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Isabelle Boileau, Shinichiro Nakajima, Doris Payer
Chronic drug use has been associated with dopaminergic abnormalities, detectable in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). Among these, a hallmark feature is low D2 dopamine receptor availability, which has been linked to clinical outcomes, but has not yet translated into a therapeutic strategy. The D3 dopamine receptor on the other hand has gained increasing attention, as, in contrast to D2, chronic exposure to drugs has been shown to up-regulate this receptor subtype in preclinical models of addiction-a phenomenon linked to dopamine system sensitization and drug-seeking...
September 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Giuseppe D'Agostino, Claudia Cristiano, David J Lyons, Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Roberto Russo, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Lora K Heisler, Antonio Calignano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-α in mouse behavior. METHODS: To investigate the function of Ppar-α in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-α was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations...
July 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Enzo Emanuele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: EBioMedicine
Mary Hongying Cheng, Ethan Block, Feizhuo Hu, Murat Can Cobanoglu, Alexander Sorkin, Ivet Bahar
Human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) regulates dopaminergic signaling in the central nervous system by maintaining the synaptic concentration of DA at physiological levels, upon reuptake of DA into presynaptic terminals. DA translocation involves the co-transport of two sodium ions and the channeling of a chloride ion, and it is achieved via alternating access between outward-facing (OF) and inward-facing states of DAT. hDAT is a target for addictive drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamine (AMPH), and therapeutic antidepressants...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Günter U Höglinger, Daniel Alvarez-Fischer, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Miriam Djufri, Andrea Windolph, Ursula Keber, Andreas Borta, Vincent Ries, Rainer K W Schwarting, Dieter Scheller, Wolfgang H Oertel
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Whereas onset of motor impairments reflects a rather advanced stage of the disorder, hyposmia often marks the beginning of the disease. Little is known about the role of the nigro-striatal system in olfaction under physiological conditions and the anatomical basis of hyposmia in PD. Yet, the early occurrence of olfactory dysfunction implies that pathogens such as environmental toxins could incite the disease via the olfactory system...
September 2015: Acta Neuropathologica
Margaret E Rice, Jyoti C Patel
Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites...
July 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Gaetano Gorgone, Monica Currò, Nadia Ferlazzo, Giulia Parisi, Lucilla Parnetti, Vincenzo Belcastro, Nicola Tambasco, Aroldo Rossi, Francesco Pisani, Paolo Calabresi, Riccardo Ientile, Daniela Caccamo
There is evidence that increased homocysteine (Hcy) levels might accelerate dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD) through neurotoxic effects. Homocysteine neurotoxicity mainly relies on redox state alterations. The present work was aimed at investigating the relationships between plasma Hcy concentrations and percent content of oxidized versus total Coenzyme Q10 (%CoQ10) in 60 PD patients and 82 healthy subjects. Both groups were screened for plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, %CoQ10 and C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism...
March 2012: Neuromolecular Medicine
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