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Exam Prep UCT

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52 papers 25 to 100 followers Review articles to aid studying for the South African Radiology College Exam
By Zakariya Vawda Neuroradiologist
Alireza Eajazi, Steve Kussman, Christina LeBedis, Ali Guermazi, Andrew Kompel, Andrew Jawa, Akira M Murakami
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff and glenohumeral joint and the pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, and treatment options of rotator cuff tear arthropathy (RCTA). CONCLUSION: Although multiple pathways have been proposed as causes of RCTA, the exact cause remains unclear. Increasing knowledge about the clinical diagnosis, imaging features, and indicators of severity improves recognition and treatment of this pathologic condition...
November 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Bela S Purohit, Maria Isabel Vargas, Angeliki Ailianou, Laura Merlini, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Alexandra Platon, Bénédicte M Delattre, Olivier Rager, Karim Burkhardt, Minerva Becker
Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features...
February 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Seth J Kligerman, Travis Henry, Cheng T Lin, Teri J Franks, Jeffrey R Galvin
Mosaic attenuation is a commonly encountered pattern on computed tomography that is defined as heterogeneous areas of differing lung attenuation. This heterogeneous pattern of attenuation is the result of diverse causes that include diseases of the small airways, pulmonary vasculature, alveoli, and interstitium, alone or in combination. Small airways disease can be a primary disorder, such as respiratory bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis, or be part of parenchymal lung disease, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or large airways disease, such as bronchiectasis and asthma...
September 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Magdy Soliman, Ronald Laxer, David Manson, Rae Yeung, Andrea S Doria
The term "systemic vasculitis" encompasses a diverse set of diseases linked by the presence of blood-vessel inflammation that are often associated with critical complications. These diseases are uncommon in childhood and are frequently subjected to a delayed diagnosis. Although the diagnosis and treatment may be similar for adult and childhood systemic vasculitides, the prevalence and classification vary according to the age group under investigation. For example, Kawasaki disease affects children while it is rarely encountered in adults...
July 2015: Pediatric Radiology
Blanca Paño, Carmen Sebastià, Enric Ripoll, Pilar Paredes, Rafael Salvador, Laura Buñesch, Carlos Nicolau
Precise radiologic evaluation of regional adenopathic involvement in pelvic gynecologic tumors is fundamental to clinical practice because of its prognostic and therapeutic significance. Likewise, the identification of metastatic adenopathies at posttreatment imaging is essential for assessing response and detecting recurrence. Similar to urologic neoplasms, gynecologic neoplasms most often spread regionally to the pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, following the normal drainage pathways of the pelvic organs...
May 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Ferenc Czeyda-Pommersheim, Misun Hwang, Sue Si Chen, Diane Strollo, Carl Fuhrman, Sanjeev Bhalla
Amyloidosis is a rare diverse condition caused by the pathologic extracellular deposition of abnormal insoluble proteins throughout the body. It may exist as a primary disease or, more commonly, may be secondary to a wide variety of pathologic processes ranging from chronic infection or inflammation to malignancy. Hereditary forms also exist. On the basis of the structure of the protein deposits, more than two dozen subtypes of amyloidosis have been described. A single organ or multiple organ systems may be affected...
September 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Sarah A Johnson, Anita Kumar, Matthew J Matasar, Heiko Schöder, Jürgen Rademaker
Lymphoma comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases; remarkable advances have been made in diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic imaging provides important information for staging and response assessment in patients with lymphoma. Over the years, staging systems have been refined, and dedicated criteria have been developed for evaluating response to therapy with both computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. The most recent system proposed for staging and response assessment, known as the Lugano classification, applies to both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
August 2015: Radiology
Elliot C Dickerson, Jonathan R Dillman, Ethan A Smith, Michael A DiPietro, Robert L Lebowitz, Kassa Darge
Magnetic resonance (MR) urography is a valuable imaging modality for assessing disorders of the pediatric urinary tract. It allows comprehensive evaluation of the kidneys and urinary tract in children by providing both morphologic and functional information without exposing the child to ionizing radiation. Pediatric MR urography can be used to thoroughly evaluate renal and urinary tract abnormalities that are difficult to identify or fully characterize with other imaging techniques, and it has the potential to allow earlier diagnosis while decreasing the number of imaging studies performed...
July 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Tracy Jaffe, William M Thompson
Large-bowel obstruction is an abdominal emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates if left untreated. Although abdominal radiography is usually the initial imaging study performed in patients suspected of having large-bowel obstruction, it may not be sufficient to distinguish obstruction from other causes of colonic dilatation. Computed tomography is the imaging method of choice as it can establish the diagnosis and cause of large-bowel obstruction. A contrast agent enema may be used to confirm or exclude large-bowel obstruction...
