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By Rosa Elva Vela Pediatric Rheumatology specialist. I Love life .
Tatsuya Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality among children worldwide. Unfortunately, however, reliable evidence was insufficient in pediatric sepsis and many aspects in clinical practice actually depend on expert consensus and some evidence in adult sepsis. More recent findings have given us deep insights into pediatric sepsis since the publication of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. MAIN TEXT: New knowledge was added regarding the hemodynamic management and the timely use of antimicrobials...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
Lydie Da Costa, Julie Galimand, Odile Fenneteau, Narla Mohandas
Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis are the two most common inherited red cell membrane disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding various red cell membrane and skeletal proteins. Red cell membrane, a composite structure composed of lipid bilayer linked to spectrin-based membrane skeleton is responsible for the unique features of flexibility and mechanical stability of the cell. Defects in various proteins involved in linking the lipid bilayer to membrane skeleton result in loss in membrane cohesion leading to surface area loss and hereditary spherocytosis while defects in proteins involved in lateral interactions of the spectrin-based skeleton lead to decreased mechanical stability, membrane fragmentation and hereditary elliptocytosis...
July 2013: Blood Reviews
Jelena Vojinovic, Rolando Cimaz
Vitamin D, upon its discovery one century ago, was classified as a vitamin. This classification still greatly affects our perception about its biological role. 1,25(OH)2D (now known as the D hormone) is a pleiotropic steroid hormone that has multiple biologic effects. It is integral to the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover as well as having anti-proliferative, pro-differentiation, anti-bacterial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties within the body in various cells and tissues...
May 29, 2015: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Bonnie H Arzuaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Pediatrics
Kelly D Black, Stephen John Cico, Derya Caglar
The care of wounds is common in pediatric practice. Most simple wounds can be handled by clinicians in the office or by trained emergency medicine clinicians. Knowledge of appropriate wound care, wound repair techniques, and judicious use of antibiotics for prophylaxis ensures the best possible long-term outcomes. The following review describes appropriate recommendations for acute and long-term wound care, management, and special circumstances common to pediatric practice.
May 2015: Pediatrics in Review
Martin J Herman, Melissa Martinek
Limping is a symptom of varied diagnoses in children and adolescents and can present a difficult diagnostic challenge for primary care clinicians. A careful and systematic evaluation can shorten the long list of potential diagnoses to direct appropriate diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the problem. Trauma and infections are the most common causes of limping. Inflammatory conditions, developmental diagnoses,and overuse injuries are other causes. Although rare, malignancies such as osteosarcoma and blood cell cancers must also be considered as potential causes of limping in children and adolescents...
May 2015: Pediatrics in Review
Lisa Ann Rasmussen, Marie-Claude Grégoire
Neurological symptoms are very common in children with life-limiting conditions and are challenging in terms of burden of illness. Moreover, neurological symptoms can significantly impact the child's quality of life and contribute to distress among parents, families, caregivers and health care providers. Knowing how to manage and alleviated these symptoms is essential for providing good palliative care. In the present article, the more common neurological symptoms of agitation/irritability, spasticity and dystonia will be reviewed...
April 2015: Paediatrics & Child Health
Nes Perrin, U B Berg
AIM: This study of children and young adults with type 1 diabetes with normal to high glomerular filtration rates (GFR) compared estimated GFR (eGFR) with measured GFR (mGFR). METHODS: GFR was measured by inulin clearance, and we carried out simultaneous analyses of standardised creatinine and cystatin C. eGFR was calculated using different formulas. RESULTS: We enrolled 106 patients, including 56 males, aged 21.9 (standard deviation 9.2) years with 13...
July 2015: Acta Paediatrica
Wibke Jonas, Leslie Atkinson, Meir Steiner, Michael J Meaney, Ashley Wazana, Alison S Fleming
AIM: Research findings are inconclusive when it comes to whether breastfeeding is associated with the mother-infant relationship or infant temperament. We examined the association between breastfeeding at three months postpartum and infant temperament at 18 months postpartum and whether this link was affected by the mothers' anxiety and mediated by her sensitivity. METHODS: We assessed 170 mothers for breastfeeding and anxiety using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months postpartum, maternal sensitivity using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale at six months postpartum and infant temperament using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 months postpartum...
July 2015: Acta Paediatrica
Jennifer Harrington, Etienne Sochett, Andrew Howard
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone fragility disorder that presents with a wide clinical phenotype spectrum: from perinatal lethality and severe deformities to very mild forms without fractures. Most cases of OI are due to autosomal dominant mutations of the type I collagen genes. A multidisciplinary approach with rehabilitation, orthopedic surgery, and consideration of medical therapy with bisphosphonates underpins current management. Greater understanding of the pathogenesis of OI may lead to novel, therapeutic approaches to help improve clinical symptoms of children with OI in the future...
