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Michelle A Roett, Mejebi T Mayor, Kelechi A Uduhiri
Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid...
February 1, 2012: American Family Physician
Erica J Gibson, David L Bell, Sherine A Powerful
Adolescents are often at higher risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Medical providers should be alert for both asymptomatic and symptomatic STIs, and follow appropriate screening guidelines. Moreover, providers need to know how to best administer adolescent-friendly confidential care, treatment, and health education in the primary care setting. This article addresses the most common adolescent STIs and pertinent recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and management of infections, in addition to a brief focused discussion on human immunodeficiency virus and adolescents...
September 2014: Primary Care
Jane R Schwebke, Christina A Muzny, William E Josey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge and is associated with important public health complications such as preterm birth and acquisition or transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections. Continued controversy concerning the pathogenesis of BV has led to a lack of progress in prevention and management of this infection. METHODS: Development of a conceptual model for the pathogenesis of BV based on review of past and current research...
August 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Robyn Neblett Fanfair, Kimberly A Workowski
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients.
February 2014: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Lisa E Manhart
This article summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking Mycoplasma genitalium to sexually transmitted disease syndromes, including male urethritis, and female cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and adverse birth outcomes. It discusses the relationship of this bacterium to human immunodeficiency virus infection and reviews the available literature on the efficacy of standard antimicrobial therapies against M genitalium.
December 2013: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Elissa Meites
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million people in the United States. Although trichomoniasis is common, it has been considered a "neglected" sexually transmitted disease, due to limited knowledge of its sequelae and associated costs. This article reviews current epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, clinical management recommendations and special considerations, research on associated conditions and costs, prevention strategies, and controversies regarding trichomoniasis...
December 2013: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Linda Carmine, Marigold Castillo, Martin Fisher
BACKGROUND: Significant changes are taking place in the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in adolescents and young adults. FINDINGS: In this review article, we provide an update of STIs in adolescents and young adults including: (1) Adolescent risk; (2) Screening guidelines; (3) Clinical manifestations; (4) Diagnostic testing; (5) Treatment; and (6) Prevention; with an emphasis on "what's new" in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While the impacts of STI epidemiology and health care access are leading to new recommendations for screening and prevention, changes in technology and drug resistance are promoting new methods of STI testing and ongoing revisions of STI treatment recommendations...
April 2014: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Danielle N Poole, R Scott McClelland
Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology...
September 2013: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marcia M Hobbs, Arlene C Seña
Recent advances in tests for the sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis have increased opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of this important sexually transmitted infection. This review summarises currently available tests, highlighting their performance characteristics, advantages and limitations. The recent development of molecular tests for the detection of T vaginalis, including rapid antigen detection and nucleic acid amplification tests, has significantly improved the quality of diagnostics for trichomoniasis, particularly in women...
September 2013: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Christina A Muzny, Jane R Schwebke
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. T vaginalis infections in women can range from asymptomatic to acute inflammatory vaginitis. In men, this infection is typically asymptomatic but is increasingly being recognised as a cause of non-gonococcal urethritis. Diagnosis of T vaginalis has traditionally been made by direct microscopic examination of a wet mount of vaginal fluid or through the use of culture. The recent commercial availability of nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of T vaginalis has seen these replace culture as the gold standard for diagnosis...
September 2013: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Hans Verstraelen, Alexander Swidsinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent evidence supports the view that bacterial vaginosis presents as a polymicrobial biofilm infection. This has far-reaching implications for the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial vaginosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Gardnerella vaginalis is presumably the first species to adhere to the vaginal epithelium and then becomes the scaffolding to which other species adhere. Not all G. vaginalis strains do form biofilms: G. vaginalis can be present in the vagina in a planktonic or in a biofilm mode of growth...
February 2013: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Rebecca M Brotman
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid-producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections...
December 2011: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Peter Schneede, Peter Tenke, Alfons G Hofstetter
The classical bacteria that cause venereal diseases, e.g. gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid and inguinal granuloma only account for a small proportion of all known STDs today. Other bacteria and viruses as well as yeasts, protozoa and epizoa must also be regarded as causative organisms of STD. Taken together, all sexually transmitted infections (STI) comprise more than 30 relevant STD pathogens. However, not all pathogens that can be sexually transmitted manifest diseases in the genitals and not all infections of the genitals are exclusively sexually transmitted...
July 2003: European Urology
Cliffton T H Bong, Margaret E Bauer, Stanley M Spinola
Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid. Chancroid is common in developing countries and facilitates human immunodeficiency virus transmission. In this review, the clinical features, epidemiology, and prospects for disease control are discussed in the context of experimental and natural infection of humans.
September 2002: Microbes and Infection
Kimberly A Workowski, William C Levine, Judith N Wasserheit
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) constitute an epidemic of tremendous magnitude, with an estimated 15 million persons in the United States acquiring a new STD each year. Effective clinical management of STDs is a strategic common element in efforts to prevent HIV infection and to improve reproductive and sexual health. Sexually transmitted diseases may result in severe, long-term, costly complications, including facilitation of HIV infection, tubal infertility, adverse outcomes of pregnancy, and cervical and other types of anogenital cancer...
August 20, 2002: Annals of Internal Medicine
Anneli Uusküla, Peter K Kohl
Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms, widespread in nature. Several mycoplasma species have been isolated from humans. For 6 of them: Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, M. primatum, M. genitalium, M. spermatophilum and M. penetrans, the genital tract is the main site of colonization. This review is concentrated on the role of mycoplasmas as sexually transmitted agents, with the emphasis to M. genitalium infections. M. hominis and U. urealyticum are isolated from the genital tract of healthy men and women with considerable frequency...
February 2002: International Journal of STD & AIDS
G R Burstein, J M Zenilman
Urethritis in men has been categorized historically as gonococcal or nongonococcal (NGU). The major pathogens causing NGU are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Trichomonas vaginalis may be involved occasionally. In up to one-half of cases, an etiologic organism may not be identified. In this review we present recent advances in the diagnosis and management of NGU and discuss how they may be applied in a variety of clinical settings, including specialized STD clinics and primary health care practices...
January 1999: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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