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Steven Y C Tong, Joshua S Davis, Emily Eichenberger, Thomas L Holland, Vance G Fowler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics...
July 2015: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, James T Gaensbauer, James K Todd, Neal A Halsey, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) remains a significant cause of pediatric illness and death in low and middle income countries. Identifying severity risk factors and predictive scores may guide interventions to reduce poor outcomes. METHODS: Data from a prospective surveillance study for ABM in children aged 0-59 months admitted to 3 referral hospitals in Guatemala City from 2000 to 2007 were analyzed. ABM was defined as positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, positive latex agglutination or CSF white blood cell greater than 100 cells/mL...
July 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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