December 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Ron El-Hawary, Chukwudi Chukwunyerenwa
Scoliosis is a spinal deformity that can be seen in children of all ages. It is most commonly seen as an adolescent idiopathic condition. Progressive scoliosis between 25° and 45° before skeletal and physiologic maturity can be treated with a brace, whereas progressive scoliosis greater than 50° should be treated surgically. For children younger than 10 years, it is important to not only prevent scoliosis from worsening but to also maintain the growth of the spine and chest wall through the use of growth-friendly surgical techniques...
December 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Ian M Paul, Jessica S Beiler, Julie R Vallati, Laura M Duda, Tonya S King
IMPORTANCE: Cough is one of the most common reasons why children visit a health care professional. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of a novel formulation of pasteurized agave nectar vs placebo and no treatment on nocturnal cough and the sleep difficulty associated with nonspecific acute cough in infants and toddlers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this randomized clinical trial performed in 2 university-affiliated outpatient, general pediatric practices from January 28, 2013, through February 28, 2014, children 2 to 47 months old with nonspecific acute cough duration of 7 days or less were studied...
December 2014: JAMA Pediatrics
Yoko Mikami, Louis Kolman, Sebastien X Joncas, John Stirrat, David Scholl, Martin Rajchl, Carmen P Lydell, Sarah G Weeks, Andrew G Howarth, James A White
BACKGROUND: The presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has been associated with adverse events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Signal intensity (SI) threshold techniques are routinely employed for quantification; Full-Width at Half-Maximum (FWHM) techniques are suggested to provide greater reproducibility than Signal Threshold versus Reference Mean (STRM) techniques, however the accuracy of these approaches versus the manual assignment of optimal SI thresholds has not been studied...
2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Virginia Miraldi Utz, Aaron R Kaufman
Ocular allergy is one of the most common conditions encountered by pediatricians and ophthalmologists and is characterized by bilateral injection with itching as the predominant symptom. Risk factors include history of atopy (asthma, eczema, seasonal allergies). Basic and clinical research have provided insight into the immunologic mechanisms, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and pharmacologicmanagement of this condition. New pharmacologic agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocularallergy treatment...
June 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Melissa M Wong, William Anninger
There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options.
June 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Christina Nye
Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death...
June 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Nichola Cooper
Most children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have transiently low platelet counts and do not suffer from bleeding. Treatments with steroids, immunosuppression or splenectomy are not thought to be curative and may create more problems than the low platelet count. Consequently, many children do not receive treatment unless there is bleeding. However, although registry data looks promising, this approach outcome is not consistent between countries, or even between centres in the same country, leading to confusion for both physicians and families...
June 2014: British Journal of Haematology
Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Alopecia in childhood is a source of high concern, frustration, and anxiety. Delineating types of alopecia and those that are chronic or potentially related to underlying medical problems is important. There are 5 common types of hair loss in children: alopecia related to tinea capitis, alopecia areata spectrum/autoimmune alopecia, traction alopecia, telogen effluvium, and trichotillomania/trichotillosis. Hair-cycle anomalies including loose anagen syndrome can lead to sparse-appearing hair. Rarer reasons for alopecia in children include pressure-induced alopecia, alopecia related to nutritional deficiency or toxic ingestion, and androgenetic alopecia...
April 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Tracy V Ting
Cutaneous vasculitis in children is rare. Causes of cutaneous vasculitis are varied and are typically differentiated by the affected vessel size. A skin biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis but other causes for vasculitis, including systemic conditions, should be considered. This article discusses the childhood conditions commonly presenting with cutaneous vasculitis (leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa), biopsy recommendations and findings, and management and potential differential diagnoses, and includes a brief summary of other diseases that may include cutaneous symptoms as a constellation of other systemic findings...
April 2014: Pediatric Clinics of North America
D Luyt, H Ball, N Makwana, M R Green, K Bravin, S M Nasser, A T Clark
This guideline advises on the management of patients with cow's milk allergy. Cow's milk allergy presents in the first year of life with estimated population prevalence between 2% and 3%. The clinical manifestations of cow's milk allergy are very variable in type and severity making it the most difficult food allergy to diagnose. A careful age- and disease-specific history with relevant allergy tests including detection of milk-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay), diagnostic elimination diet, and oral challenge will aid in diagnosis in most cases...
2014: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
2015-06-04 20:59:51
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