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By Javier Castro Heart Failure And Heart Transplantation
Samir Gupta, Steven M Donn
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used for respiratory support in preterm babies at birth and after extubation from mechanical ventilation. Various CPAP devices are available for use that can be broadly grouped into continuous flow and variable flow. There are potential physiologic differences between these CPAP systems and the choice of a CPAP device is too often guided by individual expertise and experience rather than by evidence. When interpreting the evidence clinicians should take into account the pressure generation sources, nasal interface, and the factors affecting the delivery of pressure, such as mouth position and respiratory drive...
June 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Margo S Harrison, Robert L Goldenberg
The global burden of preterm birth (PTB) includes the morbidity and mortality of babies born before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Prematurity has been the leading worldwide cause of neonatal mortality for at least a decade, but has now also become the leading cause of childhood mortality through age five years. Globally, each year, 15 million babies are born preterm, which is estimated to be about 11% of all deliveries. Preterm birth appears to be increasing in most countries. This review will address the epidemiology, rates, and etiology of PTB around the globe as well as survival by gestational age and interventions and preventative measures known to improve outcomes in high-burden countries...
April 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
William E Benitz
Despite a large body of basic science and clinical research and clinical experience with thousands of infants over nearly 6 decades,(1) there is still uncertainty and controversy about the significance, evaluation, and management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants, resulting in substantial heterogeneity in clinical practice. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the evidence available to guide evaluation and treatment of preterm infants with prolonged ductal patency in the first few weeks after birth...
January 2016: Pediatrics
Estella M Janz-Robinson, Nadia Badawi, Karen Walker, Barbara Bajuk, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) who were treated medically or surgically and those who were not diagnosed with PDA or who did not undergo treatment for PDA. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective population-based cohort study used data from a geographically defined area in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory served by a network of 10 neonatal intensive care units...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Gianluca Terrin, Francesca Conte, Mehmet Yekta Oncel, Antonella Scipione, Patrick J McNamara, Sinno Simons, Rahul Sinha, Omer Erdeve, Kadir S Tekgunduz, Mustafa Dogan, Irena Kessel, Cathy Hammerman, E Nadir, Sadik Yurttutan, Bonny Jasani, Serdar Alan, Francesco Manguso, Mario De Curtis
OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all the available evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in neonates, and to explore the effects of clinical variables on the risk of closure. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, using the following medical subject headings and terms: paracetamol, acetaminophen and patent ductus arteriosus. Electronic and manual screening of conference abstracts from international meetings of relevant organisations...
March 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Tereza Lamberska, Marketa Luksova, Jan Smisek, Jana Vankova, Richard Plavka
AIM: Standard resuscitation guidelines are based on data from a range of gestational ages. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of our delivery room resuscitation protocol across a range of gestational ages in preterm infants born at <29 weeks. METHODS: We performed an observational study of prospectively collected video recordings of 73 preterm infants. The percentage of bradycardic patients, time to reach target oxygen saturation and the extent of all interventions were compared between three gestational age groups: 22-24 weeks (n = 22), 25-26 weeks (n = 27) and 27-28 weeks (n = 24)...
April 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Amish Jain, Prakesh S Shah
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Diagnosis of persistent PDA and determination of its clinical and hemodynamic significance are challenging. Although the condition has been associated with substantial neonatal morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most therapeutic approaches have failed to show improvement in these outcomes. As such, clinicians have tended toward conservative management strategies; however, the benefits and risks of such an approach are unclear...
September 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
Abigail Wellington, Jeffrey M Perlman
BACKGROUND: Many neonatal units are adopting developmentally appropriate feeding practices such as cue-based or infant-driven feeding (IDF). There have been limited studies examining the clinical benefit of this approach. METHODS: A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to introduce an IDF protocol for premature infants <34 weeks gestational age (GA). Data were abstracted to determine whether time to full feeds and time to discharge would be shortened when compared with traditional practitioner-driven feeding (PDF) approach...
November 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
K Jane Hassell, Mojgan Ezzati, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Derek J Hausenloy, Nicola J Robertson
Intrapartum-related events are the third leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide and result in one million neurodisabled survivors each year. Infants exposed to a perinatal insult typically present with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). The contribution of pure hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) to NE has been debated; over the last decade, the sensitising effect of inflammation in the aetiology of NE and neurodisability is recognised. Therapeutic hypothermia is standard care for NE in high-income countries; however, its benefit in encephalopathic babies with sepsis or in those born following chorioamnionitis is unclear...
November 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Sorina R Simon, Lieke van Zogchel, Maria Pilar Bas-Suárez, Giacomo Cavallaro, Ronald I Clyman, Eduardo Villamor
BACKGROUND: Several cohort studies have shown an association between low platelet counts in the first day(s) of life and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. However, these results have not been confirmed by other studies. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of all the studies addressing the relationship between platelet counts in the first day(s) of life and PDA in preterm infants. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from their inception until December 2014...
2015: Neonatology
E M Dempsey, K J Barrington, N Marlow, C P O'Donnell, J Miletin, G Naulaers, P-Y Cheung, D Corcoran, G Pons, Z Stranak, D Van Laere
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm babies (delivered at <28 completed weeks of gestation) are frequently diagnosed with hypotension and treated with inotropic and pressor drugs in the immediate postnatal period. Dopamine is the most commonly used first-line drug. Babies who are treated for hypotension more frequently sustain brain injury, have long-term disability or die compared to those who are not. Despite the widespread use of drugs to treat hypotension in such infants, evidence for efficacy is lacking, and the effect of these agents on long-term outcomes is unknown...
2014: Neonatology
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