant-data
#10
Dara O'Neill, Annie Britton, Mary K Hannah, Marcel Goldberg, Diana Kuh, Kay Tee Khaw, Steven Bell
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that alcohol intake trajectories differ in their associations with biomarkers of cardiovascular functioning, but it remains unclear if they also differ in their relationship to actual coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. Using multiple longitudinal cohort studies, we evaluated the association between long-term alcohol consumption trajectories and CHD. METHODS: Data were drawn from six cohorts (five British and one French). The combined analytic sample comprised 35,132 individuals (62...
August 22, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30146330/alcohol-use-and-burden-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#11
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older...
September 22, 2018: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29731173/child-mortality-in-england-compared-with-sweden-a-birth-cohort-study
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ania Zylbersztejn, Ruth Gilbert, Anders Hjern, Linda Wijlaars, Pia Hardelid
BACKGROUND: Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference. METHODS: We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records...
May 19, 2018: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28834689/association-of-physicians-perceived-barriers-with-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-initiation
#13
Albert J Farias, Lara S Savas, Maria E Fernandez, Sharon P Coan, Ross Shegog, C Mary Healy, Erica Lipizzi, Sally W Vernon
Physician recommendation is a strong predictor of vaccine uptake, however their perceived barriers may prevent vaccination. Therefore, we determined the association between physicians' perceived barriers to HPV vaccination and vaccination initiation. We surveyed pediatricians in a large network of clinics in Houston, Texas to assess their perceived barriers to vaccinating adolescents. We combined survey data with electronic medical records to determine HPV vaccination initiation over a 12-month study period (July 2014-June 2015)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28619532/major-physical-health-conditions-and-risk-of-suicide
#14
Brian K Ahmedani, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Samuel Hubley, Deepak Prabhakar, L Keoki Williams, Nicole Zeld, Elizabeth Mutter, Arne Beck, Dennis Tolsma, Gregory E Simon
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals make healthcare visits before suicide, but many do not have a diagnosed mental health condition. This study seeks to investigate suicide risk among patients with a range of physical health conditions in a U.S. general population sample and whether risk persists after adjustment for mental health and substance use diagnoses. METHODS: This study included 2,674 individuals who died by suicide between 2000 and 2013 along with 267,400 controls matched on year and location in a case-control study conducted in 2016 across eight Mental Health Research Network healthcare systems...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28236464/future-life-expectancy-in-35-industrialised-countries-projections-with-a-bayesian-model-ensemble
#15
Vasilis Kontis, James E Bennett, Colin D Mathers, Guangquan Li, Kyle Foreman, Majid Ezzati
BACKGROUND: Projections of future mortality and life expectancy are needed to plan for health and social services and pensions. Our aim was to forecast national age-specific mortality and life expectancy using an approach that takes into account the uncertainty related to the choice of forecasting model. METHODS: We developed an ensemble of 21 forecasting models, all of which probabilistically contributed towards the final projections. We applied this approach to project age-specific mortality to 2030 in 35 industrialised countries with high-quality vital statistics data...
April 1, 2017: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28431333/regeneration-and-health-a-structured-rapid-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
G McCartney, W Hearty, M Taulbut, R Mitchell, R Dryden, C Collins
OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise what is known about the impacts of regeneration on health, health inequalities and their socio-economic determinants. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid, structured literature review. METHODS: A rapid, structured approach was undertaken to identifying relevant studies involving a search of peer-reviewed literature databases, an Internet search to identify relevant grey literature, and a review of articles citing two key systematic reviews...
July 2017: Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28365913/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-psychosocial-interventions-to-reduce-drug-and-sexual-blood-borne-virus-risk-behaviours-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, Kideshini Widyaratna, Julia Elena Marquez-Arrico, Elizabeth Hughes, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Judit Tirado-Munoz
Opiate substitution treatment and needle exchanges have reduced blood borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Psychosocial interventions could further prevent BBV. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether psychosocial interventions (e.g. CBT, skills training) compared to control interventions reduced BBV risk behaviours among PWID. 32 and 24 randomized control trials (2000-May 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and Clinical trials, with an update in MEDLINE to December 2016) were included in the review and meta-analysis respectively...
July 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28243936/the-effects-of-housing-status-stability-and-the-social-contexts-of-housing-on-drug-and-sexual-risk-behaviors
#18
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Timothy McAuliffe, Katherine Quinn
Research on the relationship between housing instability and HIV risk has often focused on two different conceptions of stability. In one conceptualization, housing stability is defined according to physical location with homeless or unstably housed individuals defined as those who reside in places not meant for human habitation or in emergency shelters. The other conceptualization has defined housing stability as individuals' degree of transience, often operationalized as the number of moves or evictions a person has had within a specified amount of time...
July 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27965211/gotta-catch-em-all-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-physical-activity-among-young-adults-difference-in-differences-study
#19
Katherine B Howe, Christian Suharlim, Peter Ueda, Daniel Howe, Ichiro Kawachi, Eric B Rimm
OBJECTIVE:  To estimate the effect of playing Pokémon GO on the number of steps taken daily up to six weeks after installation of the game. DESIGN:  Cohort study using online survey data. PARTICIPANTS:  Survey participants of Amazon Mechanical Turk (n=1182) residing in the United States, aged 18 to 35 years and using iPhone 6 series smartphones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  Number of daily steps taken each of the four weeks before and six weeks after installation of Pokémon GO, automatically recorded in the "Health" application of the iPhone 6 series smartphones and reported by the participants...
December 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27923088/prevalence-of-depression-depressive-symptoms-and-suicidal-ideation-among-medical-students-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Lisa S Rotenstein, Marco A Ramos, Matthew Torre, J Bradley Segal, Michael J Peluso, Constance Guille, Srijan Sen, Douglas A Mata
Importance: Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students. Data Sources and Study Selection: Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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