June 2015: Radiology
Nina Woldenberg, Rinat Masamed, Jeffrey Petersen, Cecilia Matilda Jude, Barbara M Kadell, Maitraya K Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Robert Y Shih, Kelly K Koeller
Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases...
July 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Behroze A Vachha, Pamela W Schaefer
Neuroimaging plays a key role in the initial work-up of patients with symptoms of acute stroke. Understanding the advantages and limitations of available CT and MR imaging techniques and how to use them optimally in the emergency setting is crucial for accurately making the diagnosis of acute stroke and for rapidly determining appropriate treatment.
July 2015: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Kira Melamud, Christina A LeBedis, Jorge A Soto
Pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare but life-threatening occurrences, often occurring in association with other solid organ injuries. Findings of pancreatic and duodenal trauma on computed tomography and MR imaging are often nonspecific, and high levels of clinical suspicion and understanding of mechanism of injury are imperative. Familiarity with the grading schemes of pancreatic and duodenal injury is important because they help in assessing for key imaging findings that directly influence management...
July 2015: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Harpreet K Pannu, Michael Oliphant
The subperitoneal space and peritoneal cavity are two mutually exclusive spaces that are separated by the peritoneum. Each is a single continuous space with interconnected regions. Disease can spread either within the subperitoneal space or within the peritoneal cavity to distant sites in the abdomen and pelvis via these interconnecting pathways. Disease can also cross the peritoneum to spread from the subperitoneal space to the peritoneal cavity or vice versa.
October 2015: Abdominal Imaging
Kartik S Jhaveri, Hooman Hosseini-Nik
OBJECTIVE: MRI is the modality of choice for rectal cancer staging. The high soft-tissue contrast of MRI accurately assesses the extramural tumor spread and relation to mesorectal fascia and the sphincter complex. This article reviews the role of MRI in the staging and treatment of rectal cancer. The relevant anatomy, MRI techniques, preoperative staging, post-chemoradiation therapy (CRT) imaging, and tumor recurrence are discussed with special attention to recent advances in knowledge...
July 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Mai-Lan Ho, Amy Juliano, Ronald L Eisenberg, Gul Moonis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Benedikt H Heidinger, Mariaelena Occhipinti, Ronald L Eisenberg, Alexander A Bankier
OBJECTIVE: Recent technical advances, including the routine use of CT thin sections and techniques such as 2D minimum-intensity-projection and 3D volume images, have increased our ability to detect large airways diseases. Furthermore, dedicated CT protocols allow the evaluation of dynamic airway dysfunction. CONCLUSION: With diseases of the large airways more commonly seen in daily practice, it is important that radiologists be familiar with the appearances, differential diagnosis, and clinical implications of these entities...
July 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
J S Whang, M Kolber, D K Powell, E Libfeld
The signal pattern of intracranial haemorrhage on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as it evolves over time is rarely discussed due to the sensitivity of T2*-weighted sequences and the specificity of classic signal patterns on T1 and T2-weighted sequences. The DWI signal is strongly affected by the magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic blood products and, therefore, is markedly hypointense in the same phases that demonstrate hypointensity on T2*-weighted sequences; however, hyperacute haemorrhage (oxyhaemoglobin-predominant clot) and late subacute haemorrhage (extracellular methaemoglobin) do not demonstrate T2* hypointensity...
August 2015: Clinical Radiology
Kathleen R Fink, Jayson L Benjert
Imaging of acute neurologic disease in the emergency department can be challenging because of the wide range of possible causes and the overlapping imaging appearance of many of these entities on nonenhanced computed tomography (CT). The key to formulating a succinct, pertinent differential diagnosis includes characterizing the pattern of abnormalities on CT and identifying key features that suggest a particular diagnosis. This article divides neurologic emergencies into 5 scenarios based on the CT findings, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, vasogenic edema without and with underlying mass lesion, and acute hydrocephalus...
July 2015: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Joel A Gross, Bruce E Lehnert, Ken F Linnau, Bryan B Voelzke, Claire K Sandstrom
Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the kidney, ureter, and bladder permit accurate and prompt diagnosis or exclusion of traumatic injuries, without the need to move the patient to the fluoroscopy suite. Real-time review of imaging permits selective delayed imaging, reducing time on the scanner and radiation dose for patients who do not require delays. Modifying imaging parameters to obtain thicker slices and noisier images permits detection of contrast extravasation from the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, while reducing radiation dose on the delayed or cystographic imaging...
July 2015: Radiologic Clinics of North America
2015-06-26 08:01:58
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