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13 papers 25 to 100 followers
Michael J Hove, Johannes Stelzer, Till Nierhaus, Sabrina D Thiel, Christopher Gundlach, Daniel S Margulies, Koene R A Van Dijk, Robert Turner, Peter E Keller, Björn Merker
Trance is an absorptive state of consciousness characterized by narrowed awareness of external surroundings and has long been used-for example, by shamans-to gain insight. Shamans across cultures often induce trance by listening to rhythmic drumming. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the brain-network configuration associated with trance. Experienced shamanic practitioners (n = 15) listened to rhythmic drumming, and either entered a trance state or remained in a nontrance state during 8-min scans...
July 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Joshua Shepherd
The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges -challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown...
June 2015: Mind & Language
Miguel A Vadillo, Emmanouil Konstantinidis, David R Shanks
The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness...
February 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andrew R Gallimore
The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gustav Markkula
Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Johan J Bolhuis
Following Jerry Hogan, I argue that questions of function and evolution, and questions of mechanism should be seen as logically distinct. Evolution is concerned with a historical reconstruction of traits, while the actual underlying mechanisms are the domain of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Functional and evolutionary considerations may be used to generate hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms. But these hypotheses may be false and should always be tested empirically. Many researchers still hold that common descent implies cognitive closeness...
August 2015: Behavioural Processes
Silvia Marino, Lilla Bonanno, Antonio Giorgio
This is a Quick Guide about the role of the functional connectivity in the Disorders of Consciousness (DOC). Recent studies on resting state (RS) in DOC, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), showed that functional connectivity is severely impaired above all in the default mode network (DMN). In the vegetative and minimally conscious state, DMN integrity seems to correlate with the level of remaining consciousness, offering the possibility of using this information for diagnostic and prognostic purposes...
June 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ezequiel Morsella, Christine A Godwin, Tiffany K Jantz, Stephen C Krieger, Adam Gazzaley
What is the primary function of consciousness in the nervous system? The answer to this question remains enigmatic, not so much because of a lack of relevant data, but because of the lack of a conceptual framework with which to interpret the data. To this end, we have developed Passive Frame Theory, an internally coherent framework that, from an action-based perspective, synthesizes empirically supported hypotheses from diverse fields of investigation. The theory proposes that the primary function of consciousness is well-circumscribed, serving the somatic nervous system...
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Leonid Ivonin, Huang-Ming Chang, Marta Diaz, Andreu Catala, Wei Chen, Matthias Rauterberg
Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing...
2015: PloS One
Enrico Facco, Christian Agrillo, Bruce Greyson
During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications...
July 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia...
April 30, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ruth A Lanius
The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion...
2015: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Shu Imaizumi, Tomohisa Asai
Bodily self-consciousness consists of one's sense of agency (I am causing an action) and body ownership (my body belongs to me). Both stem from the temporal congruence between different modalities, although some visuomotor temporal incongruence is acceptable for agency. To examine the association or dissociation between agency and body ownership in the context of different temporal sensitivities, we applied a temporal recalibration paradigm, in which subjective synchrony between asynchronous hand action and its visual feedback can be perceived after exposure to the asynchronous visuomotor stimulation...
2015: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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